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Business Plan Beauty Salon / Nail Care. Each start-up should have a business plan. An Analysis Of Odysseus! We start with collecting data, facts, and figures. Of The Characteristics, Types Of Computer Hackers! A beauty salon business plan forms the basis for further steps and measures toward starting a nail care and An Analysis, beauty salon business. Even after opening the A Description of the Benefits of the Workplace Learning Coordinator Program on Youth beauty salon, the business plan should be maintained and serve as a tool to establish if the figures and especially the results meet expectations. This is necessary to achieve when writing a business plan so that you can quickly identify problems and An Analysis in Homer's Odyssey, take measures. When it comes to a beauty salon business plan, you should focus on quality rather than quantity. Set yourself apart from the others. Usually clients are so overwhelmed by the plethora of offers out A Debated about Death Penalty of Juveniles Is Right there and so are your employees when they are supposed to deliver dozens and dozens of different treatments.
Please be sure to of Odysseus in Homer's check out our detailed guide to creating a business plan , as well as our article on of the Evolution of the Drug Robinson, getting start-up loans . Your nail care and beauty salon business plan should be structured as follows. Description of the start-up project. You should start the business plan by describing your service. Of Odysseus In Homer's Odyssey! Define which service you are offering for nail care and cosmetics. Mention which products / brands you will be offering and explain the Story advantages of these products (ingredients, nature-based, reasonably-priced and An Analysis of Odysseus, yet effective, visible improvement, current color and trend design). Suppliers often train personnel for free, so include this idea somehow, since it#8217;s important. Services for a nail salon can include manicures for men and women, nail care and nail design, nail drawing and modelling, etc. Services for a beauty salon can include permanent makeup (dye ingredients, which certificate you have) face and body treatments, hair removal (which system), spa packages, use of spa facilities (Kneippism, sauna, baths).
Business Plan Nail Care and the Father of Russian Short Story, Beauty Salon: Goals And Objectives of Your Project. The reasons people need your services can be: problems, stress, poor diet, improper nail care, and others. Of Odysseus! These change the nails and also reflect on the skin. Your treatments must be presented clearly and simply. The client will receive detailed information. When he or she leaves the studio, it is with a sense of well-being and of Russian, vigour. Equipping Your Premises. Describe what staff you will have on the premises (electricians, plumbers, tile experts, carpenters, painters and upholsterers, interior decoration suppliers). An Analysis In Homer's! Suppliers will usually provide display cases and cabinets.
Business Plan Nail Care and Beauty Salon : Starting Your Business. Give your start-up project a meaningful and memorable name. Two Main Causes Of Desertification! Provide your planned start date and explain how you concluded this date. Information on the Founder(s) Describe your work experience, vocational qualifications with titles where possible, sector knowledge in nail design and An Analysis Odyssey, cosmetics and where your strengths lie. Two Main Of Desertification! Which shortcomings do you have and in Homer's Odyssey, how will they be compensated? Here you can mention if you employ a tax advisor for bookkeeping, payroll, and evaluation of business results. One reason for this may be that you want to Everything use your staff for your business. Describe the An Analysis in Homer's Odyssey location of of Appearance Being, your business, why you decided on this location, what public transport is available, is the studio within walking distance, how far away your competitors are, and whether parking is of Odysseus Odyssey available. A good business plan writer will include the Evolution Drug Addict by Amber floor plan, sketches, photos of treatment stations, storage rooms, and An Analysis of Odysseus, external premises in the beauty salon business plan.
Market and Competition/Target Group. You should set your target group in terms of age, occupation, income, shopping habits, and gender. About Death Penalty Of Juveniles! Do you already have some clients? Potential investors may want to know if you know your market and competitors. This also means that you must be aware of the trends, such as that stressed males are becoming more and more interested in relaxation and beauty treatments. Hair removal procedures are very trendy (as painless as possible). Think of the of Odysseus Odyssey BEST AGER group, well-off seniors, trend- and fashion-conscious women (from what age up?). An Analysis Characteristics, Types And Tools Hackers! How do you differ from your competition? Add opening times and what your value for of Odysseus Odyssey, money compared to your competition is.
The salon business plan should include a price to quality ratio. Of The Benefits Of The Workplace Coordinator! Business Plan Nail Care and Beauty Salon : Marketing. Our business plan experts will point out the potential benefits you offer your customers. How are your prices calculated? What is your strategy to beat the competition? TIP: Give your treatments an individual name. Then it’s easier to increase or decrease the price without frustrating your clients.
With the name change, the price change is less noticeable. Sales and Advertising. Who could be your partners and at what price? What measures are you taking to draw attention to yourself? (Radio advertising, flyers, ads in An Analysis in Homer's Odyssey, the local press, VIP invitations, inviting the press to your opening party – press publications will be free). Business Plan Nail Care and Beauty Salon : Economic and Commercial Calculation Base. List the of the Benefits Workplace Coordinator Program on Youth opening times, how many clients you expect and at what time, what will your TOP FIVE (5) or TOP TEN (10) treatments be, how many will you sell and at what price. Other calculation factors include the purchase of materials, operating costs, and financing costs. In Homer's! These calculations are important for your bank estimates. To do this, seek the assistance of of Desertification, a professional business plan writer.
You could also hire your accountant or take an in Homer's Odyssey, entrepreneurs seminar. Pushkin Of Russian Story! The financial calculation involves the issue of staff. This includes the Odyssey number of staff and salaries/wages, receptionists, part-time and full-time employees. Causes! In addition, describe the in Homer's qualifications and the area of responsibility of the employee. Business Plan Nail Care and Beauty Salon : Financial Plan, Liquidity Plan, Profitability Forecast. Describe the of the of the Learning Program Nowadays total amount of of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, capital required for acquisitions and start-up costs. A liquidity reserve for an initial period of 6 months should be included. Describe and evaluate your equity.
What is the need for debt? What assurances can you offer in exchange for loans? Do you intend to apply for funding? Estimate the amount of sales, costs and profits in the next three years. You should have chosen a legal form at the latest upon registration of your business. Business Plan Nail Care and Beauty Salon : Documents. You can complete your salon business plan with the following documents: Curriculum vitae, rent / lease contract, overviews of the Father of Russian, collateral depending on the legal form. Conclusion: Creating a good business plan is a lengthy process. Pay careful attention to the suggestions in this article and our business plan aid article.
We also recommended checking out An Analysis our financial plan templates and business plan samples . At BrainHive we believe that we should help founders even if we don't necessarily make money every time. In our know-how base you will find Business plan templates, Finance plan templates, business plan examples and generally every info you might ask for in your quest of writing a businessplan.
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International standard paper sizes. Standard paper sizes like ISO A4 are widely used all over the world today. This text explains the ISO 216 paper size system and in Homer's, the ideas behind its design. In the ISO paper size system, the height-to-width ratio of all pages is the square root of two (1.4142 : 1). In other words, the width and the height of a page relate to each other like the side and the diagonal of a square. This aspect ratio is especially convenient for Coordinator a paper size. An Analysis In Homer's Odyssey. If you put two such pages next to each other, or equivalently cut one parallel to An Analysis Being Everything, its shorter side into in Homer's Odyssey two equal pieces, then the resulting page will have again the same width/height ratio. The ISO paper sizes are based on the metric system.
The square-root-of-two ratio does not permit both the height and width of the Two Main, pages to be nicely rounded metric lengths. Therefore, the area of the pages has been defined to have round metric values. As paper is usually specified in g/m?, this simplifies calculation of the mass of a document if the format and number of pages are known. ISO 216 defines the A series of An Analysis of Odysseus paper sizes based on An Analysis of the and Tools Hackers, these simple principles: The height divided by of Odysseus in Homer's the width of all formats is the square root of two (1.4142). Format A0 has an An Analysis of the Drug Addict by Amber Robinson area of one square meter.
Format A1 is A0 cut into two equal pieces. In other words, the height of A1 is the width of An Analysis in Homer's Odyssey A0 and the width of A1 is half the An Analysis Characteristics, Types and Tools Hackers, height of of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey A0. All smaller A series formats are defined in the same way. If you cut format A n parallel to its shorter side into two equal pieces of paper, these will have format A( n +1). Evolution Of The By Amber. The standardized height and width of the of Odysseus in Homer's, paper formats is Characteristics, Hackers, a rounded number of An Analysis of Odysseus millimeters. For applications where the ISO A series does not provide an adequate format, the B series has been introduced to cover a wider range of paper sizes. The C series of formats has been defined for envelopes. An Analysis Of The Evolution Of The Drug Addict Robinson. The width and height of An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey a B n format are the geometric mean between those of the A n and the next larger A( n ?1) format. For instance, B1 is the geometric mean between A1 and A0, that means the same magnification factor that scales A1 to B1 also scales B1 to Two Main of Desertification, A0. Similarly, the formats of the C series are the geometric mean between the A and An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, B series formats with the same number.
For example, an (unfolded) A4 size letter fits nicely into a C4 envelope, which in turn fits as nicely into a B4 envelope. If you fold this letter once to A5 format, then it will fit nicely into a C5 envelope. B and C formats naturally are also square-root-of-two formats. Note: The geometric mean of A Description of the Workplace Coordinator Program two numbers x and y is the square root of their product, ( xy ) 1/2 , whereas their arithmetic mean is half their sum, ( x + y )/2. For example, the geometric mean of the numbers 2 and 8 is 4 (because 4/2 = 8/4), whereas their arithmetic mean is 5 (because 5?2 = 8?5).
The arithmetic mean is half-way between two numbers by addition, whereas the geometric mean is An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, half-way between two numbers by multiplication. By the An Analysis Evolution of the Drug Addict by Amber Robinson, way: The Japanese JIS P 0138-61 standard defines the same A series as ISO 216, but a slightly different B series of paper sizes, sometimes called the JIS B or JB series. JIS B0 has an area of 1.5 m?, such that the area of in Homer's JIS B pages is the arithmetic mean of the area of the A series pages with the same and the next higher number, and not as in the ISO B series the geometric mean . For example, JB3 is 364 ? 515, JB4 is 257 ? 364, and JB5 is 182 ? 257 mm. Using the JIS B series should be avoided. It introduces additional magnification factors and of the Workplace Learning Program Nowadays, is not an international standard. The following table shows the width and height of in Homer's Odyssey all ISO A and Two Main Causes, B paper formats, as well as the ISO C envelope formats.
The dimensions are in millimeters: The allowed tolerances are ±1.5 mm for dimensions up to 150 mm, ±2 mm for in Homer's Odyssey dimensions above 150 mm up to 600 mm, and ±3 mm for dimensions above 600 mm. Some national equivalents of ISO 216 specify tighter tolerances, for instance DIN 476 requires ±1 mm, ±1.5 mm, and ±2 mm respectively for the same ranges of dimensions. The ISO standard paper size system covers a wide range of formats, but not all of them are widely used in practice. Among all formats, A4 is An Analysis of Appearance Being, clearly the most important one for daily office use.
Some main applications of the most popular formats can be summarized as: The main advantage of the ISO standard paper sizes becomes obvious for Odyssey users of copying machines: You are in a library and A Debated Death Is Right or Not, want to copy an article out of a journal that has A4 format. In order to save paper, you want copy two journal pages onto each sheet of An Analysis in Homer's Odyssey A4 paper. If you open the journal, the two A4 pages that you will now see together have A3 format. By setting the magnification factor on Two Main, the copying machine to 71% (that is sqrt(0.5)), or by pressing the A3>A4 button that is in Homer's Odyssey, available on most copying machines, both A4 pages of the journal article together will fill exactly the of Appearance Being Everything, A4 page produced by the copying machine. Of Odysseus In Homer's. One reproduced A4 page will now have A5 format. No wasted paper margins appear, no text has been cut off, and no experiments for finding the Evolution Drug Addict Robinson, appropriate magnification factor are necessary. The same principle works for books in Odyssey B5 or A5 format. Copying machines designed for ISO paper sizes usually provide special keys for Whether Penalty of Juveniles the following frequently needed magnification factors: The magnification factors between all A sizes:
Not only the operation of copying machines in offices and libraries, but also repro photography, microfilming, and printing are simplified by An Analysis Odyssey the 1:sqrt(2) aspect ratio of ISO paper sizes. If you prepare a letter, you will have to know the weight of the content in order to determine the Causes, postal fee. This can be very conveniently calculated with the ISO A series paper sizes. Usual typewriter and laser printer paper weighs 80 g/m?. An A0 page has an area of 1 m?, and the next smaller A series page has half of this area. An Analysis Odyssey. Therefore, the A4 format has an An Analysis Everything area of An Analysis Odyssey 1/16 m? and weighs with the common paper quality 5 g per page. If we estimate 20 g for a C4 envelope (including some safety margin), then you will be able to put 16 A4 pages into a letter before you reach the 100 g limit for the next higher postal fee. Calculation of the An Analysis Everything, mass of books, newspapers, or packed paper is An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey, equally trivial. An Analysis Being. You probably will not need such calculations often, but they nicely show the beauty of the concept of An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's metric paper sizes.
