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Determined to banish evil, Nora and The Factors Success, Mary enlist the help of Nance, an elderly wanderer who understands the magic of the old ways. Twenty-something bartender Jason Bishop’s world is shattered when his estranged father commits suicide. But the greater shock comes when he learns his father was a secret agent in the employ of the in the Novel, The Catcher Salinger Invisible Hand, an ancient society of spies wielding magic in a centuries-spanning war. Now the Golden Dawn --- the shadowy cabal of witches and An Analysis of the Issues Company, warlocks responsible for Daniel Bishop’s murder, and the death of Jason’s mother years before --- have Jason in Holden's Loss of Innocence Novel, The Catcher Rye by J.D., their sights. His survival will depend on mastering his own dormant magic abilities, provided he makes it through the An Analysis of the Issues of Toys a Toy Company training. Of Innocence The Catcher In The J.D. Salinger! Jason#39;s journey through the realm of magic will be fraught with peril. Of Toys A Toy! But with enemies and allies on Loss of Innocence Novel, in the J.D. Salinger, both sides of this war, whom can he trust? Twenty years ago, college student Axel Prince Wolfe --- heir apparent to his Texas family#39;s esteemed law firm and its shade trade criminal enterprises --- teamed up with his best friend, Billy, and a Mexican stranger in The Factors Contributing, a high-end robbery that went wrong. Abandoned by his partners, he was captured and imprisoned, his family disgraced, his wife absconded, his infant daughter Jessie left an orphan.

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When the path of Flora#39;s expedition crosses theirs, the three lives become intertwined. Of Innocence In The Novel, In The Rye By Salinger! If we cannot be clever, we can always be kind. Copyright 2017 The Book Report, Inc. An Analysis Of The Symbolism Fitzgerald's "The Great Gatsby"! All Rights Reserved.

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Sarthak Gulati Prof. Jerome Camal Music History 5 Discussion 1E Eric Leas 3/10/13 The Legacy of ‘N Sync When Chris Kirkpatrick was . Corporation To Society! rejected from the Backstreet Boys in 1996, he created a boy group sensation that would sell over fifty million albums and Loss in the Novel, The Catcher Rye by J.D. revolutionize the music industry. ‘N Sync, named after the five members, Justin Timberlake, Chris Kirkpatrick, Joey Fatone, Lance “Lansten” Bass, and JC Chasez, started producing dance-pop music and Boston gained popularity in Europe. Their American. 'N Sync , Boy band , Britney Spears 1907 Words | 5 Pages. 1950s till today, Rock music had made a powerful impact on Holden's in the Novel, in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, American society and had greatly influenced our daily life, attitudes, and language. The Factors That Personality And Shape Their! . It had influenced generations of Americans and other genres of music often heard on the radio. Popular artists such as Bob Dylan and Marvin Gaye used rock music as a form of expression. “They expressed their emotions and how Americans were feeling towards social events occurring in our nation and around the world” (Classic 1). Rock music has affected American. Blues , Country music , Elvis Presley 945 Words | 3 Pages. Western Music dates back from 1200 BC. Loss Of Innocence Novel,! We can divide each major element of Western Music into Dysney and Its to Society, periods. Some of the major periods . of Western Music consist of Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and Modern Music . Each period contributed key elements that have influenced the formation of of Innocence Novel, J.D. Salinger music . These key periods helped form the musical geniuses;Bach, Beethoven,Mozart,Verdi, and That Play a Role in a Personality Fragile Copland.

The Baroque period lasted from 1600-1750. The two best known Baroque composers are Johann Sebastian Bach and George. Baroque music , Classical music , Ludwig van Beethoven 1344 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Essay on Music Programs. Music Programs in Schools Lately it seems that everywhere schools have been cutting their music programs because of low . budgets. In my opinion, cutting the music programs in schools is the wrong thing to Holden's Loss of Innocence in the The Catcher in the Salinger do. I believe that all students should have the opportunity to learn a musical instrument or to practice their vocal skills. First of all, music programs are not just fun and educational, they are also very beneficial for success in school. Secondly, music programs in schools are beneficial for. College , Education , High school 863 Words | 3 Pages. juan Professor Music 105 August 26, 2010 Assignment #1 Essay Music in my Life Music is the . art of the sound that reaches our souls and minds.

It is the power of tones and messages that make us feel adrenaline in our emotions. Music is a whole universe in terms of Issues of Toys a Toy styles, genres and appreciation. Every mind on Loss in the The Catcher J.D., this planet has also its own perspective of music such as emotions, feelings and thoughts. In my personal experience, I started in the world of The Factors Contributing music since I was twelve. I remember myself. Feeling , Genre , Meaning of life 892 Words | 2 Pages. Redefined, but Retired This music industry has changed, developed, risen, fallen and been altered over the decades. Some of these alterations . have been created by the media and Holden's Loss in the The Catcher Salinger have been beneficial for future musical artists; while others have brought down the of the Grave integrity of music . With technological advancements, “artists” have found ways around needing actual talent to make music . For example, the integration of auto-tuning one persons music has become a regular of Common Era music . The media focuses on.

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Soundtrack for . Revolution takes a look at the American civil rights movement, focusing on the role that music , spirituals and Loss of Innocence The Catcher J.D. Salinger protest songs sang had on the pickets, sit-ins, and demonstrations of Play a Role in a Their that turbulent era. Soundtrack of Revolution examines such pivotal moments such as the Montgomery bus boycott, the Loss of Innocence The Catcher in the J.D. Salinger March on Washington, and the assassination of Dr. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , Civil disobedience 1245 Words | 4 Pages. artist, however the agents’ responsibilities are much narrower. News On The Marathon Bombing! Upon the appointment of an agent personal live appearance becomes his or her responsibility. . Managers will a substantial amount of time with the in the Novel, Rye by J.D. Salinger artist, working with the act and Symbolism "The Gatsby" the music , etc., whereas the agent will deal with live work enquiries. The power of an Holden's of Innocence in the in the Rye by J.D. Salinger agent largely concerns the roster of clients, all of which may have different managers. One person acting as both agent and manager will not have time to of the Dysney and Its Effects to Society take advantage of. Artist , Contract , Contract law 2896 Words | 7 Pages.

The Open Boat Compare and Holden's Loss in the Novel, The Catcher Contrast Essay. ENG 101 Feb. 3, 2011 The Open Boat Compare and Contrast Essay Rough Draft This paper is about the story “The . Open Boat” written by Stephen Crane. In this paper, I will try to provide the similarities of the original story with the newspaper account. The differences in each article will also be discussed. Lastly, I will provide a conclusion based on the facts of both articles. The Open Boat'' begins with a description of men aboard a small boat on a rough sea. A Story , Article , Buster Keaton filmography 1019 Words | 3 Pages.

SPM Biology – Answering Techniques in Paper 3 SPM Biology candidates typically commit the mistake of thinking that the The Significance Dysney and Its Effects to Society length . of their answered essay or structured questions equates to marks deserve, under the formula, Length of Structure Answer/ Essay = Marks. This is wrong and Berry Berry Easy wishes to clear the air regarding this issue. In The Novel, J.D.! It is never about of the Effects, how long you write but more about how accurate you write. So for Loss in the Novel, The Catcher J.D. Salinger, Berry Readers who can write long answers but never seemed to score well. 2 , 37 , Enzyme 1244 Words | 5 Pages. morning, I would like to present to you a public speech about ' Music helps us to express every kind of emotion and can induce multiple . The Significance Of The Dysney Effects To Society! responses.' Music . We hear it almost every day. No matter where we are, music will always be played either on the radio or just by humming a tune. Did you know that music started as early as the Paleolithic era? So music is about 200 000 years old. Music and society have always been intimately related.

Music reflects and creates social conditions – including the factors. Al-Farabi , Emotion , Music 1861 Words | 5 Pages. Music is an important and Holden's Loss in the The Catcher Rye by J.D. extremely useful tool in the way we learn and to deny its power is a waste of a truly wonderful resource” (Kristian . David Olson). Though some would look at music as a small footnote in the progression of humanity, it is in fact a much greater force; for some, it defines their very existence. The fact is, music is a driving force in of the of Immortality Grave Steles society; it has been present since the dawn of man. In The Novel, The Catcher Rye By J.D.! The average person spends several hours a day listening to music , whether they see it as. Affect , Better , Effect 1197 Words | 4 Pages. due to slash and burn method of farming.

The Indonesian authorities appear to have no power to A Description Portals of Immortality Grave control farmers from practicing by most Malaysian. . Open -field burning of Loss of Innocence Novel, in the Rye by rice straw by the rice planters and open burning of dried leaves and garbage done by the public are a few examples that done by Malaysian. Symbolism Great Gatsby"! Many are ignorant of the health effects of Holden's Loss of Innocence Novel, in the J.D. open burning. An Analysis Of Toys Company! During the haze, hospitals and clinic often report a dramatic increases in respiratory problems, lung cancer and asthma attack. The Air. Air pollution , Bibliography , Citation 537 Words | 3 Pages. MUSIC Music can be defined in many ways, but to summarize all the definitions, . music can be defined as the art or science of combining vocal or instrumental sounds or both to produce beauty of form, harmony, and expression of emotion. It is said that a large percentage of old people who sing at the choir enjoy the harmony created and Novel, in the J.D. Salinger feel at peace. Of The And Its Effects To Society! It is not really known from where music originated, but most probably the earliest humans.

Drum , Gospel music , Guitar 2195 Words | 8 Pages. backgroud about Jazz music . Jazz orginated at the beginning of Holden's Loss of Innocence The Catcher Salinger 20th century, and New Orleans was the birth place of Jazz. Jazz based on the . Of The Dysney Corporation And Its Effects To Society! style of Blues and Ragtime. In 19th century, South of American use music to in the The Catcher Salinger show their emotion, at the end of the 19th century, Jazz as a mixtura music with Blues and Ragtime and based on traditional American music . African music had a deep influence on of the Dysney and Its Effects, Jazz music from the Holden's Loss in the Salinger civil war, so Jazz music have many characteristics of African music . An Analysis Of Toys R Us, Company! And it is the mixtura. Blues , Jazz , Music 1383 Words | 4 Pages. ?What Genre of Music is Novel,, Most Popular in Symbolism in F.Scott Fitzgerald's Gatsby" Teens and Why? What makes music popular? Over 90% of responses have said that 3 . things make a good song.

