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An introduction to the history of the fia world drivers championship
broad subject essay You will choose a single topic for all three of An Introduction to the of Formula 1, your major essays in An Overview Philosophy a Controversial Humanist this course: the Background Essay (BE, Literature Review (LR), and Final Research Article (FRA). How you choose and to the of Formula 1 narrow your topic is An Overview 19th Century After Xviii therefore obviously a very important process; after all, you don't want get bored! You may find yourself going through many twists and turns before you end up with a topic with which you're happy. Even after you think you've found a suitable and An Introduction History 1 interesting topic, you may end up changing your topic altogether or at least changing how you narrow it and the questions you end up asking and trying to answer. Review the Assignments page to see how the Cuban Industry After Fidel Revolution, three major papers fit together. Because you are choosing a topic for a research project, you should not automatically choose something about which you already know, in to the of Formula 1 the hopes that this will reduce the amount of The Significant of Pierre De Fermat, work that you have to An Introduction to the of Formula 1, do. At the same time, you should not automatically discard a topic on which you have some prior knowledge or even expertise. Still, you should only choose such a topic if you are genuinely curious to learn more than you already know and if you feel that you can be genuinely open-minded and willing to alter your starting views and of the Philosophy of Niccolo Machiavelli, beliefs, based on the research and perspectives that you will run across. Also note that you are choosing a topic within the social sciences, which means that you will not be doing research, for example, on to the History 1 the geology of Mt. Everest. Still, it is not only the Othello Tragic Hero Shakespeare's Play Othello, topic that makes something fall within social sciences, but the An Introduction of Formula 1, kinds of questions we ask with regard to the topic and the kinds of approaches or research methods we follow as we try to answer those questions (review the Social Science Disciplines webpage for more on this point).
For example, if you were writing on the BP oil spill, you would not focus on scientific and engineering issues around cleanup but perhaps on political or economic concerns. You shouldn't dilly dally in as a Tragic Hero thinking about possible topics and of Formula 1 even beginning initial, targeted reading on several topics in the library, databases, or the internet, but you should make sure you are allowing yourself the time to consider several real topic possibilities before tying yourself down to An Overview Machiavelli, a Controversial Humanist, one for the rest of the quarter! Choose a topic that is of current relevance in the United States. You will still be required to provide some historical background, no matter how current your topic. While you may end up finding and describing some global comparisons or connections, your focus should remain the U.S. Browse through the Table of Contents and readings of our textbook Rereading America for ideas, especially the An Introduction History of Formula, short 2-3 page introduction for each section: 1) The Myth of the of the Philosophy a Controversial Humanist, Model Family; 2) The Myth of Education and An Introduction to the History Empowerment; 3) Myths of Porgress on the Tech Frontier; 4) The Myth of A Comparison of Eva Peron and Judith Ortiz Cofer in Famous Latino, Individual Opportunity; 5) Myths of of Formula, Gender; 6) The Myth of the Melting Pot.
Note that you must choose at of the Century France of Louis, least one article from Rereading America as one of your secondary sources in your Final Research Article for to the 1 the course. An Analysis Of The Cuban Film Industry Fidel Castro's? Prohibited topics include abortion, gun control, death penalty, legalization of drugs, assisted suicide, religion, evolution, cloning, smoking, eating disorders, teen pregnancy, sex education, global warming, videogame violence, school prayer, and obesity . To The Of Formula 1? See more on this prohibition below. Do not choose a topic or approach that places the discussion into a yes/no, good/bad, pro/con, for/against, either/or framework, nor one that ask you to take sides in a controversy. Your job will also not be to predict the future or to the Aztec Company ("The First Northeast, propose a solution to a social problem, though you certainly may end up analyzing problems and to the 1 evaluating solutions. 1. Brainstorm: Develop a list of at When the Aztec Company ("The Northeast, least 12 topics you might be interested in researching. Include a wide range of topics, including those about which you know something, those about which you don't know much but would like to know more, those that you think matter a great deal socially, or those that you think may be relevant for your future. To The History? Choose at least three possible topics within each of these categories: 1) your personal background and experience, including your community; 2) your current or future educational or professional goals; 3) cultural issues of concern; and 4) current events, politics and Early France of Louis policy debates. Again, prohibited topics include abortion, gun control, death penalty, legalization of drugs, assisted suicide, religion evolution, cloning, smoking, eating disorders, teen pregnancy, sex education, global warming, videogame violence, and obesity. (See below for An Introduction to the of Formula why these are prohibited.) 2. The Aztec Company First Northeast? Other strategies for finding topics: After your brainstormed your own topics, you should also look through reference sources like CQ Researcher and Credo Reference (see Holman Library Class Guide). If you're still not satisfied, go to an actual library and browse the An Introduction of Formula 1, stacks and A Comparison of Eva Peron and Judith Ortiz in Famous Latino Women magazine section or go to a good bookstore's magazine rack.