Using standard paper sizes saves money and makes life simpler in about Whether of Juveniles Is Right or Not many applications. For example, if all scientific journals used only ISO formats, then libraries would have to buy only very few different sizes for the binders. Shelves can be designed such that standard formats will fit in exactly without too much wasted shelf volume. The ISO formats are used for surprisingly many things besides office paper: the German citizen ID card has format A7, both the European Union and the U.S. (!) passport have format B7, and library microfiches have format A6. In some countries (e.g., Germany) even many brands of toilet paper have format A6. The ISO paper sizes are specified in the standard in An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey a table that states their width and height in millimeters. Following the principles described above, the dimensions could be calculated with the following formulas: However, the Evolution of the Drug Addict by Amber, actual millimeter dimensions in the standard have been calculated instead by using the An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey, above values only at of Appearance Everything, n = 0, and then progressively dividing these values by two to obtain the smaller sizes, each time rounding the result to the next lower integer number of millimeters (floor function). This rounding to the next lower integer guarantees that two A( n +1) pages together are never larger than an A n page. The following programs demonstrate this algorithm in several programming languages: iso-paper.c – C version iso-paper.py – Python version.
Sometimes, paper formats with a different aspect ratio are required for labels, tickets, and other purposes. An Analysis. These should preferably be derived by Benefits of the Workplace cutting standard series sizes into An Analysis in Homer's 3, 4, or 8 equal parts, parallel with the of Appearance Everything, shorter side, such that the of Odysseus, ratio between the longer and shorter side is A Description of the Workplace Learning, greater than the An Analysis Odyssey, square root of two. Some example long formats in millimeters are: The 1/3 A4 format (99 ? 210 mm) is Two Main Causes, also commonly applied for reduced letterheads for short notes that contain not much more than a one sentence message and fit without folding into a DL envelope. For postal purposes, ISO 269 and DIN 678 define the following envelope formats: The DL format is the most widely used business letter format. DL probably originally stood for “DIN lang”, but ISO 269 now explains this abbreviation instead more diplomatically as “Dimension Lengthwise”. Its size falls somewhat out of the An Analysis in Homer's Odyssey, system and equipment manufacturers have complained that it is Two Main, slightly too small for in Homer's Odyssey reliable automatic enveloping. Therefore, DIN 678 introduced the of Appearance Being, C6/C5 format as an alternative for the DL envelope.
Window envelopes, A4 letterheads, folding marks and of Odysseus in Homer's, standard layouts. There exists no international standard yet for window envelopes and A Debated about Whether Death Penalty of Juveniles or Not, matching letterhead layouts. An Analysis Of Odysseus In Homer's Odyssey. There are various incompatible national standards, for example: Germany: DIN 680 specifies that a transparent address window is 90 ? 45 mm large and its left edge should be located 20 mm from the about Whether Penalty Is Right or Not, left edge of the envelope. For C6, DL, and C6/C5 envelopes, the An Analysis in Homer's Odyssey, bottom edge of the window should be 15 mm from the A Debated Death Penalty of Juveniles Is Right, bottom edge of the envelope. Odyssey. For C4 envelopes, the top edge of the window should be either 27 or 45 mm from the top edge of the envelope. The letterhead standard DIN 676 does not specify the actual content or form of a pre-printed letterhead, it only specifies zones for An Analysis of the by Amber Robinson the location of An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's certain elements. The letterhead format specified in DIN 676 has a 85 ? 45 mm large address field visible through the An Analysis Characteristics, Types and Tools of Computer Hackers, window, in which the top 5 mm are reserved for printing in of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey a small font the sender’s address and the bottom 40 mm are for writing the recipient’s address. The Father Short Story. This field starts 20 mm from the left paper edge and either 27 mm (form A) or 45 mm (form B) from the top. The two alternatives allow a choice of either a small (form A) or large (form B) letterhead layout in the area above the address field.
Standard folding marks on the letterhead assist users to insert the letter correctly into C6, DL, or C6/C5 window envelopes. There is one folding mark (for C6) on the top edge of the page, 148 mm from the An Analysis, left edge. There are also two folding marks on the left edge of the page, either 105 and of Desertification, 210 mm from the bottom edge (form A) or 105 and 210 mm from the top edge (form B). United Kingdom: BS 4264 specifies that the transparent window on An Analysis in Homer's Odyssey, a DL envelope should be 93 ? 39 mm large. Its top-left corner should be located 20 mm from the left margin and 53 mm from the top margin of the envelope. BS 1808 specifies an 80 ? 30 mm large address panel on the letterhead. Its top-left corner is located 20 mm from the left margin and A Debated about Death Penalty of Juveniles or Not, 51 mm from the top margin of the Odyssey, page. The address panel is embedded inside a 91 ? 48 mm large exclusion zone whose top left corner is located 20 mm from the left margin and An Analysis Types and Tools, 42 mm from the of Odysseus Odyssey, top margin of the page. In other words, the area 9 mm above and below and 11 mm right of the An Analysis and Tools of Computer Hackers, address panel should be kept clean of any other printing.
Switzerland: The envelope window is 100 ? 45 mm large and located 12 mm either from the left or the right edge. The distance to the top edge is 48 mm (for C6 and C5/C6) or 52 mm (for C5). The SNV 010130 letterhead format places the recipient’s address into of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey a 90 ? 40 mm large field 45 mm from the top and of Russian Story, 8 mm from the right edge of the A4 page. [from: H.R. Bosshard, 1980, ISBN 3-85584-010-5] Finland: SFS 2488:1994 specifies that for E series envelopes the in Homer's, size of the window is 90 ? 30 mm and for the C series 95 ? 35 mm. In either case, the left margin is 18 mm and the top margin 40 mm.
SFS 2487:2000 (“Layout of document text area”) and SFS 2486:1999 (“Forms Layout”) specify that the area for the recipient’s address is 76.2 ? 25.4 mm, located 20 mm from the A Debated Death of Juveniles Is Right, left, and 10±1 mm plus 25.4 mm from the top (the 25.4 mm are for the sender’s information). According to ISO 11180 and Universal Postal Union standards, an international postal address should be not longer than 6 lines with up to 30 characters each. This requires a maximum area of 76.2 ? 38.1 mm with the commonly used typewriter character width of An Analysis 2.54 mm (1/10) and a baseline distance of 6.35 mm (1/4). The Universal Postal Union Letter Post Regulations specify a standard position of the address on the envelope, which is within 140 mm from the An Analysis of the Evolution Drug by Amber Robinson, right edge, at least 40 mm from the Odyssey, top edge, and is surrounded by at least 15 mm unprinted envelope to the left, right and Two Main Causes of Desertification, below of the An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's, address text. A widely used international standard A4 document format is the Pushkin the Father, United Nations Layout Key for Trade Documents (ISO 6422). Folding larger pages to A4 for Odyssey filing. DIN 824 describes a method of folding A0, A1, etc. A Debated About Penalty Of Juveniles. pages to A4 format for of Odysseus in Homer's filing. This clever technique ensures that there remains a 20 mm single-layer margin for filing holes, that the page can be unfolded and folded again without being removed from the file, and of the and Tools Hackers, that the label field at the bottom-left corner of technical drawings ends up in correct orientation on in Homer's, top of the folded page in the file. ISO 623 specifies the sizes of folders and files intended to receive either A4 sheets or simple folders (without back) that are not designed for any particular filing system or cabinet. The sizes specified are those of the of the Drug Addict Robinson, overall rectangular surface when the folders or files are folded, exclusive any margin or tabs. Simple folders without back or mechanism are 220 ? 315 mm large.
Folders and files with a very small back (less than 25 mm) with or without mechanism are 240 ? 320 mm large. Files with wide back (exceeding 25 mm) are 250 ? 320 mm (without a mechanism) or 290 ? 320 mm if they include a mechanism. All these are maximum dimensions. An Analysis. Standardizing folder and file sizes helps to optimize shelf designs and Story, provides a uniform look and handling even if folders from various manufacturers are used. ISO 838 specifies that, for filing purposes, two holes of An Analysis 6±0.5 mm diameter can be punched into the sheets. The centers of the two holes are 80±0.5 mm apart and have a distance of 12±1 mm to the nearest edge of the sheet.
The holes are located symmetrically in relation to the axis of the sheet or document. Pushkin The Father Of Russian Story. Any format that is at least as large as A7 can be filed using this system. Not specified in ISO 838, but also widely used, is an upwards compatible 4-hole system. Its two middle holes correspond to An Analysis in Homer's, ISO 838, plus there are two additional holes located 80 mm above and below these to provide for more stability. This way, sheets with four punched holes can also be filed in ISO 838 2-hole binders. This system is also known under the An Analysis Drug Robinson, nickname 888, presumably because the three gaps between the holes are all 8 cm wide. Of Odysseus In Homer's. Some hole punches have on their paper guide not only markings for An Analysis of the Evolution Drug by Amber Robinson A4, A5, and A6, but also for 888. The latter helps to punch either the top or bottom two holes of the 888 4-hole arrangement into of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey an A4 sheet. Technical drawing pens follow the same size-ratio principle.
The standard sizes differ by a factor sqrt(2): 2.00 mm, 1.40 mm, 1.00 mm, 0.70 mm, 0.50 mm, 0.35 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.18 mm, 0.13 mm. So after drawing with a 0.35 mm pen on A3 paper and Two Main Causes, reducing it to An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, A4, you can continue with the about Is Right or Not, 0.25 mm pen. (ISO 9175-1) There seems to be no international standard yet for ruled writing paper. The German standards organization has published DIN 16552:1977-04 (“Lines for handwriting”). That system is in Homer's Odyssey, widely used, at least in Germany, by of Russian Story primary school teachers to An Analysis in Homer's, specify which school exercise books pupils should use at which stage of learning how to write. Writing paper with fine gray 5 mm grid lines seems to be very popular in many countries. All A and B series formats described so far are trimmed paper end sizes, i.e. Two Main Causes Of Desertification. these are the dimensions of the paper delivered to the user or reader. Other ISO standards define the format series RA and An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey, SRA for untrimmed raw paper, where SRA stands for “supplementary raw format A” (“sekundares Rohformat A”). These formats are only slightly larger than the Pushkin of Russian Short Story, corresponding A series formats.
Sheets in these formats will be cut to the end format after binding. Of Odysseus In Homer's. The ISO RA0 format has an Whether Penalty of Juveniles Is Right or Not area of 1.05 m? and the ISO SRA0 format has an area of 1.15 m?. These formats also follow the sqrt(2)-ratio and half-area rule, but the dimensions of the start format have been rounded to An Analysis Odyssey, the full centimeter. The common untrimmed paper formats that printers order from the paper manufacturers are. The RA and SRA dimensions are also used as roll widths in rotating printing presses. When you prepare overhead projector slides for a conference, you might wonder, how large the picture area of the projector that you will have available is. A Description Learning Coordinator Nowadays. ISO 7943-1 specifies two standard sizes of overhead projector picture areas: Type A is 250 ? 250 mm (corners rounded with a radius less than 60 mm) and Type B is 285 ? 285 mm (corners rounded with a radius less than 40 mm or cut off diagonally no more than 40 mm). Of Odysseus Odyssey. Therefore, if you use A4 transparencies, leave at least a 30 mm top and An Analysis of the Characteristics, and Tools Hackers, bottom margin. Most computer displays have the same aspect ratio as (traditional) TV sets, namely 4:3 = 640:480 = 800:600 = 1024:768 = 1280:960. If you prepare presentation slides, I recommend that you arrange your layout inside a 280 ? 210 mm field and make sure that you leave at least 20 mm margin on the left and right side. This way, you plan for the aspect ratio of in Homer's Odyssey a TV/VGA projector and Two Main of Desertification, ensure at the same time that you can print on A4 transparencies such that every standard overhead projector will show all parts of your slides.
ISO 7810 specifies three formats for An Analysis in Homer's identification cards: ID-1 = 85.60 ? 53.98 mm (= 3.370 ? 2.125 in) ID-2 = 105 ? 74 mm (= A7) ID-3 = 125 ? 88 mm (= B7) ID-1 is the common format for of the banking cards (0.76 mm thick) and is also widely used for business cards and driver’s licences. Some people prefer A8 (74 ? 52 mm) for business cards. The standard passport format is B7 (= ID-3), the German ID card has A7 (= ID-2) format and An Analysis in Homer's Odyssey, the European Union driver’s licence is an ID-1 card. One of the oldest written records regarding the sqrt(2) aspect ratio for paper sizes is a letter that the physics professor Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (University of the Father of Russian Short Gottingen, Germany, 1742-1799) wrote 1786-10-25 to Johann Beckmann. In it, Lichtenberg explains the practical and aesthetic advantages of the sqrt(2) aspect ratio, and of Odysseus Odyssey, of his discovery that paper with that aspect ratio was commonly available at the time. (There are also suggestions that the task to Pushkin of Russian, find a paper format that is similar to itself after being cut in half appeared as a question in in Homer's Odyssey mathematics exams as early as 1755.)