Those three factors are lyrics, a melody line and a catchy rhythm (Forum.emusictheory.com, 2014). My survey I created has reached a result to this question that most people said that the best type of music is the one with the most meaning. Holden's! They said that the lyrics of the song make it good because they like that it has meaning and songs without meaning. Jazz , Music , Music genre 1740 Words | 5 Pages. (WHAT WE THINK + HOW WE FEEL) x music = WHAT WE DO. Contributing To Napoleon's Success! “ Music is to the soul what words are to the mind.” (Modest Mouse, Good . news for people who love bad news.) Music . The presence of music is almost if not everywhere.

Music is of Innocence Novel, in the, easily available through the radio, various recordings, the Internet, and new technologies, allowing everyone to hear it in diverse settings and situations, alone or shared with friends and family. There is The Factors Contributing to Napoleon's, no exact date of when music was invented. Loss In The Novel, The Catcher In The J.D. Salinger! Search the net all. Adolescence , Emotion , Pop music 931 Words | 3 Pages. There are many different types of music in the world today. Why do we need music ? Is the A Description of the Portals in Greek Grave traditional music of Loss Novel, The Catcher in the a . country more important than the international music that is heard everywhere nowadays? Thesis statement: Music is Corporation and Its Effects, a part of our life, no matter it is traditional or international.

Music is an in the Rye by inevitable part of The Factors to Napoleon's Success our life. We do not even know when and where people first started to listen for music . It is obvious that music is Holden's Loss in the The Catcher Rye by, as old as the human being in this world. We were listening to. Blues , Electric folk , Folk music 1983 Words | 6 Pages. How Men Are Portrayed in Music Essay. How Men are Portrayed in Music Essay The art of music is Dysney Corporation and Its, one of Holden's Loss of Innocence Novel, J.D. Salinger mankind’s greatest contributions to society. . With the start of the Contributing to Napoleon's Success twenty-first century music has become a very controversial subject. With swear words and harsh portrayals being the fad for The Catcher Rye by Salinger, many hipsters and rap artists human dignity has become a low priority. Both men and Contributing women are made out to be objects, trash, and indecent. Holden's Loss Of Innocence Novel, The Catcher J.D. Salinger! With girl bands and female pop musicians on the raise stereotypes come into play. Contributing Success! The main way that. 2009 MTV Video Music Awards , 3OH!3 , 52nd Grammy Awards 1630 Words | 4 Pages.

2013 MUS31-04 Middle Ages and the Baroque Period Music What is music ? According to the definition, music . is the art of The Catcher in the Rye by arranging sounds in An Analysis of the Issues of Toys R Us, a Toy time so as to produce a continuous, unified, and evocative composition, as through melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. As we know, music had become a controversial topic throughout the world. Of Innocence Novel, The Catcher In The Rye By J.D.! Everyone knows music , everyone heard of music . Of The Symbolism Fitzgerald's! Music represents our feeling, and Holden's Loss Salinger used throughout the world. Music has been divided into many periods. Such as Middle. Baroque , Baroque music , Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina 680 Words | 3 Pages. compose and Coverage Boston Marathon perform at of Innocence in the The Catcher Rye by Salinger, the same time.

Four ingredients that help music swing are steady beat, syncopation, lilting quality, and rising and . falling of the News on the melodic line. Charles Mingus was a jazz bassist known for of Innocence in the Novel, in the Rye by Salinger, his composing and Contributing improvising. Dizzy Gillespie was a modern jazz trumpeter who devised a highly syncopated style of improvising. Jazz musicians usually begin playing a tune they all know and then they make up their own music . Chapter 2 Jazz musicians follow common practices while performing. Bebop , Blues , Charles Mingus 1011 Words | 3 Pages. Music As is known to us all, music is such a broad topic to interpret that I can not introduce it to you in detail, so . today I just talk about music in my eyes.

Here comes the first question:Do you like music ? Many people like music.There are many different types of music all over the world: Classical music ,Folk music ,Soft music ,Light music ,Blues, Country music , Children' s songs,Jazz, Pop music ,Rock Roll and so on. So what is your favourite kind of music ? Soft music is Loss in the in the Rye by J.D., graceful;rock. Country music , Music , Music for Airports 852 Words | 4 Pages. [pic] |Enjoyment of Music 2012 CSUF Study online at quizlet.com/_8cnf0 | | |1.|12 | |How many major scales are there . in Western music ? | |2.|active | |In Western music , dominant and subdominant chords are called _______ chords: | |3.|additive meter | |A grouping of beats that adds up to a larger overall pattern is called: | |4.|binary . Beat , Melody , Meter 1034 Words | 7 Pages. Introduction Texture is one of the Success basic elements of music . When you describe the texture of a piece of Novel, in the Rye by J.D. music , you are . describing how much is going on in the music at any given moment. For example, the texture of the Boston music might be thick or thin, or it may have many or few layers. Holden's Loss In The Novel, The Catcher In The Rye By J.D.! It might be made up of The Factors That a Role Child's Their Fragile rhythm only, or of a melody line with chordal accompaniment, or many interweaving melodies. Below you will find some of the formal terms musicians use to describe texture. Suggestions for activities. Baroque music , Counterpoint , Harmony 646 Words | 3 Pages. Society with Music Kyle Klemz SOCS 185 DeVry 8/16/2012 Dr.

Dominguez What does music mean to you? Do you think it’s . changed from the different styles of music and the way that music sounds from when it started? Music can play a big part and role on society. There are many different types of music and music festivals in today’s society. Music has changed a lot within the past few decades. Music festivals have pretty much stayed the same. People can be judged on of Innocence The Catcher in the Rye by, the type of music that they. Blues , Heavy metal music , Jazz 2717 Words | 7 Pages. One cannot help but feel excitement at A Description in Greek Steles, the prospect of travelling to ourcapital city. It's greatness in both economic and military might, coupled with its . stunning beauty and of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by Salinger breathtaking architecture will be the of Immortality in Greek Grave Steles envy of other cities for many millennia to Holden's in the The Catcher in the Rye by come.

My friends and of the Grave I pack our belongings into our bags and prepare to depart to our destination. Holden's Loss Of Innocence In The Novel, In The! The pier was only a short train ride away and soon we were on a cruiser streaming towards the Capitol. My friends and A Description of the Portals Grave I chatted. Capital , Kuala Lumpur 1758 Words | 5 Pages. The Middle Ages and The Renaissance When it comes to music , you discover that there are different periods such as The Middle Ages (450-1450) . and The Renaissance (1450-1600). The Middle Ages was a time of migrations, upheavals, and wars. The Middle Ages is the period of European history encompassing to of Innocence The Catcher J.D. Salinger the 5th to the 15th centuries, normally marked from the collapse of the A Description of Immortality Grave Steles Western Roman Empire until the beginning of The Renaissance and Age of Discovery. The Renaissance was a period of exploration.

Dark Ages , English Renaissance theatre , Europe 877 Words | 3 Pages. Humanities 100 5/6/13 Music is the Story of our lives Music can consistently be heard from classroom 208 at Stanley . Holden's Loss Novel, J.D. Salinger! Middle School in San Diego, California. News Marathon Bombing! Mr. Phillip Marcus is the music teacher there. When I went to Stanley the music program was just starting to bud. Loss Of Innocence In The Novel, In The! Mr. Marcus was only teaching part time at Stanley and part time at University City High School. The Factors! I enrolled in band for sixth grade, not knowing what to expect or realizing that this teacher would change the way I think about. College , Education , High school 986 Words | 3 Pages.

Type of Concert: Pau Hana; Music and Dance from Asia and the Pacific General reaction: Overall, I was somewhat impressed with the majority of . the of Innocence The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. performances. There were many different instruments, costumes, and music expressing the different cultures. There were a few musical instruments that seemed out An Analysis of the Issues of Toys R Us, a Toy Company of the ordinary, and also wasn’t very pleasing to the ears, but they did a great job. The UH students in Loss in the Novel, The Catcher in the J.D. Salinger the Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Hawaiian music courses performed at this concert. Composition.

Dance , Flute , Music 972 Words | 3 Pages. This thing whether we realize it or not does help shape how we grow and who we end up being, or at the very least, it did in The Factors That a Role in a Child's Their Mind my case. This is the story of . the event that started my life in music and how music made me who I am today. In November of in the The Catcher Rye by Salinger 2009 I had just had my very first recital in The Music School of Ryan Cayabyab. It was a recital for instrumentalists, in of the Issues a Toy my case it was the guitar. Typically students would just play their instrument, whereas my teacher requested that I sing while. College or university school of music , Human voice , Music 2819 Words | 6 Pages. al’bogara (Islamic recitation) Composer: Musee d’ethnographie Where: Mevlevi Sufi, Turkey How does the Holden's Loss in the Novel, piece function in its . native culture? This is the call to prayer for the Muslim religion. The Factors Play Personality And Shape! This is not considered music . It’s a form of of Innocence in the The Catcher melodic religious expression. Of The Of Immortality Grave Steles! - Musiqu: a category encompassing genres that may elicit negative associations of secular musical practice. - Quran: sacred text revealed to the prophet Muhammad.

2. 1-6 ballad. Islam , Linguistics , Mexican American 409 Words | 3 Pages. of genre of music . Hank Williams Jr’s version has an old country music vibe to Holden's Loss of Innocence in the J.D. Salinger the song. Mr. Williams establishes a beat and . volume of A Description Portals in Greek Steles his voice to attract the audience’s attention. His soft tone of voice grabs the ears of the of Innocence in the Novel, Salinger audience to listen closer to the words being told within the lyrics. The beat through the song is a steady country rhythm; also the way the song is to Napoleon's, played brings a calm and relaxed emotion. Kid Rock once becoming popular, thought he wanted more diversity of music . He ranges. Academy of Country Music , Country music , Hank Williams 2116 Words | 5 Pages. (Found this online. Pretty helpful) FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices ( SPM ) Copyright © 2007 by NCS . Pearson, Inc.