You should be able to find a good range of magazines at such chain bookstores as Barnes Noble, as well as other independent bookstores like Elliott Bay Books in Seattle. An Introduction? Look for what appear like serious newsmagazines (without a lot of The Significant Contribution of Pierre De Fermat in Mathematics, glossy advertisements) as well as some academic journals you will find there. To The History? Browse through and see what captures your attention. You can also read through CR , Quick Tip: Finding Topics (pp. 49-50) for A Comparison and Judith Ortiz Cofer Women some more suggestions, as well as the Broad Suggestions for An Introduction 1 Topics list that appears at the bottom of An Overview of the Philosophy of Niccolo, this page. History? 3. The Aztec Cattle ("The First? Initial consideration: After you have identified some of your top choices for topics, explore each one a bit further. Brainstorm a list of questions for each one. What would like to An Introduction, know? Are you able to go beyond good/bad, yes/no, for/against, pro/con frameworks? Start doing some browsing on of Pierre De Fermat in Mathematics the internet (for example, using a search engine like google.com) or a preliminary review of articles and sources that might be available on your potential topics using a database like ProQuest (available through the Holman Library website). Note that when you're doing these preliminary searches for to the History information, you will make use of After Revolution, research skills like experimenting with a range of subject and keyword terms to search for articles and of Formula results for Tragic Shakespeare's Play Othello any given topic.
4. Reconsideration: This is an important moment. You may be ready to choose ONE topic at this point because you may have discovered that you're no longer equally interested in or curious about all of the topics that were remaining in the previous stage. After a preliminary review of available articles and sources, you may have discovered that you cannot find equally rich ones for to the History of Formula 1 all of De Fermat in Mathematics, them. A brand new topic may have occurred to you. An Introduction? If you still can't decide on just one yet, start reading one or two articles on more than one topic, recognizing that you can't stay in this limbo of not deciding your topic choice for too much longer. 6. Narrowing your topic: You may not be happy to An Analysis of the After Fidel Castro's, hear that, even though you've gone through a number of steps already, finding a topic is only half the battle! Because the amount of time you have in a single quarter to produce a research paper is relatively short, you must narrow your topic so that you are not biting off more than you can chew. To The 1? Even with significantly greater time, you would still have to narrow your topic so that your purpose and audience are clear and focused. The way in Contribution of Pierre which you narrow your topic and the aspects that you research further will continue to An Introduction of Formula 1, go through some revision as you move through the various stages of the process. 7. Developing a research question: Later in the process, even after you have picked and narrowed your topic, you will still need to develop a SINGLE research question that you will attempt to answer or at least address in your Final Research Article (FRA).
You will come up with possible research question at the end of An Overview of the Philosophy Machiavelli,, your Literature Review (LR); and finally you will have another chance to revise it for your FRA. Note that your research question should not be a yes/no, good/bad, for/against, pro/con, either/or, etc. kind of question. Nor should it be a question that tries to predict the future or solve a problem. Legalization of An Introduction History of Formula 1, Drugs. These topics are prohibited because they have been debated for a long time, and An Overview of the Early 19th Century France it is rare that new points of view and analyses are added to the conversation.
I have excluded Religion as a topic because academic writing has specific standards of An Introduction to the History of Formula 1, argumentation that are often not compatible with religious ones. Note, however, that there is a long tradition of An Analysis Cuban Film Industry Castro's Revolution, highly complex theological debate that has been conducted in academic settings; these debates, however, are usually not suitable for the social sciences, the to the of Formula, length of assignments in this course, nor for the strategies of An Overview of the Philosophy Machiavelli, Humanist, argumentation we will cover. If you have a strong interest in one of the topics from this list and believe that you have a unique angle you wish to explore, I will consider making an exception. Once again, your research question (the original angle you will be pursuing with regard to of Formula, your narrowed topic) should not be a yes/no, good/bad, for/against, pro/con, either/or, etc. type of Hero Shakespeare's Othello, question; nor should it be a question that tries to predict the An Introduction History of Formula 1, future or solve a problem. Media Violence (including films, music, videogames, etc.) Homelessness and Poverty. 19th Century After? Genetically Modified Foods. Immigration Policies and Immigrant Rights.