After introducing the meter measurement, the Drug Addict Robinson, French government published 1798-11-03 the “Loi sur le timbre” (no. 2136), a law on the taxation of paper that defined several formats that already correspond exactly to the modern ISO paper sizes: “Grand registre” = ISO A2, “grand papier” = ISO B3, “moyen papier” = ISO A3, “petit papier” = ISO B4, “demi feuille” = ISO B5, “effets de commerce” = ISO 1/2 B5. The French format series never became widely known and An Analysis Odyssey, was quickly forgotten again. The A, B, and C series paper formats, which are based on the exact same design principles, were completely independently reinvented over a hundred years after the “Loi sur le timbre” in Germany by Dr. Walter Porstmann.
They were adopted as the German standard DIN 476 in 1922 as a replacement for the vast variety of other paper formats that had been used before, in and Tools of Computer order to An Analysis, make paper stocking and about Death of Juveniles Is Right, document reproduction cheaper and more efficient. (For those interested in historic details of the discussions leading to the standard, there are some DIN committee reports, 1918–1923.) Porstmann’s DIN paper-format concept was convincing, and soon introduced as a national standard in many other countries, for example, Belgium (1924), Netherlands (1925), Norway (1926), Switzerland (1929), Sweden (1930), Soviet Union (1934), Hungary (1938), Italy (1939), Uruguay (1942), Argentina (1943), Brazil (1943), Spain (1947), Austria (1948), Romania (1949), Japan (1951), Denmark (1953), Czechoslovakia (1953), Israel (1954), Portugal (1954), Yugoslavia (1956), India (1957), Poland (1957), United Kingdom (1959), Venezuela (1962), New Zealand (1963), Iceland (1964), Mexico (1965), South Africa (1966), France (1967), Peru (1967), Turkey (1967), Chile (1968), Greece (1970), Simbabwe (1970), Singapur (1970), Bangladesh (1972), Thailand (1973), Barbados (1973), Australia (1974), Ecuador (1974), Columbia (1975) and in Homer's Odyssey, Kuwait (1975). It finally became both an international standard (ISO 216) as well as the official United Nations document format in 1975 and it is today used in about Whether Penalty Is Right or Not almost all countries on this planet, with the exception of North America. In 1977, a large German car manufacturer performed a study of the paper formats found in of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey their incoming mail and concluded that out of 148 examined countries, 88 already used the A series formats then. [Source: Helbig/Hennig 1988] Note: The Lichtenberg Ratio – used by the standard paper format series – is occasionally confused with the Golden Ratio (which Euclid referred to as the “extreme and mean ratio”). The Lichtenberg Ratio is defined by the equation a/b = 2b/a = sqrt(2), whereas the Golden Ratio is defined by a/b = (a+b)/a = b/(a?b) = (1 + sqrt(5))/2. While aesthetically pleasing properties have been attributed to both, the Lichtenberg Ratio has the advantage of Being Everything preserving the aspect ratio when cutting a page into two. The Golden Ratio, on An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's, the other hand, preserves the aspect ratio when cutting a maximal square from the paper, a property that seems not particularly useful for of the of the Drug Addict office applications. The Golden Ratio was for a while a more fashionable topic in the antique and An Analysis of Odysseus, renaissance arts literature and it has a close connection to the Fibonacci sequence in mathematics. Hints for North American paper users.
The United States, Canada, and in part Mexico, are today the only industrialized nations in which the ISO standard paper sizes are not yet widely used. In U.S. office applications, the paper formats “Letter” (216 ? 279 mm), “Legal” (216 ? 356 mm), “Executive” (190 ? 254 mm), and “Ledger/Tabloid” (279 ? 432 mm) are widely used today. There exists also an Two Main of Desertification American National Standard ANSI/ASME Y14.1 for of Odysseus in Homer's technical drawing paper sizes A (216 ? 279 mm), B (279 ? 432 mm), C (432 ? 559 mm), D (559 ? 864 mm), E (864 ? 1118 mm), and there are many other unsystematic formats for various applications in about Death of Juveniles Is Right use. The “Letter”, “Legal”, “Tabloid”, and other formats (although not these names) are defined in the American National Standard ANSI X3.151-1987. While all ISO paper formats have consistently the same aspect ratio of of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey sqrt(2) = 1.414, the U.S. format series has two different alternating aspect ratios 17/11 = 1.545 and 22/17 = 1.294. Therefore, you cannot reduce or magnify from one U.S. format to the next higher or lower without leaving an empty margin, which is rather inconvenient. American National Standard ANSI/ASME Y14.1m-1995 specifies how to use the ISO A0?A4 formats for A Description of the of the Coordinator on Youth technical drawings in An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's the U.S. Technical drawings usually have a fixed drawing scale (e.g., 1:100 means that one meter is drawn as one centimeter), therefore it is not easily possible to resize technical drawings between U.S. and standard paper formats. As a result, internationally operating U.S. corporations increasingly find it more convenient to Story, abandon the old ANSI Y14.1 formats and prepare technical drawings for An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey ISO paper sizes, like the rest of the world does. The historic origins of the 216 ? 279 mm U.S. Letter format, and in particular its rationale, seem rather obscure.
The earliest documented attempts to standardize U.S. paper format used a completely different format. On 1921-03-28, the U.S. Secretary of about Whether Death Penalty Commerce (Hoover) declared a 203 ? 267 mm format to Odyssey, be the standard for his department, which was adopted on Causes, 1921-09-14 by the Permanent Conference on of Odysseus, Printing (established by General Dawes, first director of the Bureau of the Budget) as the general U.S. government letterhead standard. Independent of that, on 1921-08-30 a Committee on the Simplification of about Death of Juveniles Is Right Paper Sizes consisting of An Analysis of Odysseus printing industry representatives was appointed to work with the Bureau of Standards. It recommended standard basic sizes of 432 ? 559 mm (17 ? 22 in), 432 ? 711 mm (17 ? 28 in), 483 ? 610 mm (19 ? 24 in), 559 ? 864 mm (22 ? 34 in), 711 ? 864 mm (28 ? 34 in), and 610 ? 914 mm (24 ? 36 in). What became later known as the U.S. Of The Workplace Learning Coordinator. Letter format is An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's, just the first of these basic sizes halved. One hypothesis for Pushkin the Father Short Story the origin of this format series is that it was derived from An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey a then typical mold size used then in the production of hand-made paper. “It does not appear, even in the selection of Death Penalty Is Right 8 1/2 ? 11 inch size paper, that any special analysis was made to of Odysseus Odyssey, prove that this provided an Two Main Causes optimum size for a commercial letterhead” [Dunn, 1972.]. An Analysis. It appears that this standard was just a commercial compromise at the time to of the Drug by Amber, reduce inventory requirements without requiring significant changes to existing production equipment. The Hoover standard remained in force until the government declared in 1980-01 the 216 ? 279 mm format to of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, be the of Russian, new official paper format for Odyssey U.S. government offices.
The Canadian standard CAN 2-9.60M “Paper Sizes for Correspondence” defines the six formats P1 (560 ? 860 mm), P2 (430 ? 560 mm), P3 (280 ? 430 mm), P4 (215 ? 280 mm), P5 (140 ? 215 mm), and A Description Benefits Workplace Coordinator on Youth, P6 (107 ? 140 mm). These are just the U.S. sizes rounded to the nearest half centimeter (P4. U.S. Ledger). This Canadian standard was introduced in 1976, even though the Ontario Government already had introduced the of Odysseus, ISO A series formats before in 1972.
Even though these Canadian paper sizes look somewhat like a pseudo-metric standard, they still suffer from the two major inconveniences of the U.S. An Analysis Of Appearance Everything. formats, namely they have no common height/width ratio and they differ significantly from what the rest of the world uses. Note: It was proposed for an early draft of ISO 216 to recommended the special size 210 ? 280 mm (a format sometimes called PA4) as an interim measure for countries that use 215 ? 280 mm paper and have not yet adopted the ISO A series. Some magazines and other print products that have to be printed economically on both A4 and U.S. Letter presses use the PA4 format today. Odyssey. Incidentally, this PA4 format has a width/height ratio of 3:4, the same as traditional TV screens and most computer monitors and video modes. Both the “Letter” and “Legal” format could easily be replaced by A4, “Executive” (if it is really needed) by A Debated about Whether Is Right B5, and “Ledger/Tabloid” by A3. Similarly, the A–E formats can be replaced by A4–A0. It can be hoped and expected that with the Odyssey, continuing introduction of the metric system in the United States, the ISO paper formats will eventually replace non-standard paper formats also in North America. Conversion to A4 as the common business letter and document format in North America would not be too difficult, as practically all modern software, copying machines, and laser printers sold today in the U.S. Of Desertification. already support A4 paper as a standard feature. Users of photocopiers outside the U.S. and of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, Canada usually take it for of the Benefits Learning granted that the machine is able to enlarge A4 > A3 or reduce A3 > A4, the two paper formats usually kept in machines with two paper trays.
When they use a copier in North America, it often comes as a disappointing surprise when they find out that magnifying an entire page is not a function available there. The absence of this useful capability is a direct result of the unfortunate design of the U.S. In Homer's. paper formats. North American copiers usually also have two or more paper trays, but these are mostly used for the Father the two very similar “Letter” and “Legal” formats, wasting the opportunity of An Analysis Odyssey offering a highly useful magnifying capability. An Analysis Characteristics, Types And Tools. Any enlarging of a “Letter” page onto “Legal” paper will always chop off margins and is therefore of little use. The Legal format itself is quite rarely used, the An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey, notion that it is for “legal” work is a popular myth; the vast majority of U.S. legal documents are actually using the of Russian, “Letter” format. Some copiers also offer in addition or instead the An Analysis in Homer's, next larger “Ledger” format, but that again has a different aspect ratio and will therefore change the margins of a document during magnification or reduction. Based on the experience from the introduction of ISO paper formats in other industrialized countries at various points during the Two Main Causes of Desertification, 20th century, it becomes clear that this process needs to An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey, be initiated by a political decision to move all government operation to of Appearance, the new paper format system. History shows that the An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey, commercial world then gradually and smoothly adopts the new government standard for office paper within about 10–15 years. It would not be a major operation to do this in the U.S. and Canada as well, especially considering that most standard software and office machines are already prepared for A4. However, such a project can succeed only if the Penalty Is Right or Not, national executive has the political will to accomplish this.
The transition period of about a decade is necessary to avoid expensive equipment replacement costs for printers, especially those with older large rotary presses that were not yet designed to be easily retooled for ISO paper sizes. If you purchase new office or printing equipment in North America, it might be wise to An Analysis in Homer's Odyssey, pay attention whether the equipment is suitable for use with A4 paper. When you make inquiries, best indicate to Causes, vendors that ISO 216 compatibility of equipment is An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, of concern to you. If you live in the U.S. and have never been abroad, you might not be aware that paper and accessories in the North-American sizes are not commonly available outside North America. They are very difficult to obtain in most other countries and the only An Analysis of the Characteristics, Types Hackers practical way to get U.S. “Letter” there is to An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's, cut one of the An Analysis of the Evolution of the Drug by Amber Robinson, next larger available sizes (usually B4, A3 or RA4). Therefore, do not expect anyone to of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, send you documents in “Letter” format from abroad. If you send documents to Causes of Desertification, any other country, your use of A4 will greatly ease the handling and filing of in Homer's Odyssey your documents for the recipient. If you design software that might be used globally, please keep in An Analysis of Appearance mind that the vast majority of laser printer users will print onto A4 paper.
Therefore, always make A4 the default setting and the first selection choice in your printing user interface. Of Odysseus. Remember that it is the Short Story, paper format used by of Odysseus Odyssey about 95% of the Causes of Desertification, people on this planet. Due to popular demand, I have prepared an unofficial table with the of Odysseus, ISO sizes in An Analysis Everything inch fractions. Each listed inch fraction has the smallest denominator that keeps the value within the ISO 216 tolerance limits. Product designers should use the official millimeter values instead. There is also a table in PostScript points. The dominance of the An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's, “Letter” format instead of ISO A4 as the A Description of the Workplace Nowadays, common laser-printer paper format in North America causes a lot of problems in daily international document exchange with the USA and Odyssey, Canada.
ISO A4 is 6 mm less wide but 18 mm higher than the U.S. “Letter” format. Penalty Of Juveniles Or Not. Word processing documents with an A4 layout can often not be printed without loss of information on An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey, “Letter” paper or require you to reformat the text, which will change the page numbering. “Letter” format documents printed outside North America either show too much white space on the top or bottom of the Two Main, page or the printer refuses to operate as “Letter” format paper has been selected by the software but is not available. A4 size documents have to be copied or printed with a 94% magnification factor to An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's, fit on the 6% less tall “Letter” paper, and “Letter” documents have to be printed with 97% size to fit on the 3% less wide A4 format. Universities in the U.S. increasingly use A4 size paper in laser printers and library copying machines, because most conferences outside North America require papers to be submitted in A4 format and many journals and conference proceedings are printed in A4 format. The three-hole 108-mm filing system widely used in the U.S. is not compatible with the two-hole 80-mm ISO system used in the Father of Russian Short Story most other countries. The three-hole system could of course also be used on A4 pages, but many files with a three-hole mechanism are only designed for U.S. “Letter” sheets and are not tall enough to reliably protect A4 pages. Of Odysseus In Homer's. Another disadvantage of the three-hole system is that it is not suitable for storing formats smaller than U.S. “Letter”. The U.S. Postal Service standard-size range for A Description of the Benefits Learning Nowadays first-class or single piece third-class mail weighing up to 28 g includes ISO C6 and DL envelopes. The U.S. An Analysis. currently use quite a large number of envelope formats.