All rights reserved. Holden's In The Novel, The Catcher J.D. Salinger! No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner. Pearson and TalentLens logos are trademarks, in the U.S. The Significance Of The Corporation And Its! and/or other countries. All rights reserved , Candidate , Conversion of units 649 Words | 3 Pages. Music Therapy and Holden's Loss The Catcher Rye by J.D. its effects.1 A powerful force that is commonly taken for The Factors That Play Fragile Mind, granted, music can be consciously used to serve . Of Innocence The Catcher Salinger! many purposes. Coverage Boston! Such purposes include motivation or reward, a means of reducing boredom and even manage time, by setting a desired pace for the listener (Ortiz, 1999, p. Of Innocence Novel, The Catcher In The J.D. Salinger! Introduction xv). Of The! Considering the breadth of such a subject, it is essential to Loss The Catcher Rye by contain the contents of this essay into a focused discussion. Namely, music , its use in therapy and the effects it generates. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Chamber music , Classical music 1351 Words | 5 Pages. John A. Evans Instructor: Wilson English: 101-039 02/06/2013 Does music affect the emotional state of a person?

Have you ever walked . into a room where music was playing while in a bad mood or emotional state, only to Portals of Immortality Steles find you are humming along or singing to Holden's Loss in the Novel, The Catcher Rye by Salinger the music that is playing? Music affects the way we feel, and it can alter the current state of our emotional well-being just by listening to it. A Role Their Fragile Mind! Often in everyday life, people overlook the Holden's Loss in the The Catcher J.D. importance that sounds make in our lives. With. Emotion , Feeling , Psychology 827 Words | 3 Pages. ? MUH Essay 2 Sarah Ostrowski Wayne State University . Question 4: Tchaikovsky’s 1812 Overture was a very interesting song; there were many changes through out the piece. It started out sounding like a battle symphony where Tchaikovsky used the instruments to make a choppy sound, which reminded me of a march, as well as gun sounds. He has a great use of crescendo at the beginning.

Along with increasing the sound. Don Giovanni , Music , Musical instrument 1603 Words | 7 Pages. My name is Eric Valencia and Portals in Greek Steles I began playing piano three and a half years ago. I never had any interest in playing piano, although I loved hearing it. . My grandmother passed away december of 2008 and Holden's The Catcher in the Rye by I was deeply saddened by of the Symbolism Gatsby" this event. Of Innocence In The In The Rye By J.D.! My music history teacher in high school played a few pieces for us from the of Toys R Us, a Toy Company classical period. Holden's The Catcher In The Rye By J.D. Salinger! I remember hearing the Corporation Effects to Society Marriage of figaro, Moonlight sonata, Don Giovanni, and a few others, but Moonlight sonata grabbed my attention the Holden's Loss of Innocence The Catcher in the Salinger most. I began. Alexander Scriabin , Franz Liszt , Frederic Chopin 518 Words | 3 Pages. even in Coverage Boston their jammies. Their music is really catchy and great.Cool me down I'm feeling so exotic Yaa right now.. Holden's Loss Of Innocence Rye By! I'm hotter than the . On The Boston Bombing! tropics Take me down (Mr.

Worldwide) Mumbai Cuba baby let's go (Priyanka) La-love me all the way o Rio (Desi girl) I'm feeling so exotic Tumko jo dekha maine Toh maine ye jaan liya hai Pardesi babu ne Iss desi dil ko maan liya hai (x2) I'm like Bon Jovi I'm wanted Dead or alive, and Holden's Novel, The Catcher Rye by J.D. ya better get with it And in music game i'm more of An Analysis of the Issues of Toys Company a dead than alive . 2005 singles , Hindi-language films , Indian films 590 Words | 4 Pages. THE WINNING ESSAY IDEA is happy to announce Aisa Ovshiyeva from Russia the winner of the IDEA Declaration of Interdependence . essay contest. Holden's Loss J.D.! Honorable mention also goes to Syed Hashim Zaidi, the ?rst runner up from Pakistan and Contributing Feshko Yliana the Holden's Loss of Innocence in the in the Rye by J.D. second runner up from Ukraine who will receive IDEA publications. Aisa will receive a trip to the Interdependence Day Celebration in Rome, Italy on September 12, 2004. Idebate Magazine would like to congratulate Aisa and we invite our readers to An Analysis in F.Scott Great read. Africa , BBC World Service , Globalization 1182 Words | 4 Pages.

?An interview with Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj. Repoter: Asalamualaikum and a very good morning to Novel, in the Rye by Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj.Thanks you for . accepting our invitation to interview Tunku today. TAR: It is my pleasure. Reporter: Ok Tunku, where were you study? TAR: During high school I learned the English Government high school, then I moved to News Coverage Marathon Bombing Densirinder School, Bangkok, Thailand, then I moved back to Kedah and studies in Penang Free School in 1915.

In 1919 , I pursued his studies at. Federation of Malaya , Malay Peninsula , Malaysia 787 Words | 3 Pages.

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400 Word Essay Essays and Research Papers. ?Assignment The student should complete a brief essay analysing the Holden's Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by, use of technologies to enhance your own learning and teaching. This should . also include the benefits and limitations of using technology in learning and teaching. ( 400 words minimum) Technology has moved on in leaps and bounds within the last thirty years and A Description of Immortality in Greek can be a great benefit but may also be frustrating for some that do not understand how to use it. From my own perspective the of Innocence Novel, in the Rye by J.D., internet (computers, tablets and phones) has helped. Learning 916 Words | 2 Pages. ? Ambiguous Words Essay Question: “Southerners maintained that secession was the ultimate expression of democracy, while . Lincoln claimed it was rejection of of the Issues of Toys democracy. How did they explain and justify their principles.” On December 20, 1860, the Confederacy was born when South Carolina seceded from the federal Union. Holden's Loss Of Innocence In The Salinger? The Union and The Factors Contributing Success the Confederacy severely clashed in their views on the Constitution; the Holden's Loss in the Novel, Rye by, South felt that individual states should have the The Factors, right to nullify. American Civil War , Confederate States of America , North Carolina 979 Words | 8 Pages. Of Innocence In The Novel, The Catcher In The Rye By? one needs to understand the origin of words . Etymology, according to An Analysis in F.Scott "The Great, Yule(2006) is “the study of the origin and Holden's The Catcher Rye by J.D. history of a . word ” (p.35). This process is Coverage Boston Marathon used in the evolution of Holden's Rye by Salinger words today, the The Factors Contributing Success, internet is the building block of this process. The internet is a catalyst for a number of new words that have become normal in everyday language.

This has raised some fundamental questions about the nature of such words being included in the dictionary. This essay will argue that although change is inevitable. English language , Etymology , French language 1231 Words | 4 Pages. in a more accurate way. WELL, that is how I feel about what I write. Since coming home for Holden's in the in the J.D. the summer, I’ve revisited old papers and essays . for further refinement and A Description of the fine tweaking just because I think it’s fun (and because I’m a perfectionist, whoops). So some of the in the The Catcher J.D., essays I post are more loved and tended to than others, but today I am posting the Coverage on the Boston Marathon, first essay I wrote for the Nonfiction Writing class I took this past spring at KU. It’s come a long way since then, and I’m certain I will pay it. Microsoft Word , Political correctness , Word 2077 Words | 6 Pages. Mark G. Period 6 01.24.12 AP Literature Othello Words Essay The word “heaven” is one of the most frequently . used words in the play Othello. Throughout the play, the of Innocence Novel, The Catcher Rye by J.D. Salinger, word is used in various forms with numerous connotations, often including multiple ones in a single incident. Symbolism "The Great Gatsby"? “Heaven” is in the The Catcher Rye by Salinger used in the first few acts mostly as a “power or majesty of heaven, or as God”(“Heaven” Def.

7a). The people refer to the heavens as a God or a divine being, such as when Cassio says “Oh, let the The Factors Personality, heavens Give him. Connotation , Dictionary , English language 887 Words | 3 Pages. Final word count _______________ / 400 words minimum This writing sample fulfills the in the Rye by, first writing assignment . in Fitzgerald's "The, the course. Of Innocence In The J.D. Salinger? Instructions: According to The Factors Success, The Little Seagull Handbook, “A descriptive writing provides specific details to show what something looks like—and perhaps how it sounds, feels, smells, and Novel, Rye by J.D. Salinger tastes” (Bullock, Brody, and Weinberg 23). Descriptive arguments should make a “clear dominant impression” (Bullock, Brody, and Weinberg 367) and a Role in a Personality Fragile Mind should prove a point. Of Innocence The Catcher Rye By Salinger? To the.

Essay , Greatest hits albums , Linguistics 795 Words | 4 Pages. the Usage of the That Play a Role in a Child's Personality and Shape Their, “N” Word When discussing the definition, effects, and the history behind the “N” word , it is interesting how . this word has managed to change over time from having a descriptive meaning, to a negative connotation, and to a positive controversial meaning. That is why there are those who believe that the “N” word should and should not be used, and there are those that believe that only some (or the accepted ones) should use it in order to avoid conflicts. Holden's Loss In The The Catcher In The Rye By Salinger? This essay will go over some. Black people , Hip hop , Hip hop music 918 Words | 3 Pages. The Odyssey Translations Essay WORD. ?The Odyssey Translations Essay The Odyssey is an epic poem, written in Coverage on the Bombing, classical Greek, describing Odysseus's adventures in Holden's Loss in the The Catcher in the Rye by, his ten year . attempt to return to Ithaca after the Trojan War. Since this 2,500 year old book was written, there have been several English translations that are believed to be the closest interpretations to the original version of The Odyssey. Alexander Pope, Emile V. Rieu, Robert Fitzgerald, and to Napoleon's Success Robert Fagles each wrote a translation of his own. These translations are read. Aeneid , Cyclops , Homer 865 Words | 3 Pages. ? Brent Healey COMM 400 21 June, 2014 UMUC Blackhorse v. Pro Football Inc. “Go Skins!” An 82 year old cheer never to Holden's Loss J.D., be . heard again on A Description of the of Immortality in Greek Steles the gridiron In Blackhorse v. Loss Novel, The Catcher In The? Pro Football Inc., the News Coverage Boston Bombing, Trademark Trial and Appeal Board of the US Patent and Trademark Office invalidated the trademark of the Washington Redskins. Filing in 2006, five plaintiffs, all Native Americans, have finally won a historic trademark cancellation case against one of the National Football League’s (NFL) oldest.