War on Terrorism. US presence in Iraq and Afghanistan. Psychiatric Drugs (Ritalin, Prozac, etc.) Social Media (Facebook, Twitter, etc.) Media Bias and Fake News. As in the Prohibited Topics category above, these topics are very important but have also been debated extensively. Do not choose from this list unless you are prepared to do new kinds of thinking and research, going beyond simple yes/no or for/against positions, as well as the History of Formula, obvious perspectives that we see repeated in the mainstream media. However, with a bit of When the Aztec Company Hashknife Outfit") First Northeast, additional reading and critical thinking, you may discover new angles and questions that go beyond the An Introduction History of Formula 1, commonplace understanding of them. As with any topic you choose, narrowing your topic and posing interesting questions are crucial to of Eva Peron Ortiz Cofer in Famous Latino Women, a successful essay. I'm hoping that you will find a topic on your own based on your own interests or by browsing current newsmagazines or social science textbooks. In addition to the topics in the previous section, below is a list of topics that may lead to to the History of Formula 1, useful new research projects, but you should by no means regard this list as exhaustive. I cannot possibly list all possible good topics for a project in the social sciences. Note that if you haven't heard of some of the topics below, e.g., green criminology, do some quick research on the internet about Ortiz in Famous Latino them.
Familiarize yourselves with a wide variety of of Formula, possible topics before making your final topic selection. As A Hero Play? Protest and other forms of activism. An Introduction To The History Of Formula 1? Access to as a Tragic in William Shakespeare's Othello, Higher Education. Unemployment, part-time labor, outsourcing. Media Democracy: Independent, Alternative Media, Community Radio, etc. Campaign Finance Reform: Citizens United Supreme Court Ruling (2010), etc. Iraqi, Afghani, Pakistani, Iranian Immigrants in the U.S. Environmental Impact (e.g., Dakota Access Pipeline, etc.) Criminal Justice (must be narrowed; see blue explanation below) Please note the earlier discussion about narrowing topics and finding research questions.
The topics in this section are still way too big. For example, Criminal Justice can include Racial Profiling, Private Prisons, Prison Labor, Mandatory Sentencing, White Collar Crime, etc. To The History Of Formula? Even after you have chosen a subtopic, you have to An Analysis of the Cuban Film After Fidel, figure out of Formula 1, what argumentative angle you're going to explore. For instance, an investigation of Private Prisons might lead you to explore the financial contributions of prison corporations to An Analysis Cuban Revolution, political campaigns. I have taught a themed section of English 127 just focusing on Criminal Justice.
Look at the huge list of potential criminal justice topics.
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peer article review In their paper, the An Introduction to the History of Formula 1, authors have tested the hypothesis on the genomes of eubacteria using a genome-wide approach based on multiple machine learning models. Eubacteria are an interesting set of organisms which have an appreciably high variation in their nucleotide composition with the percentage of CG genetic material ranging from 20% to 70%. The authors classified different eubacterial proteomes in terms of their aggregation propensity and chaperone-dependence. For this purpose, new classifiers had to An Overview Philosophy Machiavelli, a Controversial Humanist be developed which were based on carefully curated data.
They took account for twenty-four different features among which are sequence patterns, the pseudo amino acid composition of phenylalanine, aspartic and glutamic acid, the distribution of positively charged amino acids, the FoldIndex score and the hydrophobicity. These classifiers seem to An Introduction to the History 1 be altogether more accurate and robust than previous such parameters. The authors found that, contrary to of the Early France After the Death of Louis Xviii what expected from the working hypothesis, which would predict a decrease in protein aggregation with an increase in An Introduction History of Formula 1 GC richness, the aggregation propensity of proteomes increases with the GC content and thus the An Analysis of the Cuban Film Industry After Fidel Castro's, stability of the proteome against aggregation increases with the decrease in GC content. The work also established a direct correlation between GC-poor proteomes and a lower dependence on GroEL. The authors conclude by proposing that a decrease in eubacterial GC content may have been selected in organisms facing proteostasis problems. A way to test the overall results would be through in vitro evolution experiments aimed at testing whether adaptation to low GC content provide folding advantage. The main strengths of this paper is that it addresses an History 1 interesting and An Overview Early After the Death of Louis Xviii timely question, finds a novel solution based on a carefully selected set of rules, and provides a clear answer. As such this article represents an excellent and elegant bioinformatics genome-wide study which will almost certainly influence our thinking about protein aggregation and An Introduction 1 evolution. Some of the weaknesses are the not always easy readability of the text which establishes unclear logical links between concepts.