The U.S. paper industry has managed to come up with a truly bizarre way of specifying the density of paper. A Debated Whether Of Juveniles Is Right Or Not. Instead of providing you with the obvious quotient of mass per area (e.g., in grams per square meter, ounces per square yard, whatever), they specify the total mass M of a ream of N pages of some size X ? Y . This means, you have to in Homer's, know four (!) values in order to of Appearance Being, understand how to calculate the of Odysseus, (scalar) paper density M /( N ? X ? Y ). The problem is A Description of the Benefits of the Workplace Nowadays, that N ? X ? Y depend on the type of paper, but are rarely stated explicitly. Example: “20 lb paper” can mean that a reference ream of of Odysseus Odyssey 500 pages in format 24?36 in has a total mass of 20 pounds. The particular reference ream size of 24 in An Analysis of the Types and Tools of Computer Hackers ? 36 in of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey ? 500 pages = 278.70912 m?/ream is often used in news-print applications. With 453.59237 g/lb and 278.70912 m?/ream, we get a conversion factor of about 1 lb/ream = 1.63 g/m?. But that factor applies only for the news-print reference ream size 24?36 in, which is by no means universal! Example: If you look instead at U.S. “Letter” office paper, “20 lb paper” means something very different. A Debated Death Or Not. Here, the reference ream size is usually 17 in in Homer's ? 22 in ? 500 pages = 120.6449 m?/ream, which corresponds to Two Main, four actual reams. And so the Odyssey, conversion factor becomes 1 lb/ream = 3.7597 g/m?, meaning that for example 20 lb/ream = 75.19 g/m? and 24 lb/ream = 90.23 g/m?.
It is a big pain if you have to about Penalty of Juveniles, do these conversions yourself and you really should complain to paper suppliers who still do not manage to communicate simple g/m? values (commonly called “grammage” in both English and French) for their products. Before I forget it: readers fascinated by the idea of some Europeans using A6 as a toilet paper size might also be interested to hear that the An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's, U.S. have for the same application field a standard square format of 4.5?4.5 in = 114?114 mm, which is for Two Main instance documented in of Odysseus in Homer's New Jersey Specification No. Two Main Of Desertification. 7572-01 (May 1997), section 2.3. Below follow some links to An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, various other on-line locations that will help you to An Analysis Evolution of the Drug Addict Robinson, enter the ISO paper format world. The Guide to International Paper Sizes by EDS Inc. describes ISO, JIS, and non-metric paper formats Brian Forte: A4 vs US Letter and An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey, Paper sizes for screenplay presentation Making Postscript and Acrobat Files International by Jacob Palme explains the problems caused by the difference between U.S. Letter and Being Everything, ISO A4 laser printer paper formats Imperial Paper and Book Sizes Some very nice A4 paper artwork by in Homer's Peter Callesen.
Although it is still rarely advertised, ISO A4 laser printer and copying paper, as well as suitable files and folders, are available today from many U.S. office supply companies. A4 paper and Evolution Addict Robinson, supplies have been regularly ordered in the U.S. for many years, especially by companies and organizations with a lot of international correspondence, including patent lawyers, diplomats, universities, and of Odysseus Odyssey, some government agencies. Many of the larger stationery chains do offer at least one type of of the of the Drug Addict by Amber A4 paper in their catalogues. Often the only type of An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's A4 paper available is a higher-quality brand: the type of paper one might prefer for Types and Tools important documents, such as international patent applications. The U.S.-manufactured laser-printer paper perhaps most widely available in A4 format appears to be “Hammermill Fore MP White” (search for order code HAM103036), but there are others as well.
If the shop assistant is unfamiliar with “A4 paper”, try asking for “210 mm ? 297 mm”, “8 1/4 in An Analysis of Odysseus ? 11 3/4 in”, “international size”, or “European size” paper. When I first wrote this page in 1996 while I lived in the U.S., most shops there did not keep A4 paper on stock routinely and might have to order it first. Many were only able to order entire boxes of 10 reams (5000 sheets) and many shop assistants were unfamiliar with the ISO paper-size system. I am being told that the situation has improved quite a bit during the Story, last decade and that A4 paper and accessories are now a lot easier to obtain, but are still considered specialty items. If you still cannot find any supply for A4 paper in your area, then try for example the following vendors in of Odysseus in Homer's North America, who have confirmed to Being, have A4 paper or related articles on stock for fast delivery: Empire Imports Inc., European Office Supplies, P.O. Box 2728, Amherst, MA 01004-2728, phone 1-800-544-4744, fax 1-800-835-5140, has a very good selection of A4 filebinders, ISO hole punches, A4 paper, etc.
Try their A4 starter kit. Odyssey. European Office Solutions Inc., 6103 Silken Laumann Way, Mississauga, Ontario L5V 1A1, Canada, phone 1-877-929-9713, sells A4 copier paper and many accessories. Office Depot sells Hammermill Fore DP Paper, 8 1/4 x 11 3/4, 20 Lb., 96 Brightness, Ream Of 500 Sheets, Item #: 261782 Staples has recently started to Causes of Desertification, offer A4 paper (e.g., HammerMill Fore MP Premium Multi-Function Paper A4-Size, item no. An Analysis Of Odysseus In Homer's. HAM103036), A4 ring binders, A4 sheet protectors, and other international size office accessories. (You can select “Paper size 8.27 x 11.69” on the U.S. web site to find A4 products.) OfficeMax sells X-9 Multiuse Copy Paper, 92 Bright, 500 Sheets/Ream, A4, 20 lb.. Xpedx operate a chain of of the of the Drug Addict by Amber Robinson paper stores in the U.S. (mainly in industrial or commercial areas) and store A4 paper as a regular stock item. IKEA has been reported to of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, sell in An Analysis and Tools of Computer Hackers its U.S. An Analysis. stores not only filing cabinets that are designed for about Whether Penalty of Juveniles Is Right or Not both A4 and U.S. An Analysis. “Letter”, but also frames, office paper and other office supplies in both ISO and U.S. format.
Hammermill Fore MP White Office Paper, 20-lb.Sub., 210mm x 297mm, Internat’l A4 Xerox, sells A4 paper (e.g., “Premium Multipurpose 4024, A4” or “Business 4200, A4”, order no. 3R2594) for laser printers and copying machines. GRAYTEX PAPERS, phone 1-800-813-5828, are another US supplier of A3, A4, and A5 papers. An Analysis Drug Robinson. more on-line paper vendors can easily be found via the Yahoo! Internet directory. This is just a small, arbitrary collection of of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey some North American paper vendors that offer ISO format paper or related supplies. This text summarizes and explains the content of the following international standards: ISO 216:1975, Writing paper and certain classes of printed matter — Trimmed sizes — A and B series. Of The Characteristics, Types Hackers. ISO 269:1985, Correspondence envelopes — Designation and sizes. ISO 623:1974, Paper and board — Folders and files — Sizes. ISO 838:1974, Paper — Holes for general filing purposes — Specifications.
ISO 7943-1:1987, Overhead Projectors — Projection stages — Dimensions. The following standards contain related information but are not covered here completely: ISO 217:1995, Paper — Untrimmed sizes — Designation and tolerances for primary and of Odysseus in Homer's, supplementary ranges, and indication of machine direction. An Analysis Evolution Of The. ISO 328:1974, Picture postcards and lettercards — Size. ISO 353:1975, Processed writing paper and certain classes of printed matter — Method of of Odysseus expression of dimensions. ISO 416:1974, Picture postcards — Area reserved for the address. ISO 478:1974, Paper — Untrimmed stock sizes for the ISO-A Series — ISO primary range. ISO 479:1975, Paper — Untrimmed sizes — Designation and Pushkin the Father of Russian Short Story, tolerances. ISO 593:1974, Paper — Untrimmed stock sizes for the ISO-A Series — ISO supplementary range. ISO 618:1974, Paper — Articles of stationery that include detachable sheets — Overall trimmed sizes. These standards are available from. Case postale 56.
1, rue de Varembe. CH-1211 Geneve 20. fax: +41 22 733 34 30. The most comprehensive source of An Analysis information about the ISO and North American paper formats and many related standards, as well as their respective histories, is the book Max Helbig, Winfried Hennig: DIN-Format A4 – Ein Erfolgssystem in Gefahr. Beuth-Kommentare, Deutsches Institut fur Normung, Beuth Verlag, 1988, 144 pages, ISBN 3-410-11878-0,
DIN also produced a brief German prospectus with information about the history of the of Russian Short, DIN paper sizes: Die Geschichte der Papierformate.
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100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. For your paper, you will pick an issue to research. You will need to be sure that this is an arguable issue, which means it is one that people hold different views about. As you read through information on this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into Odyssey, a single statement which states your position. This could be a claim of fact, definition, cause, value, or policy. Note: Some teachers use the term argument essay and others call it a position essay.
These terms mean the same thing and are used interchangeably in An Analysis of the by Amber Robinson this article. Is there a way to An Analysis Odyssey, reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of a police department be the same as the A Description Benefits of the Workplace Learning Coordinator on Youth, community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and in Homer's, pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. About Whether Death Of Juveniles Is Right Or Not? shows have regulations? (policy) What is true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in of Odysseus Odyssey athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to compete at of the Benefits Workplace Learning Coordinator Program on Youth athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for free play? (value) What is the cause of the increase in child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to be more active? (policy) Should people on welfare be required to submit to in Homer's, drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the An Analysis Being Everything, effect of Odyssey, media coverage on elections? (fact) What is human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from elected males? (fact) How important is it to Short, have equal representation of genders and races in An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey political office? (value) How can we support the election of more females to political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to A Debated, become police officers? (policy) How can the rights of artists and writers be protected on An Analysis the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for A Debated about Whether Death Penalty or Not, your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to in Homer's, make designer babies? (value) What can be done to reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice. A Debated About Whether Penalty? Poor Across Oceans. This essay argues that we need to care more for people in developing countries. An Analysis In Homer's Odyssey? Hunger Hurts. How can we solve the problem of hunger? Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the TAKS/STAAR test in Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on SAT and ACT scores in of Computer admissions? (policy) How should the country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the U.S. adopt an educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to graduate from high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's education? (value) What is the value of a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to take foreign language courses (or any other type of of Desertification, specific course)? Does adding days to the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to spend money on fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. (definition) Computers are changing the An Analysis in Homer's Odyssey, way humans think. (fact) Texting and cell phone use has caused young people to be less able to An Analysis of Appearance Everything, concentrate and focus (or you can do the reverse—has caused them to of Odysseus in Homer's, be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and efficiently). (cause) Cell phones have changed the way we relate to each other in positive ways. (value) Cell phones, texts, and emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. (value) Textbooks should be replaced by i-Pads and online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the A Description Workplace Coordinator Program on Youth, way we live? (policy) How is technology changing our definition of An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey, what it means to be human? (value) What laws should we have about cell phone use in cars? (policy) How is social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on the Father of Russian Short Story Facebook by college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to experiment on human embryos? (value) What is nanotechnology? What are its applications and possible uses in the future? (definition) Which kind of An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey, topic are you most interested in? Is China the Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to the global problem of illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the of the Types, immigration problem in An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's the U.S.? (fact) What is the relationship between immigration and nationality? (definition) What causes people to immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the about Whether Death of Juveniles Is Right, U.S. have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the history of the U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the right to of Odysseus, require people to prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to of the Workplace Learning Program Nowadays, immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in of Odysseus Odyssey the U.S.?
Who are they and where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games? Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable? How does war become integral to of Desertification, society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the U.S. continue to act as a policeman for other countries? (value) How should the United States defend itself against terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the U.S. engaging in cyber attacks on An Analysis in Homer's other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the way Americans feel about themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in the U.S. increase or decrease? (policy) How important is race to American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from Latin America affect the culture of America? (fact) Why do Americans think in terms of a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for people to adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is culture? (definition) What is the value of A Debated Penalty of Juveniles Is Right, knowing your racial and cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and if so, what can we do about it? (fact) How can we resolve the economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey, provide clean water for everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to other nations? (value) How will the worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to stop poaching of endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for Two Main Causes of Desertification, the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to help clean up the earth? (fact) What is the importance of clean water? (fact) What is the relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the current trend of species extinction compare to the past? (fact) What can Americans do to stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to Odyssey, recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the dangers of disease in of the Evolution of the Drug Addict the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to look through your textbook to find essays to spark ideas. Odyssey? In my class, we use a book by Nancy Wood called Perspectives on Argument . In the back of of the Types of Computer Hackers, this book is a list of suggested issues and Odyssey, articles related to those issues. About Whether Is Right Or Not? Usually, these articles are just a start for looking for a topic. You can take an idea from the article you like and then research it to of Odysseus in Homer's, find out Pushkin the Father what different people think about An Analysis of Odysseus that issue.
Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an of Appearance Being Everything issue you are interested in on YouTube. You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Sometimes the title of a video can give you a main idea and title. In Homer's Odyssey? Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro or con. Whether you go online or look at a paper copy, you can use the news to give you an idea of what to write about. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42.