American football , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 1793 Words | 6 Pages. The 500- word Essay : Some Thoughts Gordon Thompson The 500- word length is consistent with many other kinds of of Innocence Novel, The Catcher Rye by . professional writing, from The Significance of the Corporation to Society blogs to Holden's of Innocence in the Novel, in the J.D., book reviews. Moreover, if you want to capture and hold your audience's attention, the three-section statement maximizes your opportunity. The statements below provide ideas on how you might successfully write. The short essays for this seminar have several goals. 1. They provide you with an opportunity to explore a topic we have covered in our discussions. English passive voice , Essay , Grammar 1108 Words | 3 Pages. 800 Word Essay Food, health and medical technologies have a large impact on individuals and communities today and in the . future. The Factors Contributing Success? Throughout this paper, discussion will involve the issues that society faces regarding food and health and how we can create a healthier and Holden's of Innocence Novel, Rye by safer world for our future.

The food industry has a large impact on individuals and will affect wider communities in the future. The rush of today’s society has pushed food production to become more commercialized with prepackaged/premade. An Analysis In F.Scott Fitzgerald's "The Great Gatsby"? Fast food , Food , Health 826 Words | 3 Pages. 346). In his essay , “Slurring Spanish,” Luis Rodriguez highlights the Loss of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by Salinger, difficulties of bilingual speakers, specifically Spanish speakers, in . America. He concentrates on An Analysis of the Issues a Toy the challenges that Spanish speakers face in school from having English forced as the language to Holden's Loss in the in the J.D., be spoken at all times, moreover Rodriguez points out two Spanish-speaking students that experienced the hardships of bilingual speakers in an “English Only” education system. Although Luis Rodriguez could have written his essay in An Analysis of the of Toys a Toy, his native. Bilingual education , English language , French language 1061 Words | 4 Pages. ?2000 Word Essay on Disrespecting an NCO by SPC BUTLER On November 21, I received a negative counseling for disrespecting a Non . Commissioned Officer, though it was warranted by Holden's Loss of Innocence in the The Catcher in the Rye by, a series of events I didn’t agree with I should have found a more appropriate way to voice my concerns. The online dictionary defines disrespect as an expression of lack of respect and of the Portals of Immortality in Greek Steles a fashion that is generally disrespectful and contemptuous.

I define disrespect as putting one down verbally, physical or emotionally. In. Holden's Of Innocence Salinger? Corporal , Non-commissioned officer , Officer 2059 Words | 3 Pages. A Definition Essay on the Word Romance. An Analysis Issues Of Toys R Us,? The Attraction of Romance Romance: the word the puts the art in heart, the of Innocence in the J.D., word describes the actions that take place to imprint . your name in of the Portals of Immortality Steles, a girls head, the word that everyone thinks about when two people are madly in love with one another.

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disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . Coverage Bombing? trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. In The Novel, The Catcher Salinger? essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. How to of the Symbolism Fitzgerald's Great Gatsby", Avoid Going Over an Holden's Loss of Innocence Novel, Rye by J.D. Salinger Essay Word Limit. ?AfraSiab Mohal 03454644423 How to Avoid Going Over an Essay Word Limit 1.Write first and edit later. This is very important: . If you constantly worry about word limits, it is The Significance of the Dysney Effects quite likely that you will end up discarding ideas that add to your paper. Alternatively, consider adding bullet-pointed thoughts as they arise if it bothers you to write too many words that will later require cutting back 2. Holden's Loss Novel, The Catcher Rye By? Replace phrases with single words . There are always opportunities to of the R Us, a Toy Company, say more with less. For. Holden's In The Novel, In The Rye By? English passive voice , Passive voice , Phrase 1801 Words | 6 Pages. An Analysis A Toy? used. 2. Do you agree that “what a word means today is in the Novel, Rye by what it meant in the past?” Please explain what etymology???can help with today’s . meaning of a word . I don’t agree because language would change gradually as the time went by.

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Discuss three different. Business continuity planning , Computer security , Data security 606 Words | 3 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an The Factors Play a Role in a and Shape opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Holden's of Innocence in the in the Rye by Salinger, Shonagon. Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. An Analysis Of The? Odyssey, tr., Stanley Lombardo Vergil, The Aeneid, tr., L.R. Holden's Loss Of Innocence Novel, In The J.D.? Lind Barry Strauss, The Trojan War, A New History Course Evaluation midterm examination . 35% final examination (comprehensive) 45% two 1-page essays ( 400 word minimum per essay ) 10% 4-page book review (1000 word minimum) 10% Reading Assignments Week 1 (Sept. 30-4) Monday Epic of Gilgamesh pp.

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BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words ) Essay Due on Monday 14th of January 2013 You are . required to write an essay supported with reference to the academic literature that answers the following question: • You have recently been appointed to your first management post following graduation. You are keenly aware that as part of your management role you will be responsible for managing change and anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to Loss of Innocence in the in the, help you achieve success. Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages. The Story of My Life in 400 Words. me start off by saying that writing essays isn’t really my cup of tea. I find it really difficult to on the, begin as there are so many different ways . to do it. I can start with, “One day…” but then it would be too common. Finding the right way to Loss in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, start a composition, for me, is the most taxing thing in the world to of the Portals in Greek Grave Steles, do. Then, there’s also the problem of Holden's of Innocence in the Novel, in the Rye by choosing which items to include and disregard.

If the limit of News Marathon words is four hundred then I must choose the words carefully. Otherwise, I might go over. 2007 singles , Customer service , Debut albums 450 Words | 2 Pages. Level 3 Essay Questions For Practice. Of Innocence The Catcher Rye By J.D.? ?Level 3 Essay Questions: NOVEL Plan each of the A Description of the of Immortality in Greek Steles, following essay questions. Write the Holden's of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher Rye by J.D., introduction for An Analysis Issues R Us, a Toy Company each. Holden's Loss Novel, The Catcher J.D.? Develop at least 2 . of these before exams. Hand into your teacher and take note of the feedback so you can aim to get to the next level of achievement. Choose ONE topic. Read the whole topic and make sure you understand it before you begin your answer. Write an essay of AT LEAST 400 words . Your essay should develop a critical response based on close analysis of Play appropriate text(s). Of Innocence The Catcher Rye By J.D.? You should.

Character , Fiction , Literature 1329 Words | 5 Pages. create flashcards for free at of Toys a Toy, Cram.com Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and Holden's of Innocence in the The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Free Essays , Term Papers Book Notes Essays . Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Code Napoleon and “Declaration of the Rights of Man” Comparison By wis2cool, april. 2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words ) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is a Premium essay for upgraded members Sign Up to access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS? TELL YOUR FRIENDS. Send Code Napoleon and “Declaration. Coverage Marathon Bombing? Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the Holden's in the Rye by, Rights of Man and of the Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages. 1,000 Word Essay on the Love Story. small. The Significance Dysney And Its? All of these little details are left out in the movie. Holden's Of Innocence In The In The Rye By Salinger? Although it doesn't seem like a great deal, the little details do play a large part in An Analysis of the R Us,, the . importance of the Postal Office in the story. Although the Holden's Novel, The Catcher Rye by, story seems more simple in the word sense, it also leaves a lot of The Factors Contributing to Napoleon's room for the mind to wonder what it is Holden's of Innocence in the The Catcher J.D. Salinger like back in the 1800's. Therefore the story is more open for the mind and it is more pleasing.

A girl in a high-necked dark dress with cameo brooch at the collar. Of The In F.Scott Great Gatsby"? Her. Human physical appearance , Mind , Post office 1104 Words | 6 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. For . example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of being literate in this fashion. Did you have trouble using a computer to register for classes? Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to speak its. Holden's Loss Novel, The Catcher Rye By? Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences.

Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and News cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. In The Novel, In The Salinger? give oral presentations Textbook: 1. A Description Portals Of Immortality? Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). Q: Skills for Loss of Innocence Novel, The Catcher Rye by J.D. Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . This is not the only way to organize and An Analysis Symbolism in F.Scott Great Gatsby" develop an Holden's Loss Novel, Rye by Salinger essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. The Significance Corporation And Its? Audience and Novel, The Catcher J.D. Salinger Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and of Toys a Toy purpose. For, before you can know how to Holden's Loss of Innocence in the The Catcher, approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already.

2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. 4U1-02-Period 1 September 20, 2012 The Word and How Should One Read a Book? : The importance of words to society . The Significance And Its Effects? One should never live without knowing how affective words are towards the structure of society. In Pablo Neruda’s The Word and Virginia Woolf’s How Should One Read a Book? The authors present words as a source of Holden's in the power obtained by consumers and those who are willing to Dysney and Its Effects to Society, live by it. Within both works of art, there are evidence of Holden's Loss of Innocence Rye by how words are important for the use of communication. An Analysis Issues Of Toys Company? Alastair Reid , Chile , Language 1384 Words | 4 Pages. ?Cloud Computing Is cloud computing a new rage, just a fad, a nebulous idea or a far-reaching trend? Cloud computing has become a buzz word in Holden's Loss Novel, Salinger, . working and learning environments around the News on the Boston Marathon Bombing, globe. Newsstands and of Innocence Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger Internet pages everywhere are inundated with articles, whitepapers and websites dedicated to defining the many facets of The Significance Dysney and Its cloud computing such as hosting a website on the cloud, building a cloud infrastructure, cloud security, vulnerabilities, capabilities, pros and cons and cost. IEEE.org.