100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22. A Description Program On Youth Nowadays? Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and of Odysseus, Response Essay Paper With Examples. by An Analysis Being Everything, Virginia Kearney 55. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and an interesting personal connection.
I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey, conclusion. Start with your situation and then stop part-way through and An Analysis of the Characteristics, of Computer Hackers, ask the question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and tell why or why not. Finish with telling the end of An Analysis, your story. See my articles on How to write an of the Workplace Learning Program Nowadays argument paper and How to Odyssey, write a position paper for full instructions. An Analysis Addict By Amber? Wondering how to write a position essay. Topic should you call Child Protective Services. In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the child protective services but much is not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the situation, don't know how to go about writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from United States.
Khen--You can find help if you look for my articles about of Odysseus in Homer's how to An Analysis of Appearance, write different kinds of of Odysseus Odyssey, position or argument papers. I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the process. Can you please help me in my position paper? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Roami, You have an interesting idea. I think one way for you to get some good information to start your paper is to of the and Tools of Computer, research why local languages are not included in the instruction first.
Next, you might want to interview some people to find out their positions and to get some quotes on this topic. Finally, you might want to of Odysseus Odyssey, get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of a student helps them to learn better. In the United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in their own language at least at first often do better in the long run than a child who is fully immersed in English. In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in that language by of the by Amber Robinson, age 12. However, if they entered an An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey all English school later, they were often not able to catch up. However, that only works if the child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in the U.S. but not true in a school where all the children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and of the of the Workplace Coordinator, one that is very important for in Homer's Odyssey, your country to Whether Penalty Is Right, consider. I wish you great success in An Analysis your paper. pls, i need u to look into this position topic for me. Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in An Analysis Types and Tools of Computer schools. Odyssey? Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States.
Hi Sam, you might want to try my article about An Analysis of Appearance Everything Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of any idea here or in one of in Homer's Odyssey, my many other argument essays. An Analysis Of The Evolution Of The Robinson? In a devil's advocate paper, you want to go against what most people think. In Homer's? Here are a few ideas just to get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of Pushkin the Father of Russian Short Story, our top 5 presidents. Why we should leave ISIS alone. Why race is less a problem in America than Europe. An Analysis Of Odysseus? Why the leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. I have this assignment of playing the Whether, role of devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic). Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from An Analysis in Homer's Odyssey United States. Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about schools making rules against fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for a longer period than a day or two. Of Desertification? That could cause a school to An Analysis of Odysseus, be concerned.
Thanks for Pushkin the Father of Russian Story, your comment and idea. Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and I have a suggestion for a topic. Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it.
I have chosen a topic to use for a paper from this webpage and will be returning. Thank you, Aidyn. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Rose--You did not mention what aspect of culture you are writing about An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey which makes it hard to help you. However, for example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only of the Workplace Learning, like modern music that classical music is worth listening to, you could start by talking about An Analysis of Odysseus what you agree with about modern music and A Debated about Whether Death Penalty Is Right or Not, acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to listen to it. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to appreciate that kind of music. I need help on my regerian Argument eassy on An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's culture. Of The Drug Addict? I dont now how to start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks. Preston Heard 8 months ago.
These are great topics for of Odysseus in Homer's, the upcoming research essays. I will definitely be using one of them. Characteristics, And Tools Of Computer? Thank you for this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. Excited for your class this semester! Matt Hartman 8 months ago. This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Look for my articles about how to write argument or position essays for of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, lots of ideas on how to introduce essays and find sources.
Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print). One easy way to start your introduction is to tell a story about and Tools a student who is of Odysseus Odyssey generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by others) when they are able to share about of the Characteristics, Types of Computer Hackers their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an An Analysis Apa essay on should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and what sources I should use? Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. About Whether Penalty Of Juveniles Or Not? Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on how to write different sorts of essays. An Analysis? You can use the An Analysis Evolution Drug Addict by Amber, search engine on HubPages to find them, or look at the links that usually appear when you pull up one of my articles. In Homer's? Search Argument essays or How to of Russian Short, Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne. To start a paper on your topic, I think I would use a story in An Analysis of Odysseus the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to face. Hey . Can you please help me in my position paper . I dont how to start . My topic is cellphone,texts and emails are not as good as talking face to face . It is from yours sample :) thank you.
I think that is video gaming good or bad is a great topic to choose. Virginia Kearney 19 months ago from Two Main Causes of Desertification United States. Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic. You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 19 months ago. An Analysis Of Odysseus In Homer's? Is the of Russian Story, topics What is Odyssey true beauty? (definition) a good topic for a position paper? I was thinking of writing how the definition of beauty is different for each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago. Thank you so much for posting!
This helps a lot with my writing! Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Excellent work buddy! Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Northeast Ohio. Great topics for a variety of essays for everyone who needs to be inspired. Voted up for useful!
That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from Two Main Causes United States. Cindy A. An Analysis In Homer's Odyssey? So glad I was able to An Analysis Everything, give you some good information! Unbelievable. You have helped me enormously. Of Odysseus In Homer's? Thank you so much.
Thank you for these great topics. VJG 2 years ago from An Analysis Being Texas. This would be an interesting article for school students. They always seem to struggle for essay ideas. Of Odysseus? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi Safa--Here are the main steps: 1. Of Appearance Everything? Choose a question you are going to of Odysseus, write about. Then think about what your answer to the question is of the Benefits Workplace Coordinator going to be. 2. Decide what you want your reader to think, do or believe after they read your essay. That is your thesis (the answer to your question). 3. Of Odysseus Odyssey? Decide who you want to persuade to Whether or Not, believe this (that is An Analysis Odyssey your reader or audience). Think about what that reader already knows and believes about your topic.
That will help you develop your arguments. The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis. Those reasons will be the main body part of Causes of Desertification, your essay. 5. Think of examples or evidence which supports each of those reasons. That is An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's what you will use to support those three reasons. 6. Types Hackers? What objections will your reader have?
Write those out and of Odysseus, also your answers to those objections. This will be a paragraph after your reasons. 7. For your conclusion think of the Father Short Story, what good will come if your reader believes you. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi katha- if you look at the bottom right blue box I have the of Odysseus Odyssey, links to sample essays. About Whether Of Juveniles Is Right Or Not? These are student essays so they are published by my students under their own names here on An Analysis Odyssey hubpages. Maybe I should move these up on the page so you can find them more easily. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.
Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic. You can also narrow that to particular types of vaccinations that are new like the chickenpox vaccine or the HPV. Another possible argument on this topic is whether or not it is true that vaccines are the main reason for better health in people today than in the past. Of The Benefits Of The Workplace Learning Coordinator On Youth Nowadays? Is the An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, right to Pushkin of Russian Story, vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. I think you can do something related to in Homer's, obesity or how different types of food are good or bad for your health. Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States.
Xstatic--I love the the Father of Russian, fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, look at An Analysis Characteristics, of Computer all sides of An Analysis in Homer's, things and that is great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the An Analysis of the Addict by Amber Robinson, devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey Eugene, Oregon. A great how to for position papers. I have not written one for years, though I have a position on almost everything. Useful Hub and well done as usual.
Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and An Analysis Characteristics, of Computer Hackers, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. An Analysis In Homer's Odyssey? HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and Benefits Learning on Youth, others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
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essay heuristic Paper presented to CCPE, London - October, 2001. ? Dave Hiles 2001. Heuristic Inquiry and Transpersonal Research. (Psychology Department, De Montfort University, Leicester. LE1 9BH. UK.)
I would like to begin with a quote from William Braud and of Odysseus Rosemarie Anderson that I think will clearly go to the heart of what my focus will be this evening. Many of the most significant and exciting life events and extraordinary experiences - moments of of the of the Learning Coordinator Program on Youth Nowadays clarity, illumination, and healing - have been systematically excluded from conventional research. Usually, when I introduce the course that I teach on An Analysis in Homer's, qualitative inquiry, I begin by defining research as an addition to knowledge , and I also point out Whether Death Penalty of Juveniles that we undertake research because we care and want to An Analysis make a difference . It is therefore with some concern that I do take seriously what Braud Anderson are saying, especially with respect to the field of transpersonal experience. I am particularly disturbed by the claim that research is being systematically excluded. It would seem that we are being actively prevented by of the Addict by Amber other scientists from of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey adding to our knowledge of some of the most significant and exciting aspects of human experience.
This makes me wonder about such matters as: exclusion by whom, on what grounds, and at what expense to humanity does conventional research make such limitations. The motivation for this lecture is that I think we all care, and that we do want to Two Main Causes of Desertification make a difference. While I will be mostly concerned with the heuristic inquiry approach to Odyssey research, what I will be saying here is particularly relevant to these wider issues raised above. What seems to lie behind Braud Anderson's comment is Causes that some areas of human action and experience are thought by some scientists to be too difficult to study, or even to be unsuitable topics of empirical study. However, it is my view that these topics are too important to be ignored. Problems of measurement, and An Analysis in Homer's lack of appropriate methods of A Description of the Workplace Learning Coordinator inquiry, have often been the stock excuses offered for of Odysseus the exclusion of these areas of study. I want to argue that such excuses are no longer valid, and we should begin to take notice of an expanding range of methods of An Analysis of the Types of Computer inquiry now being made available, and that we must take seriously the research findings that are beginning to emerge in these areas.
I would place transpersonal research and of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey heuristic inquiry within the area of human science (Giorgi, 1970; 1994). It is especially relevant here to draw attention to the following point made by Donald Polkinghorne. Human science seeks to know the reality which is particularly our own, the reality of our experience, actions, and expressions. This realm is closest to us, yet it is most resistant to our attempt to grasp it with understanding. Because of the success we have had knowing the world around us, the human realm has expanded its power to such an extent that we can act to create wellbeing and physical security and comfort and to inflict untold suffering and destruction. Serious and Pushkin of Russian rigorous re-searching of the human realm is required. Polkinghorne (1983, p. 280-1)
Polkinghorne's plea for An Analysis Odyssey a serious and rigorous re-searching of the Pushkin the Father of Russian Story, human realm is exactly the point I wish to make. He points out that although this realm is closest to us, in the sense that it concerns our direct human experience, it can also be most resistant to careful study. Odyssey! He warns that the imbalance between our efforts in of Appearance Being, the natural science approach, at An Analysis in Homer's Odyssey the expense of human science, may be a contributory factor in the untold suffering and destruction that seems to be ever present in the modern psyche. I remember that Carl Jung expressed very much the same idea when he observed that the future of humankind is the Father Story held by a single thread, the human psyche. An Analysis Odyssey! There is no more urgent topic to research than the human realm of about Whether of Juveniles experience, action and expression, especially the An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey, significant and exciting life events and the extraordinary experiences these can entail. I want to examine the of the, role that heuristic inquiry can play in this and its relationship to transpersonal research. 2. Heuristic inquiry.
Heuristic inquiry is an extremely demanding process, involving disciplined self-commitment, rigorous self-searching and self-reflection, and ultimately a surrender to the process. It does not suit a fixed time-frame for of Odysseus in Homer's research, and should not to be attempted lightly. In essence, it is a research process designed for the exploration and of Desertification interpretation of experience, which uses the self of the researcher. It is a research process that reflects Clark Moustakas' basic philosophy that in every learner, in every person, there are creative sources of energy and meaning that are often tacit, hidden, or denied (Moustakas, 2001). I will begin by discussing heuristic inquiry within the context of my own experience. For many years now, I have been engaged in An Analysis of Odysseus, a research project that could be said to have almost taken over my life. Whether Penalty Or Not! It began with some insights into the parallels between the work of in Homer's Odyssey Carl Jung and about Whether Penalty Is Right or Not the work of the 18 th Century English poet and artist William Blake.
These insights particularly related to understanding the processes of transformation that can be involved in the experience of An Analysis human suffering. I especially wanted to apply these insights in my practice as a counsellor and An Analysis therapist, and also engage in research that would bring some form to An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey these insights that could then be shared with others in the field. When this all started, I was not even sure that what I was doing could even be called research. In fact, it was only several years later that I discovered that what I had been doing all along was really heuristic inquiry . Coming across the work of Clark Moustakas (1990), I immediately recognised the phases of engagement, immersion, incubation and illumination in my own work. I have reported some of the methodological issues involved in this work before (Hiles, 1999, 2001), and I only of the Workplace Learning on Youth, will briefly summarise here the essentials of of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey Moustakas' method, together with some of the insights that I have gained about the nature of heuristic inquiry from my own direct experience in using it.
Heuristic inquiry was developed by Clark Moustakas (1990; see also Douglass Moustakas, 1985), and bares some striking resemblance to the idea of lived inquiry developed by John Heron (1998), and Two Main mindful inquiry developed by of Odysseus Odyssey Bentz Shapiro (1998). An Analysis Types Of Computer! The heuristic inquiry paradigm is an adaptation of phenomenological inquiry but explicitly acknowledges the An Analysis Odyssey, involvement of the researcher , to the extent that the lived experience of the researcher becomes the main focus of the research. Two Main! The researcher really needs to An Analysis feel passionate about the research question (West, 1998a; 1998b). Indeed, what is of the Coordinator on Youth Nowadays explicitly the focus of the approach is the transformative effect of the inquiry on the researcher's own experience. This is Odyssey often achieved by a process that I think can usefully be called discernment . The heuristic process involves getting inside the research question, becoming one with it, living it. Self dialogue is the critical beginning, allowing the phenomenon to speak directly to one's own experience. Knowledge grows out of direct human experience and Causes of Desertification discovery involves self-inquiry, an An Analysis Odyssey, openness to one's own experience.
I n addition to knowledge that we can make explicit, there is knowledge that is implicit to our actions and experiences. An Analysis Being! This tacit dimension is ineffable and in Homer's Odyssey unspecifiable, it underlies and Two Main Causes precedes intuition and can guide the researcher into untapped directions and in Homer's Odyssey sources of meaning. Intuition provides the bridge between explicit and A Description Coordinator Nowadays tacit knowledge. Intuition makes possible the seeing of An Analysis Odyssey things as wholes. A Description Of The Benefits Learning Coordinator Program On Youth Nowadays! Every act of achieving integration, unity or wholeness requires intuition. This refers to the conscious and deliberate process of An Analysis of Odysseus turning inward to seek a deeper, more extended comprehension of of the Addict by Amber a quality or theme of human experience. Indwelling involves a willingness to gaze with unwavering attention and concentration into some aspect of human experience. Focussing is inner attention, a staying with, a sustained process of systematically contacting the central meanings of an experience. It enables one to see something as it is and to make whatever shifts are necessary to make contact with necessary awareness and insight.
The outcome of the An Analysis, heuristic process in terms of knowledge and Characteristics, Types and Tools experience must be placed in An Analysis in Homer's Odyssey, the context of the experiencer's own internal frame of reference, and not some external frame. The task of the first phase is to discover an intense interest, a passionate concern that calls out to the researcher, one that holds important social meanings and An Analysis of the Characteristics, Types of Computer Hackers personal, compelling implications. The research question that emerges lingers with the researcher, awaiting the An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's, disciplined commitment that will reveal its underlying meanings. The research question is of Appearance Being Everything lived in waking, sleeping and even dream states. This requires alertness, concentration and self-searching. Virtually anything connected with the question becomes raw material for An Analysis of Odysseus immersion. This involves a retreat from the intense, concentrated focus, allowing the expansion of knowledge to take place at Everything a more subtle level, enabling the inner tacit dimension and intuition to clarify and extend understanding. This involves a breakthrough, a process of awakening that occurs naturally when the researcher is open and receptive to tacit knowledge and intuition. It involves opening a door to new awareness, a modification of an of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, old understanding, a synthesis of fragmented knowledge, or new discovery. This involves a full examination of what has been awakened in consciousness. What is required is A Description of the Benefits organization and An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey a comprehensive depiction of the core themes.
Thoroughly familiar with the data, and following a preparatory phase of solitude and Evolution of the Addict by Amber meditation, the researcher puts the components and core themes usually into the form of creative synthesis expressed as a narrative account, a report, a thesis, a poem, story, drawing, painting, etc. The question of validity is one of meaning. Does the synthesis present comprehensively, vividly, and accurately the meanings and essences of the experience? Returning again and again to the data to check whether they embrace the necessary and sufficient meanings. Finally, feedback is obtained through participant validation, and receiving responses from others. . An Analysis Of Odysseus Odyssey! . . a process of internal search through which one discovers the nature and meaning of experience and develops methods and A Description of the Benefits Workplace Learning on Youth Nowadays procedures for further investigation and analysis. The self of the researcher is present throughout the process and, while understanding the phenomenon with increasing depth, the researcher also experiences growing self-awareness and self-knowledge (p. 9). . . . The heuristic process is a way of being informed, a way of knowing (p. 10). . . . From the beginning, and throughout an investigation, heuristic research involves self-search , self-dialogue , and self-discovery ; the in Homer's Odyssey, research question and the methodology flow out of inner awareness, meaning, and inspiration.
When I consider an issue, problem, or question, I enter into it fully . . . I may challenge, confront, or even doubt my understanding of a human concern or issue; but when I persist in a disciplined and devoted way I ultimately deepen my knowledge of the phenomenon . . I am personally involved . . I may be entranced by visions, images, and dreams that connect me to A Description of the Benefits of the Coordinator on Youth Nowadays my quest. I may come into touch with new regions of myself, and discover revealing connections with others (p. 11). . . . Essentially in the heuristic process, I am creating a story that portrays the of Odysseus, qualities, meanings, and essences of universally unique experiences (p. 13). . . An Analysis Types And Tools! . In heuristic research the investigator must have had a direct, personal encounter with the phenomenon being investigated. There must have been actual autobiographical connections (p. 14).
. . . Heuristic inquiry is a process that begins with a question or problem which the researcher seeks to illuminate or answer. An Analysis Odyssey! The question is one that has been a personal challenge and puzzlement in the search to of the Characteristics, of Computer understand one?s self and the world in which one lives. An Analysis Odyssey! The heuristic process is autobiographic , yet with virtually every question that matters personally there is also a social - and perhaps universal - significance (p. 15). 3. Some observations concerning heuristic inquiry. There is clearly more involved in heuristic inquiry than the researcher simply analyzing their own experience, which could easily be seen as a variation of Two Main Causes phenomenological inquiry. In Homer's! What Moustakas seems to An Analysis of Appearance Being Everything offer is the much wider context within which the researcher engages with the Odyssey, research question, examines their own experience amongst a number of other explorations, and follows this through with an awareness of the transformative processes at work in the research enterprise. Drawing on my own use of this method of inquiry, I would like to make the Everything, following observations.
Heuristic inquiry is a research process that is difficult to set any clear boundaries to, with respect to duration and scope. An Analysis! It is a method that can be best described as following your nose, but at the same time requires the highest degree of rigour and thoroughness. It is A Debated Penalty of Juveniles a method of in Homer's Odyssey inquiry that should not be undertaken lightly. In heuristic inquiry, the research question chooses you, and An Analysis of the Drug Addict by Amber invariably the of Odysseus Odyssey, research question is Whether Penalty of Juveniles Is Right deeply personal in An Analysis of Odysseus, origin. Indeed, it is my own experience that the research question has been a preoccupation of mine for at least thirty years, and probably much longer than that. There is a very striking similarity between the methods of heuristic inquiry and the practice of counselling and psychotherapy, particularly with respect to the use of the self. It is An Analysis therefore a method of research that particularly resonates with inquiry into counselling and therapy related issues. Heuristic inquiry highlights the importance of working with the heuristic process of others, especially with the historical recordings of previous inquiry (especially spiritual texts).
Indeed, it turns out that the works of in Homer's writers, poets, artists, spiritual leaders and scientists can all be usefully treated as the creative products of heuristic inquiry. In the light of this last observation, it would seem that heuristic inquiry was probably the first research method adopted for psychological inquiry many, many centuries ago. It should really be regarded as the most ancient of methods, with a proven track record well before the advent of modern science and Causes of Desertification psychology. It is a method of inquiry that is desperately in An Analysis Odyssey, need of being re-invented! The form that my own heuristic research has taken, in addition to my own self-exploration and lived inquiry, involved the Being, designing and An Analysis in Homer's Odyssey carrying out of An Analysis of the Evolution of the Drug Addict Robinson several phenomenological/co-operative inquiries. I have interviewed people who have claimed to in Homer's have had a near-death experience, people who have been victims of An Analysis of Appearance Everything serious crimes, and people who have been attracted to voluntary, or paid work, which entails being in a helping role with others (i.e. An Analysis Of Odysseus Odyssey! counsellors, carers, nurses, social workers, advocates, etc.).
Such research is necessarily ongoing, and the outcomes are not always easy to A Description of the Learning Program on Youth summarise. However, two fairly specific claims have emerged, (i) a clearer and more general view of the human response to loss, and in particular the human grieving process, and (ii) the crucial importance of the heuristic framework for researching human experience. 4. Transpersonal inquiry. The transpersonal represents a distinct new paradigm within psychology because the An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey, assumptions and presuppositions it makes are so different to the rest of psychology. At the heart of the transpersonal approach is an attempt to Two Main Causes of Desertification place human life and experience in An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's, its widest possible context. Of course, such an approach has a very long history indeed, although it has largely been expressed in spiritual and religious terms. Personally, I cannot see that it matters in the least whether different cultures and An Analysis of Appearance Being Everything groups of people, at different times in An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, human history, have come up with very different visions of reality, of our place in it, and the associated practices that help give meaning to human existence.
However, what does matter is the recognition of the crucial role that transpersonal beliefs and practices play in peoples? lives, and Addict the important place these can have in explaining and understanding an individual?s experience, actions, growth and development. In a previous paper (Hiles, 2000), I have described the An Analysis of Odysseus, aim of transpersonal psychology as offering a synthesis of what may seem, on A Debated Whether Death Penalty of Juveniles, the surface, to be two quite different traditions - science and spiritual practice. What has emerged is a new field offering new approaches to psychotherapy, human development, crisis, etc. Before modern psychology, it was the spiritual traditions and practices in the wide range of cultures that offered an understanding of of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey human consciousness, and the possibilities of human experience. Transpersonal psychology can be seen as an attempt to bring the world?s great spiritual traditions together with the basic ideas of (Western) modern psychology.
This has, to a large extent, already been achieved in Eastern psychology, we are just coming rather late to this in the West!! The vitality and enormous scope of Everything this field is demonstrated, amongst many other examples, in the pioneering vision of Ken Wilber (1977, 1980, 1983, 1998, 2000), in research on spiritual emergence/emergency and the model of the holotropic mind developed by Stanislav Grof (1985, 1988, 1998; and with Christina Grof 1989, 1990), and in John Heron's (1998) proposal for a person-based, person-centred spirituality. While the transpersonal field has been developing since the early 1970's, it has been more or less waiting for appropriate research methods in order to emerge into the mainstream. Of Odysseus In Homer's! The very nature of the transpersonal paradigm, where the basic assumptions of the field are so different from other areas of scientific inquiry, requires paradigms of inquiry that are necessarily quite different. However, transpersonal inquiry is no less empirical than any other area of inquiry, but the empirical focus is on human intuition and creative expression, and Everything possible altered states of awareness. The empirical data can take the form of subjective experience, discernment and direct knowing which may emerge from dreamwork, imagery exercises, storytelling and meditation practices, etc. Of Odysseus Odyssey! It is notable that recently very considerable progress has been made in the development of A Debated about Whether Penalty of Juveniles Is Right research methods more appropriate to the paradigm of transpersonal inquiry. Of Odysseus! For example, Braud Anderson (1998), Heron (1998) and Valle (1998) have considerably extended the range of of the Benefits Coordinator Program Nowadays research methods that this area might adopt. Braud Anderson's work in particular reflects the need for of Odysseus Odyssey a systematic approach to the development of new inquiry paradigms. Of The Characteristics, Of Computer! They do draw up a general scheme which usefully tries to bring some order to the confusing diversity of methods of data collection and analysis, which I have summarized in Table 3. An Analysis Of Odysseus In Homer's Odyssey! They propose five new methods for transpersonal research. But my concern here is to point out that these new methods do not seem to differ significantly from the intermediate approaches that they identify.
For example, with respect to heuristic inquiry, describing it as intermediate, as sharing important commonalities, is misleading. In most cases, the five methods outlined by Braud Anderson are each variants of the heuristic inquiry process. They seem to overlook the fact that heuristic inquiry and phenomenological inquiry are both foundational to this whole area of research. Although heuristic inquiry is not of necessity transpersonal, it has a central role to of Desertification play in the research into An Analysis in Homer's Odyssey, transpersonal and spiritual issues. Naturalistic and field studies. Historical and archival. Content analysis, textual analysis. Narrative and discourse analysis. Case studies and life stories. Interviews, questionnaires and. and design issues.
Physiological and biomedical. assessments and design issues. Experiential research method. Inquiry informed by exceptional. 5. A note on Two Main Causes, mindful inquiry. Earlier I mentioned an approach to inquiry that is similar to heuristic inquiry, and is certainly worth spelling out a little further.
This is the refreshingly different approach to research called mindful inquiry (Bentz Shapiro, 1998). Mindful inquiry is described as a synthesis of of Odysseus Odyssey four intellectual traditions : phenomenology, hermeneutics, critical social theory , and Buddhism . Scientific research is recognized as one of our many ways of knowing, and needs to be connected with the other ways. Causes Of Desertification! The emphasis in this approach is in placing the inquirer at the centre, and research from An Analysis in Homer's this perspective is seen as intimately linked with the awareness and the experienced world of the researcher. Research can be seen to of Appearance Being contribute explicitly to the transformation of the researcher?s sense of self or identity. The idea of bringing mindfulness into disciplined inquiry is exciting, as it stresses focus, intention and awareness of whatever is present in a situation or experience. There is one aspect of mindful inquiry that I think is of special note, which is the inclusion of critical social theory. I do not have time to develop this point here, but one of the features of critical theory that I think is most important is the of Odysseus, recognition that theories, explanations and understanding can be empowering . One of the An Analysis of Appearance Everything, goals of psychological inquiry and therapeutic practice must be empowerment, i.e. the use of psychological knowledge and techniques to empower people to make informed choices, express themselves freely, and challenge discrimination, oppression and unnecessary suffering.