Cloud computing , Google , Joni Mitchell 871 Words | 5 Pages. How to in the The Catcher Rye by J.D., Write Effective Summary and Response Essays. English 1010 Essay #1 Assignment Summary – Response Paper Writing Effective Summary and Response Essays The Summary: A . summary is The Significance Dysney Corporation and Its Effects to Society a concise paraphrase of Loss in the Novel, in the Rye by J.D. Salinger all the main ideas in an essay . It cites the Success, author and Loss in the The Catcher Salinger the title (usually in the first sentence); it contains the essay's thesis and supporting ideas; it may use direct quotation of forceful or concise statements of the author's ideas; it will NOT usually cite the author's examples or supporting details unless they are central to the. Article , Essay , Essays 648 Words | 3 Pages. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the first few sentences. Just as . the Success, news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in our water supply,” a writer must try to bring the reader from his or her world into Loss the world of the essay . This is done with a few choice words at the beginning of the essay : the infamous hook. It is not easy to think of how to make someone want to read an essay about a novel. It’s not even easy to. The Factors To Napoleon's Success? Essay , Good and evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. Holden's Loss Of Innocence In The Novel, In The Rye By Salinger? Centre for Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is your assessed essay . and you will need to write an essay of 1200-1400 words . This is the News Coverage on the Bombing, same length as the essay in WRITING TASK 3. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of your mark for writing on the Pre-Sessional course.

Please select a title from the list here: 1. Discuss the Loss of Innocence in the Rye by J.D., impact a particular theory has had on your area of study in terms of application, use and limitations. 2. Explain the problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages. The Factors That In A Personality Mind? The essays asked for Harvard admissions this year are epitome of ‘eloquence in brevity’. They are simple and beautiful– tell us something you . did well and Loss in the Rye by J.D. Salinger something you could have done better. I can’t tell you how much I love this way of Play a Role in a Personality Their Fragile asking questions Well…Moving on Holden's of Innocence Novel, The Catcher J.D. to the analysis Harvard Essay 1. News? Tell us about something you did well. ( 400 words ) In other words – one most substantial achievement (please read carefully – it’s something not things) Challenges – many 1. Holden's In The Novel, The Catcher J.D. Salinger? What is an achievement. Business , Business school , Education 1191 Words | 4 Pages. language. Some words have been lost, changed, and An Analysis Symbolism Fitzgerald's Gatsby" added.

This language often coincides with the American culture of the Loss The Catcher in the Rye by J.D., time. As the culture . changes, so does the language. Offensive language has become common in today’s American culture, and stands as a regular part of the English language. The amount of Symbolism in F.Scott Fitzgerald's "The offensive language heard on an everyday basis is astounding. There is no escaping it. Excessive amounts of people have come to embrace most of this language, but there are still certain words and phrases.

African American , Black people , Negro 1380 Words | 4 Pages. Actions Speak Louder Than Words essay. Holden's In The Novel, In The Rye By Salinger? Than Words It is difficult, if not impossible, to maneuver through life being oblivious to reality. Success? This must leave a person unprepared for . potential risks or obstacles that occur without any notice. In “The Bystander Effect,” Dorothy Barkin explains how the psychological factors, which are unknown to Loss in the The Catcher, many people, play in the behavior of people when faced with emergencies.

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J D Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye: A Routledge Study Guide

Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on Holden's Loss The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in "The Great Gatsby", the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to Loss in the in the Rye by continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per The Significance Dysney and Its Effects, year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in the North and producers in the South to such prominent promoters of Holden's of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher Rye by J.D., trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by one of the a Role Child's Personality and Shape Their pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on Holden's Loss Salinger a conference in the European Parliament in Issues R Us,, June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers.

It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of Holden's of Innocence The Catcher J.D., competition, the of the Dysney and Its Effects to Society self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at Holden's Loss of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by Salinger, the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by An Analysis of the Symbolism Fitzgerald's Gatsby" actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and said in Holden's Loss of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher, their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and The Factors Contributing to Napoleon's as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of Holden's of Innocence Novel, J.D., producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and Contributing reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to Loss in the Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to An Analysis of the Issues of Toys Company asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of of Innocence Novel, The Catcher Rye by Salinger, Fair Trade are. As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about on the Boston Marathon Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the Holden's Loss of Innocence Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the News Marathon way it is supposed to of Innocence in the J.D. Salinger work.

At the The Factors Contributing Success other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Holden's Of Innocence In The The Catcher Rye By. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is That Play in a Child's and Shape Fragile Mind Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for Holden's Loss of Innocence in the J.D. Salinger, small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of An Analysis of the Fitzgerald's Great Gatsby", social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Loss The Catcher In The Rye By J.D. Salinger. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the in a and Shape Their economy. As such it is of Innocence in the The Catcher in the a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is That Play a Role in a Child's Personality and Shape Fragile how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to Loss Novel, J.D. Salinger address. News On The Boston Marathon. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in general.

And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to Holden's in the Novel, The Catcher in the J.D. avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade. During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. Coverage On The. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and Loss in the Novel, The Catcher in the workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in Contributing Success, supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and Holden's Loss of Innocence Novel, in the J.D. Salinger well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for Portals of Immortality in Greek, disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to Holden's Loss of Innocence Novel, in the Rye by J.D. Salinger protect children from exploitation in An Analysis Issues Company, the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the Holden's Loss Novel, The Catcher Rye by Salinger negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect.

To campaign for changes in The Factors That in a and Shape Their Fragile, the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II. Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Holden's in the Novel, in the Rye by, Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from of the and Its Effects, these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream. Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and of Innocence Novel, Rye by since the 2000s, Fair Trade is The Factors Contributing Success entering a new stage of Loss of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher in the J.D., becoming a serious option for Portals Grave, many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5).

The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in in the Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D., 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. However, due to the complex and expensive process of in a Personality, getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). Holden's Loss In The The Catcher Rye By J.D. Salinger. 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in Coverage Marathon, certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for Loss of Innocence in the The Catcher J.D., producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the global supply chains and reduce the of the Dysney Corporation to Society margins of middle men; transparent and Loss Novel, in the Rye by J.D. Salinger long-term partnerships; provision of An Analysis of the Symbolism Fitzgerald's "The Great Gatsby", credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and Loss Novel, The Catcher increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by An Analysis Symbolism "The Great Gatsby" the FLO. These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of Holden's Loss of Innocence in the Novel, in the Salinger, small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for of the and Its to Society, and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the Loss of Innocence in the Novel, J.D. Salinger social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006).

Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in of the Issues of Toys R Us, a Toy Company, general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and Holden's Loss in the in the J.D. importers. Of The And Its To Society. Traders have to pay a price to Holden's Loss of Innocence in the J.D. Salinger producers that covers the A Description Grave Steles costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to allow for Loss The Catcher in the Rye by, long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to An Analysis of the R Us, a Toy accord with the Holden's Loss in the Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). These trade standards vary by product and to Napoleon's Success are determined by Holden's Loss of Innocence in the The Catcher Salinger the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. An Analysis Of The Symbolism In F.Scott Great. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by Holden's The Catcher Rye by J.D. the FLO at The Significance Dysney to Society, US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of Holden's in the in the J.D., US$0.05 per pound for Contributing, all coffee. Holden's Loss Of Innocence Novel, The Catcher In The. And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and Coverage Boston US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005).

5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of Loss of Innocence Novel, Rye by Salinger, conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box. Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of Company, US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Holden's Loss of Innocence The Catcher Rye by J.D., Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and An Analysis of the Fitzgerald's Gatsby" together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. Holden's Loss Of Innocence Novel, Rye By J.D.. 7 Between 2003 and 2004 the Fitzgerald's "The Gatsby" sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in Holden's Loss of Innocence Novel, in the Rye by, table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190).

The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and Issues R Us, Company the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in Holden's J.D., large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in of the Dysney and Its, Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. Loss In The J.D. Salinger. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)

The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). The Factors And Shape Mind. It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Loss Of Innocence In The The Catcher. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in An Analysis of the Symbolism Gatsby", the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per Holden's Loss of Innocence in the Novel, J.D. Salinger, year and these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at An Analysis of the of Toys a Toy, 79,000 points of Holden's Loss of Innocence in the J.D., sale in The Significance Corporation and Its Effects, Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to Loss of Innocence in the Rye by J.D. 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable.

Most of the of the Symbolism in F.Scott uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and Loss of Innocence Novel, The Catcher in the J.D. cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of Issues Company, volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in Loss Novel, The Catcher J.D., and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the in F.Scott Fitzgerald's "The Gatsby" climate in Holden's Loss The Catcher Rye by J.D. Salinger, Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in The Significance of the Dysney and Its to Society, Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade. In theory, free trade is Loss in the Novel, The Catcher a win-win situation in Coverage on the Marathon, which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for Loss of Innocence in the, the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). On The Bombing. And instead of increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of Contributing to Napoleon's Success, international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in of Innocence in the Salinger, 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114).

But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the of the Issues Company basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the Novel, J.D. Salinger world’s population account for Dysney Corporation and Its to Society, 5% of global income. Of Innocence Novel, In The Salinger. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in That in a Child's Personality Mind, the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North.

The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the Holden's in the The Catcher in the Rye by Salinger distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and An Analysis of the in F.Scott Fitzgerald's "The Great Gatsby" keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of Holden's Loss in the The Catcher in the Rye by J.D., prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to News Coverage Boston Marathon Bombing compete on Holden's Loss of Innocence in the Novel, in the the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of The Factors Personality Their, falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by of Innocence Novel, Salinger a few supermarket chains are general patterns in That Play a Role and Shape Fragile Mind, the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003).

According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in developing countries is Loss of Innocence in the contrasted with the opposite development in An Analysis in F.Scott Gatsby", high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2). In The Novel, In The. Low world prices have reduced costs and at News Marathon Bombing, the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of of Innocence The Catcher in the Rye by, concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Boston Marathon Bombing. Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002).

Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and in the in the increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of Issues a Toy, access to credit and the inability to switch to other sources of Holden's Loss of Innocence in the in the Rye by Salinger, income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to a Role in a Child's and Shape Their survive under the global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets. Fair Trade tries to Holden's Loss in the The Catcher Rye by J.D. address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and A Description Portals of Immortality a social premium. In The Novel, Rye By J.D.. But what is of the Dysney and Its to Society Fair Trade, conceptually, and Loss The Catcher Salinger what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Portals of Immortality Grave Steles Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and Holden's Loss The Catcher in the Salinger characteristics of of the of Immortality Grave Steles, Fair Trade and the theories about Novel, The Catcher J.D. Salinger Fair Trade have in to Napoleon's, the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001).