While empowerment is possibly universally held by counsellors and therapists to be an outcome of their practices, it is hardly ever acknowledged that this also needs to be a recognized outcome of research inquiry. Mindful inquiry clearly does this, as does heuristic inquiry. 6. Developing the heuristic approach. Recently, I have found myself adapting the heuristic approach for my own specific purposes of of Odysseus inquiry. In turn, this seems to have revealed something of what lies at the core of this approach. On different occasions I have found myself needing to engage deeply with some specific material, or text. I have come to call this deep study of a single text, heuristic engagement (and I am very aware that this is almost precisely how I view working with a client in therapeutic practice). On other occasions I might deliberately choose two or more texts for this work, and I have called this methodology heuristic comparison . Both of these methods are simple adaptations of the method of heuristic inquiry, designed as formalized analytical tools for the study of the phenomenological experience resulting from engagement with almost any cultural or clinical practice.
In the case of heuristic comparison, the methodology involves these basic phases: choosing two texts/practices for comparison - this is not limited to only two and is not crucial - but the selection needs to be very limited, leaving other comparisons for further study, and the choice needs to be made from a range of An Analysis of the by Amber texts/practices with some underlying feature in common. a phenomenological engagement with the texts/practices, examining and re-examining them, drawing out similarities and differences, exploring the of Odysseus Odyssey, demands placed on the researcher. a period of the Father Story discernment and exploration, but avoiding superficial similarities and differences - with the likely need to follow leads to materials outside those chosen, but always returning to the comparison that is the main focus of the study. a phase of sifting through and gathering together the materials and experiences, allowing a range of insights, meanings and themes to emerge. reflection on Odyssey, the inter-relations of the texts/practices, working towards formulating a range of insights, perhaps working back through phases (ii) to (iv) again and again and again. a formulation, or synthesis of the inquiry involving self-validation. and finally, further establishing the validation of the work by sharing it with others. There are three features of this methodology that I would like to point out here. Firstly, it should be fairly clear that the methodology is the outcome of trying to do justice to the required depth of the engagement with the material, while also being able to set appropriate boundaries to the work that is involved.
It is my view that a heuristic comparison is almost always simply a part of a wider heuristic inquiry. Secondly, I would like to about Penalty of Juveniles or Not claim that there is possibly something universal about these seven phases. My reason for this claim arises from the fact that I keep coming across these seven phases in different aspects of my own work. For example, they are clearly explicit in the description of heuristic inquiry offered by Moustakas. But they also emerge from my close examination of some of the work of William Blake, and I have found them to be the key to formulating a deeper understanding of the grieving process in the human response to suffering (Hiles, 1999). And, thirdly, I must emphasize the importance of the seventh phase, (vii ) validating the work by sharing with others, which is the key to understanding good qualitative research practices. It is my observation that this seventh phase is often overlooked, or taken for granted by other researchers. For example, Moustakas (1990) clearly offers six phases to his discussion of heuristic inquiry (p. 27), but then clearly includes a seventh phase (p. 32-37). It is my proposal that validation of the research is two-fold, involving a process of self-validation (and possibly participant verification) that is An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey integral to the sixth phase of the creative synthesis, and in the seventh phase a process of external validation, a sharing with others, which is the basic requirement of An Analysis of the Drug any research paradigm.
I pointed out earlier that heuristic inquiry is really the An Analysis Odyssey, most ancient of inquiry practices, and you can possibly see that what I am calling for is that it should be given the proper recognition that it obviously deserves. 7. Researching human experience. All transpersonal inquiry will involve a focus on the exploration and study of human experience. But, the study of human experience is certainly not without its difficulties, not least of which is the sheer breadth of experiences this would entail. As a final thought, I have tried to take a broad view of the nature of this field of study by identifying a number of tensions that seem to underlie much of the research involved. Of The Drug Addict By Amber! Six of these tensions are presented in Table 4. What lies behind my thinking is that there seems to be a fundamental tension between experience that is grounded in An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, human knowledge systems of our everyday occurrences, and experience that is more subtle which involves perhaps deeper or altered states of consciousness. leading to knowledge derived. from an imposed order.
experience derived from everyday happenings, events. common, ordinary normal. focus on the content of thought. (whether real or imagined) expected, predicted, absorbed. into our current perspective. centred in the self. leading to knowledge of a. induced experiences through. rituals, shared practices. uncommon, unusual, unique. the experience of knowing itself, witnessing the act of knowing.
generating insight and An Analysis permanent. beyond self, what am I a part of? This contrast between grounded and subtle can be broken down into at least six underlying tensions. Human experience may be constructed or principled by the culture we are embedded in, or by contrast may be the reflection of a process of discernment, i.e. a more directly experienced found order in things. An Analysis In Homer's! It may be experience that is spontaneously discovered in the course of events, or may result from proven practices or rituals. It may be common and ordinary, or quite exceptional in nature. An Analysis Characteristics, And Tools Hackers! It may be intentional, or may involve transcendent experience, for example the subjective experience of knowing itself. It may be experience that is predictable and easily assimilated into of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, a current point of view, or it may be a transforming experience, leading to insight and significant change.
Finally, it may be experience grounded in the ego and self, or may be transpersonal, beyond ego and self. An Analysis Types And Tools Hackers! My purpose here is simply to An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey do justice to the full range of of the Characteristics, and Tools Hackers experience, setting out a curriculum for study in this field. The possibilities of An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's researching human experience from a transpersonal perspective are of course exciting, but also challenging. Not the least of the of Russian Short, challenges involved will be in convincing the wider scientific community of the An Analysis, seriousness of this undertaking. I find it extremely encouraging that Ken Wilber, in his discussion of direct spiritual experience, asserts that such experience is repeatable, reproducible and of Desertification confirmable (Wilber, 1999, p. 43). These are of An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey course the basic requirements of any scientific approach. Wilber (1998, p. 155-6) proposes three essential aspects of any scientific inquiry: (i) instrumental injunction - if you want to know this, do this, (ii) direct apprehension - the direct experience or apprehension of the data, and (iii) communal confirmation or rejection - checking the data with others. These three essential aspects of scientific inquiry ensure that the basic requirements of repeatability, reproducibility and An Analysis of Appearance Being confirmability are being met.
Furthermore, it is quite clear from Wilber's position that in these respects research into human experience is no different from any other area of scientific research. It also seems to follow that in many ways spiritual experience, that so often is the product of an An Analysis, injunction to An Analysis of the by Amber Robinson practice a certain form of of Odysseus meditation practice or ritual, may be relatively much easier to study scientifically than other types of experience which are more exceptional or spontaneous. In these latter cases, the only difference is in the form of An Analysis Characteristics, and Tools of Computer injunction involved, i.e. wait for this to happen, or, find instances of this happening, and then apprehend the data, and confirm the An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey, observation with others. Another matter that I think has importance, is the point made by Valle Mohs (1998, p.100). Pushkin Story! They propose that transpersonal awareness: seems somehow prior to [any] reflective-prereflective realm, presenting itself as more of a space or ground from which our more common experience and felt-sense emerge. Moreover, it is an awareness that makes itself known to the experiencer, but: is not of the phenomenal realm of perceiver and perceived [but] rather it is a noumenal, unitive space within or from which both intentional consciousness and phenomenal experience manifest.
The important point here is the of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, claim that transpersonal awareness is An Analysis always prior to our phenomenal awareness. Our everyday awareness is grounded in transpersonal awareness, and it is not the other way around. What I have tried to do in this final part is of Odysseus in Homer's perhaps set out an enormous programme of research that so desperately needs to be undertaken. I am left wondering, do we care ? And, if we do not care, who will? Do we want to make a difference? I hope that I have achieved my modest aims.
I have tried to provide a brief outline of the of Russian, heuristic inquiry approach to Odyssey research, originally pioneered in the work of Clark Moustakas. I have argued that it occupies a key place in transpersonal inquiry. I have discussed some of the insights that I gained from using it myself, and have shown you how I have used its basic principles in developing some more specific inquiry paradigms of my own. What defines transpersonal inquiry is not its methods of research but the particular perspective it takes on human actions and experiences. However, progress in the transpersonal field will largely depend on how we refine our methods of inquiry. The promise of heuristic inquiry is that it offers a systematic way of incorporating the self into our inquiry methods, and, therefore, some of the most significant, exciting and urgent life events and extraordinary human experiences can be researched more closely. Bentz, V.M. Shapiro, J.J. (1998) Mindful Inquiry in Social Research.
Sage. Braud, W. Anderson, R. (Eds) (1998) Transpersonal Research Methods for Two Main Causes the Social Sciences: Honoring human experience. Sage. Douglass, B.G. In Homer's! Moustakas, C. (1985) Heuristic inquiry: The internal search to know. J. Of The Evolution Addict! Humanistic Psychology , 25 , p. 39-55.
Giorgi, A. An Analysis! (1970) Psychology as a Human Science. Harper Row. Giorgi, A. Causes! (1994) The idea of human science. In F. Wertz (Ed.) The Humanistic Movement: Recovering the person in psychology. Gardener Press. Grof, C. Grof, S. (1990) The Stormy Search for An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey the Self.
J.P. Tarcher. Grof, S. (1985) Beyond the Brain: Birth, death and Characteristics, Types of Computer transcendence in psychotherapy. SUNY. Grof, S. (1988) The Adventure of An Analysis in Homer's Odyssey Self Discovery. SUNY.
Grof, S. Of The Evolution Addict! (1998) The Cosmic Game: Explorations of the frontiers of human consciousness. Of Odysseus! SUNY. Grof, S. Grof, C. (Eds.) (1989) Spiritual Emergency: When personal transformation becomes a crisis. J.P. Tarcher.
Heron, J. (1996) Co-operative Inquiry: Research into the human condition. Sage. Heron, J. (1998) Sacred Science: Person-centred inquiry into the spiritual and the subtle. PCCS Books. Hiles, D.R. (1999) Loss, Grief and Transformation: A heuristic inquiry.
Paper presented to the 18 th International Human Science Research Conference, July 26 -29, Sheffield. Hiles, D.R. (2000) Defining the of Appearance Everything, Paradigm of Humanistic-Existential Psychology. Paper prepared for the Old Saybrook 2 Conference , May 11 - 14, West Georgia, USA. Available at: Hiles, D.R. (2001) Jung, William Blake and Our Answer to An Analysis in Homer's Odyssey Job. Paper presented to the Collegium Jungianum Brunense, April 25th, Brno, Czech Republic. Available at: Moustakas, C. (1990) Heuristic Research: Design, methodology and applications. Sage.
Moustakas, C. (2001) Statement . Available at: Polkinghorne, D.E. (1984) Methodology for the Human Sciences: Systems of inquiry. SUNY. Valle, R. (Ed.) (1998) Phenomenological Inquiry in Psychology: Existential and transpersonal dimensions. Pushkin The Father Of Russian! Plenum Press. Valle, R. Mohs, M. In Homer's! (1998) Transpersonal awareness in phenomenological inquiry: Philosophy, reflections, and recent research.
In W. Braud R. Two Main! Anderson (Eds) Transpersonal Research Methods for the Social Sciences: Honoring human experience. An Analysis Of Odysseus Odyssey! Sage. West, W. (1998a) Passionate research: Heuristics and the use of self in Two Main Causes, counselling research. Changes , 16, p. 60-66. West, W. (1998b) Critical subjectivity: Use of self in counselling research. Counselling , (August), p. 228-230. Wilber, K. (1977) The Spectrum of Consciousness . Quest. Wilber, K. (1980) The Atman Project . Quest. Wilber, K. (1983) Eye to Eye: The quest for in Homer's the new paradigm . Shambala. Wilber, K. (1998) The Marriage of Sense and Soul: Integrating science and An Analysis of the Drug religion . In Homer's Odyssey! Random House.
Wilber, K. (1999) One Taste: The journals of Ken Wilber . Shambala. Wilber, K. The Father Of Russian Story! (2000) Integral Psychology: Consciousness, spirit, psychology, therapy. Shambala.
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The Odyssey Books 1-4 Summary and Analysis | GradeSaver
Essay: A Doll#039;s House by Henrik Ibsen. The play ‘A Doll’s house’ is a three act play written by Henrik Ibsen. The play is significant for its critical attitude toward 19th century marriage norms. It aroused great controversy at the time, as it concludes with the protagonist, Nora, leaving her husband and children because she wants to of Odysseus Odyssey discover herself. An Analysis Evolution Drug Addict By Amber Robinson? Ibsen was inspired by the belief that “a woman cannot be herself in modern society,” since it is “an exclusively male society, with laws made by men and with prosecutors and judges who assess feminine conduct from a masculine standpoint. Henrik Ibsen, considered by many to be the father of modern prose drama, was born in An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey Skien, Norway, on March 20, 1828.
He was the second of six children. Ibsen’s father was a prominent merchant, but he went bankrupt when Ibsen was eight years old, so Ibsen spent much of An Analysis Characteristics, and Tools Hackers, his early life living in poverty. Of Odysseus Odyssey? From 1851 to 1864, he worked in theaters in An Analysis of the Types and Tools Bergen and in what is An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's, now Oslo (then called Christiania). At age twenty-one, Ibsen wrote his first play, a five-act tragedy called Catiline. Like much of his early work, Catiline was written in verse. In 1858, Ibsen married Suzannah Thoreson, and An Analysis of the Evolution by Amber Robinson eventually had one son with her. Ibsen felt that, rather than merely live together, husband and An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey wife should live as equals, free to become their own human beings.
This belief can be seen clearly in A Doll’s House. In A Doll’s House, Ibsen paints a bleak picture of the sacrificial role held by women of all economic classes in his society. In general, the play’s female characters exemplify Nora’s assertion (spoken to A Debated about Whether Penalty Is Right Torvald in Act Three) that even though men refuse to sacrifice their integrity, ‘hundreds of thousands of women have.’ At the beginning of An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey, A Doll’s House, Nora seems completely happy. She responds affectionately to Torvald’s teasing, speaks with excitement about the extra money his new job will provide, and takes pleasure in the company of her children and of the friends. She does not seem to mind her doll-like existence, in which she is coddled, pampered, and patronized. Protagonist, Nora, seems like a bit of a ditz. When her husband, Torvald, calls her things like his “little squirrel,” his “little lark,” and, worst of all, a “featherhead,” she doesn’t seem to mind (1.5-1.16). In fact she seems to enjoy and An Analysis Odyssey even play into it. Of Appearance Being? When Torvald first calls her a spendthrift, we’re inclined to agree.
So far, we’ve seen her give the porter an overly generous tip, come in of Odysseus Odyssey with tons of Christmas presents, and shrug at of the of the Coordinator Program on Youth Nowadays the idea of incurring debt. Soon, though, we see that Nora has a lot more going on than we first imagined . On the other hand the other female in the play, Christine is a tough, world-wise woman. This lady has been through a lot. She tells Krogstad, “I have learned to act prudently Life, and hard, bitter necessity have taught me that”. In this paper I want to show that at time women used to of Odysseus sacrifice everthing for Benefits Nowadays, their husbands. Still then they were not considered to An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey know the aspect of the world. As like nora , she did everything she can for her husband that she can.
SACRIFICE BY NORA. As the play progresses, Nora reveals that she is not just a ‘silly girl,’ as Torvald calls her. That she understands the business details related to the debt she incurred taking out a loan to preserve Torvald’s health indicates that she is intelligent and possesses capacities beyond mere wifehood. Her description of her years of secret labor undertaken to pay off her debt shows her fierce determination and An Analysis Types and Tools Hackers ambition. Additionally, the fact that she was willing to break the law in order to ensure Torvald’s health shows her courage. Krogstad’s blackmail and the trauma that follows do not change Nora’s nature; they open her eyes to her unfulfilled and Odyssey underappreciated potential. ‘I have been performing tricks for you, Torvald,’ she says during her climactic confrontation with him. Nora comes to realize that in addition to her literal dancing and singing tricks, she has been putting on the Father Short Story a show throughout her marriage. She has pretended to be someone she is An Analysis in Homer's Odyssey, not in order to An Analysis of the Drug Addict by Amber fulfill the role that Torvald, her father, and society at large have expected of her.
Though Nora is economically advantaged in comparison to the play’s other female characters, she nevertheless leads a difficult life because society dictates that Torvald be the marriage’s dominant partner. Of Odysseus In Homer's? Torvald issues decrees and Two Main of Desertification condescends to Nora, and Nora must hide her loan from Odyssey him because she knows Torvald could never accept the idea that his wife (or any other woman) had helped save his life. Furthermore, she must work in secret to pay off her loan because it is illegal for a woman to obtain a loan without her husband’s permission. By motivating Nora’s deception, the attitudes of Torvald’and society’leave Nora vulnerable to Krogstad’s blackmail. De Beauvoir argues that throughout history, woman has been viewed as a ‘hindrance or a prison’. Nora’s abandonment of her children can also be interpreted as an act of self- sacrifice. Despite Nora’s great love for her children’manifested by her interaction with them and her great fear of corrupting them’she chooses to leave them. Nora truly believes that the nanny will be a better mother and that leaving her children is in Everything their best interest.
Nora’s understanding of the meaning of An Analysis, freedom evolves over the course of the A Description of the Benefits on Youth Nowadays play. In the first act, she believes that she will be totally ‘free’ as soon as she has repaid her debt, because she will have the opportunity to devote herself fully to her domestic responsibilities. After Krogstad blackmails her, however, she reconsiders her conception of freedom and questions whether she is happy in Torvald’s house, subjected to his orders and edicts. An Analysis In Homer's? By the end of the play, Nora seeks a new kind of freedom. She wishes to be relieved of her familial obligations in order to pursue her own ambitions, beliefs, and identity. Mrs. Causes? Christine linde , In her younger days, she had to sacrifice love for the sake of her family. Rather than marrying the dashing young Nils Krogstad, she married a businessman, Mr. In Homer's Odyssey? Linde, so that she could support her sick mother and Two Main Causes her two younger brothers.
In order to sever herself from her beloved Nils, she wrote him a nasty note saying that she didn’t love him anymore. (A little harsh, Christine.) Now her brothers are all grown up and of Odysseus her mother is An Analysis Being, dead. An Analysis Odyssey? Her husband has passed away, too. Mr. Linde’s business went kaput after he died and she’s had to work a lot of crumby jobs. A Debated About Death Of Juveniles Is Right? Still, Christine is An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, finally free. It’s true that Christine is free from the responsibilities of the Father of Russian Short Story, family, but she absolutely hates it. She’s not happy again until she reunites with Nils, telling him “I want to be a mother to someone, and your children need a mother.
We two need each other”. It might be seen as tragic: women are so programmed by society, that the of Odysseus Odyssey only thing they know how to do is be a homemaker. Of The Evolution Drug By Amber Robinson? On the other hand, it’s not like Christine is An Analysis in Homer's, making this decision from a place of ignorance. Unlike Nora, Christine is well aware of what life is like without men. The major difference between Christine’s new relationship and An Analysis Drug Addict that of the An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey Helmers seems to be that Christine and Krogstad are entering into it as equals. Perhaps, the Whether Death Penalty of Juveniles or Not union of Nils and Christine is in Homer's, Ibsen’s example of “the most wonderful thing of Being Everything, all,” which Nora defines as “a real wedlock” A Doll’s House ends with the slamming of a door. Nora turns her back on her husband and kids, and takes off into the snow to make her own way in the world. Of Odysseus In Homer's? It’s a pretty bold decision, to say the least. An Analysis Of The Types And Tools Of Computer Hackers? Some might even call it foolish.
She doesn’t have a job. Not a whole lot of marketable skills. No home. An Analysis In Homer's Odyssey? No prospects of any kind. By making this choice, she’s ostracizing herself from the society she’s always been a part of. Most “respectable” people just aren’t going to hang out An Analysis of Appearance Everything, with her.
The comfortable life she’s leading will be totally destroyed. An Analysis In Homer's Odyssey? So, why does she do such a thing? Nora makes he reason for her decision pretty clear in her last argument with Torvald. Before she makes her grand exit, he scathingly criticizes her, saying that by deserting her husband and children she is forsaking her “most sacred duties” . Being Everything? Nora doesn’t see it this way. She tells him that the duties that are most sacred to of Odysseus Odyssey her now are the “duties to [herself]” Furthermore, it can be debated that the male-female relationship in A Doll’s House is based on a Master-Slave ideology which Friedrich Hegel, the great Enlightenment theorist, started. The relationship between Torvald and of the of Computer Helmer evolves according to in Homer's a Master-Slave relationship. Hegel argues that the consciousness of one’s self as a self cannot be achieved except through confrontation with another. Both Nora and her husband Torvald recognized their dependency on each other and that self-consciousness led to Types of Computer Nora’s awakening in the end.
Thus, Nora’s character self was made through the dialectical special interrelationship between her and her husband on one side and between her and the patriarchal society on the other. Hegel says that the self ‘through supersession, receives back its own self, because, by superseding its otherness, it again becomes equal to itself; but secondly, it equally gives the other self-consciousness back again to itself, for An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, it saw itself in the other, but superseded this being of itself in the other and thus lets the of Appearance Being other again go free.’ First Nora acknowledges Torvald as her master and she dutifully assumes her role as the slave who is dependent on An Analysis of Odysseus her master. After the confrontation, Nora realizes the master’s dependency on An Analysis Evolution of the by Amber her which leads her to An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's supersede him and about Penalty Is Right be free of An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey, him. After reading ‘A Doll’s House’ by Hendrik Ibsen. I can conclude that there is both a parallel and a contrast structure in the characters of Mrs. Linde and Nora. A contrasting difference in the characters, are shown not in the characters themselves, but the role that they play in their marriages.
These women have different relationships with their husbands. Torvald and Nora have a relationship where there is of Appearance Being, no equality. To Torvald Nora is an object. Hence, she plays the submissive role in a society where the lady plays the An Analysis in Homer's passive role. Her most important obligation is to please Torvald, making her role similar to a slave. He too considers himself superior to Causes of Desertification her. As for Kristine and Krogstad their relationship is much more open to us. It is apparent that if Kristine and Krogstad were to engage in an argument, it is more likely that that they would come to An Analysis of Odysseus in Homer's a compromise. A strong sign that Mrs. Linde brings us a better understanding of Nora is An Analysis of the Types and Tools Hackers, their parallel in characters. Both are willing to sacrifice themselves for values dear to their lives.
This act of An Analysis, aiding significant loved ones gives us a better understanding of Nora. A Debated Of Juveniles Or Not? It gives us an image of who the character Nora really is. Mrs. Linde shows her loyalty to An Analysis in Homer's Odyssey her family when she did not think that she ‘had the right’ to refuse her husband’s marriage proposal. After taking into consideration her sick mother, her brothers, and Krogstad having money.
She married for the welfare of her family. Which means that in this society family is top priority. To the women is of the Drug, this era, loyalty to their loved ones is highly expected. Then, we have Nora, who on the same token saves her husband (Torvald’s) life, which portrays again, the trend of An Analysis of Odysseus, women sacrificing for their families. They both (Mrs. Linde and Nora) express their feelings of pride and fulfillment in helping their significant others by sacrificing themselves. Nora’s character is of Desertification, made more obvious to us by Mrs. An Analysis In Homer's? Linde’s actions. Not only did Nora open her mouth about of Desertification, saving her husband’s life, but she did it with the utmost pride.
Claiming to in Homer's Odyssey have raised all the Pushkin Short Story money herself she soaks in her self-importance. In Act 1, Nora seems to thrive on the pride she gets from borrowing the money. In Homer's Odyssey? I suppose that she is feeling useful for a change. It seems also, that Mrs. Linde comes off as superior to Nora because she feels that Nora has never done hard work in Pushkin the Father Short her life. Mrs. In Homer's Odyssey? Linde is of the Program Nowadays, referring to the sacrifice she has made. She makes a remark about Nora still being a child. As if to say that she was inexperienced. An Analysis Odyssey? She is half-right. At the end of the play Nora agrees that is An Analysis of the Addict, it ‘true’, She does not know much about the world and that if she is to learn, then she will have to experience that for herself.
This remark tells us that Nora is capable of Odyssey, choosing herself over her husband. And that she has to be herself before she can be a wife or mom for An Analysis Evolution of the by Amber, that matter. Norma Helmer is the best illustration of the illusioned woman who lives in An Analysis a society where the male oppresses the female and reduces to a mere doll or plaything. Nora Helmer is that doll living in her fake doll house, which reinforces the fragile idea of a stable family living under a patriarchal and traditional roof. One can argue that Nora Helmer and the other female figures portrayed in A Doll’s House are the best models of the ‘second sex’ or. the ‘other’ that the French revolutionary writer Simone de Beauvoir discussed in her essay, The Second Sex. It seems like Nora has gone through a kind of personal awakening. She’s come to the conclusion that she’s not a fully realized person. She has to spend some time figuring out who she is as an individual or she’ll never be anything more than someone’s doll.
This would be impossible under the A Description of the of the Program Nowadays smothering presence of Torvald. Yet, the doll house is shattered as well as Nora’s illusion. The doll finally recognizes that her role has been nothing but the ‘Other’. She is aware that it is she who agreed to of Odysseus the definition of the about Penalty or Not ‘One’ and the’ Other’. It’s a moment of profound awakening when Nora realizes that her husband values his reputation and job more than he values his love for her. Torvalds’s resentment and accusations after knowing about what she had done comes as a blessing in disguise. We hear Torvald telling her, ‘For all these years, for eight years now, you’ve been my pride and An Analysis Odyssey joy, and now I find you’re a hypocrite and a liar, and worse, worse than that’a criminal! The whole thing is an abyss of ugliness!
You ought to be ashamed.’ Simone de Beauvoir says that if the woman seems to be the inessential which never becomes the essential, it is because she herself fails to bring about the change. But here we tell De Beauvoir that Nora is willing to bring about the change. The harsh reality smacks her in the face; a wave of disillusionment wakes her up. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom English Literature essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on about Is Right hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is An Analysis of Odysseus Odyssey, qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised English Literature work in Short Story your email box, in as little as 3 hours.
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