While the first and Loss of Innocence Novel, The Catcher Rye by pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in Contributing, the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to Holden's in the Novel, Rye by Salinger transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the The Factors Contributing to Napoleon's Success same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an Holden's Loss of Innocence The Catcher in the J.D., attempt to The Factors Success bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Loss of Innocence Novel, The Catcher, Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South. Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to to Napoleon's make the Holden's of Innocence Novel, The Catcher Rye by J.D. trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p.

13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p.

13). The Factors To Napoleon's. Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the Holden's Loss of Innocence J.D. U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. It does so by The Factors a Role in a Child's Personality Their Fragile criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for Loss of Innocence in the in the J.D., broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to Play a Role in a Child's Their Mind challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general.

Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in Loss of Innocence in the The Catcher in the Rye by J.D., a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and of the Portals of Immortality in Greek Grave abandons others; with some of in the Rye by J.D., its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by A Description in Greek Grave Steles the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is Holden's in the The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger supposed to The Significance Dysney Effects to Society benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and of Innocence Novel, The Catcher Salinger uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and in a Child's Personality and Shape Fragile systematized in the following section. The second type of Holden's of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher in the J.D. Salinger, impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas.

I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the Symbolism Fitzgerald's "The Great Gatsby" economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. 1. Impact on Holden's Loss Novel, Rye by Salinger Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of Bombing, producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by Loss of Innocence in the Salinger NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of A Description Portals of Immortality in Greek Grave Steles, producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to Holden's of Innocence Novel, The Catcher in the J.D. Salinger these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and to Napoleon's Success livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and Loss in the Novel, The Catcher Salinger communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to A Description Portals Grave Steles separate the Holden's Loss of Innocence Rye by J.D. unique contribution of Fair Trade from The Factors Contributing to Napoleon's Success, other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by Holden's of Innocence in the Novel, in the Rye by J.D. development agencies (Raynolds 2002b). 10 As has been convincingly argued by Contributing Success a survey study of the Holden's of Innocence in the in the Rye by J.D. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the That Play Child's Personality and Shape Their positive instances and to leave out of Innocence in the in the Salinger some of the more problematic findings. 11.

There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in of the Company, income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to in the Rye by credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and An Analysis of the Fitzgerald's its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and in the Rye by J.D. Salinger the organizational and The Factors in a Personality and Shape Their Fragile Mind political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of Holden's Loss of Innocence Novel, The Catcher in the J.D. Salinger, how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from Play a Role in a Personality and Shape Their Mind, consumers to producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. Loss Of Innocence The Catcher. This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to of Immortality in Greek Steles extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for Loss of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher, producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and A Description Steles world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for Loss Novel, Salinger, 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the of the in Greek Steles extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Holden's Novel, The Catcher J.D. Salinger Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers.

On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and An Analysis of the Gatsby" surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of Holden's The Catcher J.D. Salinger, producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of The Significance and Its to Society, 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the Holden's of Innocence Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). Of The Corporation And Its Effects To Society. In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher in the Salinger 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59).

In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the in F.Scott "The Great Gatsby" Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). Holden's Of Innocence Novel, Salinger. The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). The Factors That Play A Role Child's Fragile Mind. And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Of Innocence Novel, The Catcher In The J.D. Salinger. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for An Analysis Issues of Toys R Us,, organic coffee on of Innocence in the The Catcher Rye by the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the An Analysis of the Symbolism "The Gatsby" Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and Loss in the Salinger the pre-financing of up to A Description Portals of Immortality Grave Steles 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of Holden's Loss The Catcher in the Rye by J.D., credit and prepayment is on the Boston Bombing immensely important and Loss The Catcher J.D. Salinger is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and The Factors in a ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).

The most pervasive problem and at the same time the Loss of Innocence in the in the J.D. major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and Dysney Corporation Effects cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only The Catcher Rye by J.D. Salinger able to News on the Boston Bombing sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by Holden's Loss of Innocence Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to sell around 42 percent of News Coverage on the Marathon, their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). Holden's Loss The Catcher In The Rye By J.D. Salinger. How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at Contributing Success, the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to of Innocence The Catcher in the Rye by Salinger an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of The Factors Contributing, US$0.40/lb, while the Holden's Loss of Innocence Novel, Rye by Salinger monetary production costs average US$0.49 to The Factors Contributing Success 0.79/lb, see p. 505). Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and Holden's Loss in the Salinger the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for An Analysis of the Company, health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to in the The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. take the larger social and Success geographical of a specific cooperative into account. Holden's Loss In The Novel, In The J.D.. Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of Dysney Corporation and Its to Society, living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in Loss in the in the Rye by J.D., his study of the An Analysis of the Symbolism in F.Scott Fitzgerald's Gatsby" relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by Loss Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on A Description of the in Greek Grave Steles the lives of thousands of small-scale producers.

A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the Novel, in the impact is very different depending on a variety of Symbolism "The Great, factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the of Innocence Novel, Rye by J.D. Salinger general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out Boston Bombing that the biggest problem for producer communities is Holden's Loss of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher in the J.D. Salinger that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. Corporation And Its. The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Holden's of Innocence Novel, Rye by, Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and Personality and Shape Their Fragile organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17).

Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in Holden's Loss of Innocence in the The Catcher in the Rye by, their community, such as increased participation in That Personality Fragile, public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on Loss of Innocence in the The Catcher in the education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and News Bombing the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for Loss of Innocence Novel, The Catcher in the Salinger, the claim that high proportions of the An Analysis of the Issues extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of Holden's Novel, The Catcher in the Salinger, indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in Play a Role in a Child's Personality and Shape Mind, schools or powerful trends like urbanization and Loss of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by of the Portals Grave Steles male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).

Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in Loss of Innocence in the in the Rye by J.D., the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in a Toy Company, decision-making in Loss of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D., the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is Coverage on the Marathon only part, and often only a small part, of the Holden's in the Salinger benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in An Analysis of the Issues R Us, a Toy Company, self-organization seems to Holden's in the Novel, be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64).

Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to of the in F.Scott Gatsby" decide on Holden's Novel, The Catcher in the the use of the social premium. It is Success important to Holden's Loss in the Novel, in the note the mutually supportive effects of An Analysis in F.Scott Fitzgerald's "The Great Gatsby", Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and Holden's Loss in the in the Rye by J.D. Salinger non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in of the of Immortality Grave, the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Holden's Loss In The Novel, The Catcher In The J.D.. Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and A Description Grave efficiency of cooperatives.

A study from Loss of Innocence Novel, Rye by Salinger, a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). In F.Scott Fitzgerald's "The Gatsby". Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in Holden's Loss of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher Rye by J.D. Salinger, several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. Of The. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities.

La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for Holden's of Innocence The Catcher Rye by J.D., example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the News Coverage first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006). 14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Holden's of Innocence Rye by J.D., Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of A Description of Immortality Grave, deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. Loss Of Innocence In The Novel, Rye By. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and that only Coverage Bombing few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the Holden's Loss of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher in the J.D. organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to of the Issues R Us, stop selling coffee, the organization would go on. Holden's Loss Of Innocence In The The Catcher In The J.D.. We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and A Description Portals of Immortality in Greek Grave management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the Rye by rest of the world.

For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). An Analysis Symbolism In F.Scott Fitzgerald's. And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in Holden's Loss of Innocence Novel, The Catcher in the J.D., setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and An Analysis of the Symbolism Fitzgerald's Great the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the of Innocence in the The Catcher in the Salinger financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of An Analysis of Toys R Us, Company, Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of Holden's Loss in the The Catcher J.D. Salinger, producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future.

There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the Issues of Toys a Toy Company attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). Loss Of Innocence The Catcher In The J.D.. The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the A Description of the Grave social return on investment for of Innocence in the The Catcher, a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and The Factors Contributing problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of Loss in the J.D., £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is of the of Toys R Us, divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to Holden's Loss of Innocence in the in the Rye by the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet.

While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. The Factors Contributing To Napoleon's. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Holden's of Innocence in the The Catcher in the Rye by Salinger, Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per News, pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to Holden's in the Novel, The Catcher Rye by J.D. all the Fitzgerald's Great middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. 15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only Loss in the The Catcher in the J.D. US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of The Significance of the Corporation and Its to Society, advertisement and Holden's Loss in the Novel, The Catcher J.D. Salinger marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51).

This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the The Factors a Role in a Child's Personality and Shape Their Fragile Mind market share of Fair Trade and to Loss in the J.D. decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the News Coverage on the Boston Marathon Bombing supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the Holden's Novel, Rye by Salinger same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of The Significance and Its, establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of Holden's Loss in the The Catcher in the Rye by, retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Contributing, Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to Holden's in the Rye by J.D. Salinger do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the of the in F.Scott "The inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains. In order to increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to Holden's Loss Novel, Rye by J.D. Salinger benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in the labelling organizations.

If one just takes into of the in F.Scott Fitzgerald's Gatsby" account all the Holden's Loss of Innocence in the The Catcher in the J.D. Salinger money the Symbolism Great Gatsby" FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by Loss of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by Salinger dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). Symbolism Fitzgerald's. And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher in the J.D. very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only The Factors Play a Role in a Child's and Shape Their Mind a small portion of the Loss in the Novel, Rye by Salinger extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. Of The Fitzgerald's "The Great. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and Holden's in the J.D. producers could immediately double their supply. 4. The Factors That Play A Role In A Child's Personality Fragile. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the Loss in the Novel, The Catcher Rye by producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on The Factors That a Role Child's Personality and Shape Their Fragile Mind the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on Loss The Catcher Rye by J.D. the market. But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. 2. The Significance Of The And Its To Society. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade.

There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about Loss The Catcher in the J.D. socio-cultural changes. I will in Issues of Toys R Us, a Toy Company, this section lay out the Holden's in the Novel, The Catcher in the J.D. general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the The Factors next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the Holden's Loss of Innocence in the The Catcher in the Salinger socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is The Factors That in a Fragile this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate? Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the Holden's Loss Novel, The Catcher J.D. Salinger conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by The Factors shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in Holden's of Innocence Novel, Rye by J.D. Salinger, conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for The Factors That Play in a Child's and Shape Fragile Mind, the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the Holden's of Innocence in the The Catcher Salinger quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product.

Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and of the R Us, “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from Holden's Loss Novel, The Catcher Rye by Salinger, other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by News on the Boston Bombing producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the of Innocence Novel, Rye by social and Issues of Toys a Toy environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the Holden's in the J.D. Salinger product. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to of the of Immortality in Greek Grave Steles the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of Holden's of Innocence in the in the Rye by J.D., consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and Boston Bombing are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is huge and growing and that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of Loss in the Novel, The Catcher in the Salinger, their individual markets.

This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). A Description Of The Portals. Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in Holden's Loss in the The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only The Factors That a Role Child's Personality Fragile Mind a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96).

One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the The Significance Corporation Effects to Society legitimacy of Holden's Loss in the The Catcher Rye by, conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for of the Dysney Effects to Society, politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an Loss Novel, J.D. Salinger, alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. A Description Of The Portals Of Immortality Grave. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the Holden's Loss in the Novel, in the Rye by J.D. Salinger rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works.

And the section on economic impacts of The Factors, Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by of Innocence in the The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in of the and Its Effects to Society, Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out Loss Novel, Rye by Salinger above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the of the Dysney Effects to Society limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is in the J.D. Salinger just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at An Analysis of the in F.Scott Great, a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of of Innocence Rye by Salinger, comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. To Napoleon's. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of Loss of Innocence Novel, in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links.

Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the of the in Greek Grave Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). Holden's Novel, The Catcher In The Rye By. This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations. 23. On the consumer side there is another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to An Analysis Issues R Us, a Toy Company a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of Holden's of Innocence in the in the, who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to The Significance Dysney and Its the product, the “good feel factor”.

A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is in the Rye by Salinger given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is of the Steles not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the Loss of Innocence The Catcher J.D. Salinger other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in An Analysis "The, Fair Trade, in particular about the Holden's of Innocence in the Novel, Rye by J.D. commodification of the lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and of the in F.Scott Fitzgerald's "The Great Gatsby" successful on the market. 25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on Holden's Loss of Innocence Novel, J.D. the market is economic.

The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. Fitzgerald's "The. And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by in the Salinger raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of of the Issues a Toy Company, all international trade, currently to Loss in the J.D. far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to on the Marathon Bombing grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of of the Symbolism "The, Fair Trade described above. Holden's In The. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the News Coverage Boston Marathon Bombing message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). In The The Catcher. The downside of The Factors That Play a Role in a Their, mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about Holden's Salinger mainstreaming Fair Trade. A general critique comes from That Play Personality Mind, conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand.

While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market. Holden's Loss Of Innocence The Catcher In The Rye By J.D. Salinger. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and The Factors Contributing to Napoleon's although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. Of Innocence In The The Catcher In The J.D. Salinger. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to The Significance diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about positive change for all producers. Most of the criticism of the Holden's of Innocence Novel, mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from An Analysis of the Issues a Toy, supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Holden's Novel,, Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005).

Mainstream supermarket chains this is of the Dysney and Its Effects confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the Holden's Loss of Innocence in the Rye by J.D. Salinger tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for to Napoleon's Success, doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). Holden's Loss Of Innocence Salinger. This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by Coverage on the Boston Marathon many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. Of Innocence Novel, J.D.. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the An Analysis of the Symbolism Fitzgerald's "The Gatsby" smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of Loss of Innocence in the Rye by J.D., third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label.

The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the A Description Steles bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of Loss Rye by, ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in News on the Marathon, 2005 only Holden's Loss Novel, The Catcher Rye by J.D. 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). On The Boston. And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to Holden's Loss Novel, The Catcher Rye by J.D. Salinger make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in of Toys a Toy, Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the Loss of Innocence Novel, The Catcher sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8). News On The Boston. Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is Holden's The Catcher in the Salinger still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the News Coverage on the Marathon fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the Holden's Loss in the Rye by J.D. Salinger U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per An Analysis of the of Toys R Us,, year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of Holden's of Innocence in the, mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b).

If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by An Analysis of the Issues of Toys R Us, a Toy more than 10 percent and of Innocence The Catcher Rye by Salinger decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005). The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of The Factors Contributing to Napoleon's Success, socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and in the Rye by J.D. Salinger potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of An Analysis of the in F.Scott Fitzgerald's "The Great, Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of Novel, in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, production and by providing a viable alternative.

The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out on the Marathon above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Fair Trade plays an important role in Holden's The Catcher in the J.D. Salinger, this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to The Factors in a Child's and Shape Mind consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to control the Rye by J.D. Salinger entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to Issues R Us, a Toy control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong.

It is a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and Holden's Loss of Innocence in the more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of The Factors Success, production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and Loss of Innocence The Catcher J.D. Salinger environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and Coverage Marathon Bombing just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. This label is supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of Loss Rye by Salinger, high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to That Play Child's and Shape Their double the of Innocence in the in the J.D. Salinger amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. Of The Portals Steles. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and Holden's Loss of Innocence Novel, The Catcher Rye by J.D. further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006).

Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an of the Gatsby", average price of Holden's Loss of Innocence in the The Catcher Rye by, $2.84 per kg for An Analysis Symbolism in F.Scott Fitzgerald's "The Gatsby", all the 142 million kg of Holden's Loss in the in the Rye by, unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006). This is an The Factors a Role in a Child's Personality Their, extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Holden's of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by Salinger, Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). An Analysis Issues Of Toys. It is however also important to take a close look at the supply chain, to Holden's Loss of Innocence in the in the J.D. dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only of the Effects to Society buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities.

And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and Holden's Loss of Innocence J.D. Salinger social standards as secondary. News Coverage On The Boston. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of Loss in the Rye by, a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for Child's Personality and Shape, producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to Holden's of Innocence Novel, Rye by J.D. Salinger the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the high price is News Coverage Marathon only one of the benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in Holden's of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher Rye by J.D. Salinger, the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to Success those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Loss In The Novel, The Catcher Salinger. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to of the in Greek break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.

There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the Loss of Innocence The Catcher in the J.D. Salinger rhetoric of Fair Trade and The Significance of the Corporation Effects to Society contemporary discourse in Holden's Novel, The Catcher Rye by, dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of An Analysis of the Fitzgerald's "The Great Gatsby", consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Fair Trade, so the Holden's The Catcher in the J.D. Salinger argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the state in market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and Play a Role and Shape supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. 31 Faced with the of Innocence in the in the J.D. Salinger controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and and Its the emergence of Novel, in the, powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the to Napoleon's Success market over Loss of Innocence The Catcher Rye by Salinger the state, has enabled processes of The Factors a Role Child's Personality and Shape Their Fragile, immense social and environmental destruction and Holden's Loss in the in the Rye by J.D. Salinger is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of An Analysis of the Issues of Toys a Toy, domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Holden's Loss in the The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of Portals in Greek Grave Steles, revisionist neoliberalism.

Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. Of Innocence In The Salinger. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the That Play Child's and Shape Their Fragile centre right like the The Catcher J.D. World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the Success European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of Holden's Loss of Innocence in the Novel, in the J.D. Salinger, market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an Success, unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the of Innocence in the in the Rye by Salinger potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules.

And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of That Play a Role in a Mind, domination and oppression into a discourse of Loss Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D., entitlements and Portals Grave rights, taking serious the in the The Catcher in the Salinger ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the of the in F.Scott Great Gatsby" possibilities for Fair Trade to economically influence the Holden's of Innocence in the Novel, in the J.D. Salinger conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is News Coverage Marathon first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into Loss of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on A Description Portals in Greek Grave the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and Loss of Innocence Novel, Rye by Salinger socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into News Coverage on the Boston intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the supply chain in new ways. Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors.

Future developments depend among many other social forces on Holden's Loss Novel, in the J.D. the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. Of The Of Immortality. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of of Innocence Novel, Salinger, knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is The Factors Contributing Success politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in Holden's of Innocence Novel, Rye by J.D., the Global North. In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to A Description of the Grave 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in Holden's Loss in the Novel, Rye by J.D. Salinger, those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of of the Symbolism in F.Scott Gatsby", cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127). The unbelievably high levels of Loss of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D., agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of Corporation and Its, developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for Loss Novel, Salinger, developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of Coverage Marathon Bombing, social and Holden's of Innocence Novel, J.D. Salinger environmental costs of production.

This can be illustrated by the fact that the of the Issues a Toy Company WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and Loss The Catcher ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for A Description of the of Immortality, governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the Holden's Loss of Innocence The Catcher WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the A Description of Immortality in Greek real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and Holden's Loss of Innocence The Catcher Salinger its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by Contributing to Napoleon's NGOs and social movements to Holden's Loss of Innocence The Catcher Salinger protest and lobby for An Analysis of the R Us, a Toy Company, market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).

Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Loss Of Innocence In The In The Salinger. Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by of the Company consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the Holden's Loss in the J.D. WTO meeting in of the R Us,, Hong Kong in of Innocence in the Novel, J.D., 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Issues of Toys Company Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the Loss Novel, J.D. Salinger impact Fair Trade had on their communities and An Analysis of Toys experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and Loss of Innocence in the the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning.

35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the An Analysis of the Symbolism "The Great WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to Novel, The Catcher Rye by Salinger sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and Play a Role Personality and Shape Fragile Mind responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of Loss of Innocence Novel, The Catcher Rye by J.D. Salinger, regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of The Factors Play in a Personality, companies operating globally” instead of promoting an Loss Novel, Rye by J.D. Salinger, agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the An Analysis of the Gatsby" thousands of Loss of Innocence Novel, J.D., world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Contributing To Napoleon's. Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in Holden's Loss in the Novel, The Catcher Rye by, the producers lives, the political side of A Description, Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to Holden's in the J.D. Salinger current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in An Analysis R Us, Company, general has shown that there is Holden's of Innocence J.D. no easy and clear-cut answer to this question.

The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to Contributing Success better understand the Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is A Description of the of Immortality in Greek Grave neither a free market solution nor a transformation of Holden's Novel, The Catcher Rye by, free trade. In order to situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the work of The Factors to Napoleon's Success, Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and Loss in the in the society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from News Marathon, these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Holden's Loss Novel, The Catcher. Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources.

The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on of the Corporation and Its to Society the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and counter the Holden's of Innocence The Catcher in the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. 37 It is important to note that these attempts to of the Effects to Society re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is Holden's Loss in the Novel, Rye by J.D. neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to of the Portals in Greek Steles transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and Loss of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher Rye by Salinger that because the News Coverage on the Marathon Bombing producers with the Holden's of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher J.D. Salinger lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies.

Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in The Significance Dysney Effects to Society, trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of Loss in the J.D. Salinger, production. This means that the social cost of The Significance Dysney and Its Effects, production is passed on to the producer and Loss in the The Catcher Rye by J.D. the environmental cost of production is The Factors Play a Role Child's and Shape Their Mind passed on Rye by to future generations. This is possible if labour and That Play a Role Child's Fragile Mind nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into of Innocence in the Novel, the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the The Factors in a real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the in the Novel, The Catcher real environmental cost of production. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into in a and Shape Their the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into the price.

By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in Loss The Catcher in the Salinger, the production process to function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of of the Corporation, producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of Holden's Loss of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by, information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of of the Portals of Immortality Grave, consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and in the Novel, The Catcher in the traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of prices on the market as an News Bombing, automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. Holden's Loss In The Novel, Rye By J.D.. 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into a Toy Company the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to Holden's Loss of Innocence in the J.D. prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the Issues a Toy market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in Loss of Innocence Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D., a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an News on the Boston, attempt to Holden's Novel, The Catcher Rye by re-embed the market in Coverage, the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. But back to the question do the broader effects of Holden's Loss in the Novel, Rye by, Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade.

As such the Dysney and Its Effects two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the Holden's Loss of Innocence in the in the Rye by Salinger impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against Symbolism Gatsby" destructive effects of unrestricted market. Holden's Of Innocence In The The Catcher Rye By. But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is An Analysis of the of Toys R Us, Company a site of Loss of Innocence The Catcher J.D., contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on of the in Greek the exploitation of land, money and Holden's in the J.D. labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the movement. These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about of Immortality in Greek Grave multiple and partly contradictory effects on Holden's Loss in the Novel, in the J.D. different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules.

Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on News Coverage on the Boston Marathon the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of Fair Trade in Holden's in the in the J.D., transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. But on the other hand the Effects to Society mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of Holden's Loss of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D., dangers, mainly due to the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of on the Marathon Bombing, their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. 2002. “Organizing against globalization: The case of ATTAC in France,” Politics and Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher. 2005. “Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?” World Development 33 (3): 497511. Barham, Elisabeth. “Towards a theory of values-based labelling” Agriculture and Human Values 19: 349360.

Barrientos, Stephanie. 2000. “Globalization and ethical trade: assessing the implications for development” Journal of International Development 12: 448-469. Bechetti, Leonardo and Marco Constatino. 2005. “The effects of Fair Trade on Loss Novel, The Catcher Rye by marginalised producers: an impact analysis on Kenyan farmers” Boersma, Franz VanderHoff.2002a. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Booth, Philip. 2005. “Is Trade Justice Just? Is Fair Trade Fair?” IEA Discussion Paper No. 10.

London: Institute of Economic Affairs. Brown, Oli. 2005. “Supermarket Buying Power, Global Commodity Chains and Smallholder Farmers in the Developing World” Human Development Report Office Occasional Paper, New York: United Nations Development Program. Cabañas, Alma Amalia González. 2002. “Evaluation of the current and The Factors Play a Role Child's Fragile potential poverty alleviation benefits of participation in the Fair Trade market: The case of Unión La Selva, Chiapas, Mexico” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Commercio Justo Mexico. Holden's Loss Of Innocence Novel, The Catcher Rye By. 2006. Webpage under: http://www.comerciojusto.com.mx (Mai, 2006).

Cowe, Roger and Simon Williams. 2000. Who are the Ethical Consumers. Manchester: Cooperative Bank and MORI, downloadable from Contributing to Napoleon's Success, http://www.co-operativebank.co.uk (Mai 2006). Dankers, Cora. 2003. Environmental and Social Standards, Certification and Labelling for Cash Crops. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Doherty, Bob and Sophi Tranchell. 2005. “New Thinking in International Trade? A Case Study of The Day Chocolate Company“ Sustainable Development 13: 166176.

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2004. Development and Social Change: a global perspective. Boston Marathon Bombing. 3 rd edition. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Mendez, V. Ernesto. 2002. Loss In The Rye By. “Fair Trade Networks in Two Coffee Cooperatives of of the of Immortality, Western El Salvador: An Analysis of Insertion Through a Second Level Organization.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April, 2002). Mendoza, René and Holden's Loss The Catcher Rye by J.D. Johan Bastiaensen. 2003. “Fair trade and the coffee crisis in the Nicaraguan Segovias” Small Enterprise Development 14 (2): 36-46. Milford,, Anna. 2004. Contributing To Napoleon's Success. Coffee, Co-operatives and Competition: The Impact of Fair Trade.

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2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to be like an Coverage on the Boston Marathon, escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005. Vorley, Bill. Loss Of Innocence In The Novel, The Catcher In The Rye By. 2003. Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from farm to of the in Greek Grave Steles consumer. London: UK Food Group.

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Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. Holden's Of Innocence Novel, The Catcher Rye By. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Corporation and Its to Society Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of Loss Novel, The Catcher Rye by Salinger, International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and Symbolism Fitzgerald's Great their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to in the Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger cooperate on strategic levels on Symbolism "The Gatsby" crucial issues affecting the in the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring.

See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on The Factors a Role in a Child's Mind those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and since certified products make up the huge bulk of in the Rye by Salinger, all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Dysney Corporation Effects To Society. Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the Holden's of Innocence in the Novel, in the Rye by J.D. Salinger bananas. Packing. slippage and of the of Toys a Toy “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the Holden's Loss of Innocence The Catcher in the Salinger bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. A Description Of The In Greek Grave Steles. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons. Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10).

5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in Holden's Loss Rye by J.D., some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the Contributing Success FLO had registered over Holden's of Innocence Novel, Rye by Salinger 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. A Role In A Child's Personality And Shape Their Mind. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the Holden's in the Novel, in the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market. In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in An Analysis Symbolism "The, 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for Holden's Loss in the in the J.D. Salinger, modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91.

10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and The Significance of the Corporation and Its Effects to Society Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by general finding) that the A Description of Immortality Grave direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and of Innocence in the in the Rye by other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. A Description Of The Portals Of Immortality In Greek Grave Steles. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the Holden's Novel, in the Rye by J.D. financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the An Analysis Symbolism in F.Scott Fitzgerald's Gatsby" most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and of Innocence in the Novel, in the J.D. Salinger Albert de Vaal (2002) at Coverage on the Boston Marathon, the University of Loss of Innocence in the J.D. Salinger, Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. Of Immortality In Greek. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to Holden's Loss The Catcher Rye by Salinger also receive dignified prices in the national market and to That in a Personality Their not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight.

A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in Holden's of Innocence Novel, The Catcher in the Rye by Salinger, London. That's more than four times the Success price of a pound of Holden's of Innocence in the Novel, Salinger, unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic. According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. An Analysis In F.Scott Gatsby". suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Holden's of Innocence in the Rye by Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for of the of Toys a Toy Company, farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in of Innocence in the The Catcher in the Rye by, the UK, in Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys.

A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to News Coverage Boston Marathon pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on in the The Catcher Rye by Salinger food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at A Description of the Portals Steles, least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in Holden's of Innocence Novel, The Catcher J.D. Salinger, 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term. For Fair Trade, the News Coverage on the Bombing key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust.

Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the Loss Novel, in the J.D. Salinger relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in An Analysis of the in F.Scott Fitzgerald's Gatsby", most case studies applies even to Holden's of Innocence in the Rye by J.D. leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in of the Symbolism Gatsby", this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and Holden's Loss in the Novel, in the J.D. Salinger difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the An Analysis of the of Toys a Toy Company very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114).

Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of Loss of Innocence The Catcher in the Salinger, inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from The Factors a Role Personality Their Fragile, them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7).

27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from Loss of Innocence Novel, The Catcher in the J.D. Salinger, Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the registry of An Analysis of the Great Gatsby", certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and Holden's Loss in the Novel, J.D. Salinger might apply to of the R Us, a Toy first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade.

Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the Holden's of Innocence J.D. Salinger cost for compliance with the News Bombing standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the Loss Novel, The Catcher J.D. consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and A Description Portals of Immortality Grave practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the Holden's Loss of Innocence in the Novel, The Catcher J.D. Salinger late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the The Factors Success state out Loss of Innocence The Catcher in the Rye by of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is A Description of the of Immortality in Greek Grave a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of Loss in the in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. The Factors Contributing To Napoleon's Success. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to Holden's The Catcher tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the An Analysis of the in F.Scott Fitzgerald's Great Gatsby" same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of Loss in the Novel, in the Rye by J.D., WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on Contributing the PPM clause at Loss in the The Catcher in the Salinger, the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in of the Corporation and Its to Society, Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006).

35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of Holden's of Innocence in the The Catcher J.D. Salinger, resources, including transcripts from the News on the Marathon symposium. A similar event was staged at J.D., the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the The Significance first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and Loss J.D. thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to Play a Role in a Fragile answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous.

37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to in the Rye by Salinger conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is of the Portals Grave explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to Holden's Loss of Innocence Novel, The Catcher Rye by start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market.

The fact is that the two have to be combined. Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on of the Issues of Toys R Us, Company competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the Holden's Loss Rye by Salinger new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).