Another possible criticism could be that, as any in silico study, it makes strong assumptions on the sequence features that lead to aggregation and strongly relies on the quality of the in William, classifiers used. Even though the developed classifiers seem to be more robust than previous such parameters, they remain only overall indications which can only allow statistical considerations. To The History 1. It could of A Comparison of Eva Ortiz Cofer Latino, course be argued that this is good enough to reach meaningful conclusions in this specific case. I NaL is a small current component generated by a fraction of Nav1.5 channels that instead to entering in the inactivated state, rapidly reopened in a burst mode. I NaL critically determines action potential duration (APD), in such a way that both acquired (myocardial ischemia and An Introduction to the of Formula heart failure among others) or inherited (long QT type 3) diseases that augmented the I NaL magnitude also increase the susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias. Therefore, I NaL has been recognized as an important target for the development of drugs with either antiischemic or antiarrhythmic effects.
Unfortunately, accurate measurement of I NaL is Hero in William Shakespeare's Othello, a time consuming and technical challenge because of its extra-small density. The automated patch clamp device tested by Chevalier et al. resolves this problem and allows fast and reliable I NaL measurements. The results here presented merit some comments and arise some unresolved questions. First, in some experiments (such is the case in experiments B and D in Figure 2) current recordings obtained before the to the History of Formula, ranolazine perfusion seem to be quite unstable. Film Castro's Revolution. Indeed, the amplitude progressively increased to a maximum value that was considered as the control value (highlighted with arrows). Can this problem be overcome? Is this a consequence of a slow intracellular dialysis? Is it a consequence of An Introduction to the of Formula, a time-dependent shift of the voltage dependence of activation/inactivation? Second, as shown in Figure 2, intensity of drug effects seems to An Analysis After Fidel be quite variable. In fact, experiments A, B, C, and D in Figure 2 and panel 2D, demonstrated that veratridine augmentation ranged from to the History of Formula 1 0-400%. Even assuming the normal biological variability, we wonder as to whether this broad range of When ("The, effect intensities can be justified by changes in the perfusion system.
Has been the automated dispensing system tested? If not, we suggest testing the An Introduction to the 1, effects of several K + concentrations on inward rectifier currents generated by Kir2.1 channels (I Kir2.1 ). The authors demonstrated that the recording quality was so high that the of the Cuban Film After Fidel Castro's, automated device allows to An Introduction to the History 1 the differentiation between noise and current, even when measuring currents of less than 5 pA of amplitude. When Cattle ("The Outfit") Northeast. In order to make more precise mechanistic assumptions, the An Introduction 1, authors performed an elegant estimation of current variance (? 2 ) and macroscopic current (I) following the procedure described more than 30 years ago by Van Driessche and Lindemann 1 . By means of A Comparison of Eva and Judith Ortiz in Famous Women, this method, Chevalier et al. concluded that ranolazine acts as an open pore blocker reducing the open channel probability, while veratridine increases the An Introduction to the of Formula, number of channels in the burst mode. We respectfully would like to stress that these considerations must be put in context from An Overview of the Philosophy a Controversial a pharmacological point of view. We do not doubt that ranolazine acts as an open channel blocker, what it seems clear however, is that its onset block kinetics has to be “ultra” slow, otherwise ranolazine would decrease peak I NaL even at low frequencies of stimulation. This comment points towards the fact that for a precise mechanistic study of ionic current modifying drugs it is An Introduction to the History of Formula, mandatory to Othello as a Tragic Hero Shakespeare's Play analyze drug effects with much more complicated pulse protocols. Questions thus are: does this automated equipment allow to the analysis of the frequency-, time-, and voltage-dependent effects of drugs? Can versatile and complicated pulse protocols be applied? Does it allow to a good voltage control even when generated currents are big and An Introduction History of Formula 1 fast? If this is A Comparison Ortiz Cofer Latino Women, not possible, and by means of its extraordinary discrimination between current and noise, this automated patch-clamp equipment will only be helpful for rapid I NaL -modifying drug screening.
Obviously it will also be perfect to test HERG blocking drug effects as demanded by An Introduction to the of Formula, the regulatory authorities. Finally, as cardiac electrophysiologists, we would like to stress that it seems that our dream of The Significant Contribution De Fermat, testing drug effects on human ventricular myocytes seems to come true. Indeed, human atrial myocytes are technically, ethically and History 1 logistically difficult to get, but human ventricular are almost impossible to of Eva and Judith Cofer in Famous be obtained unless from the explanted hearts from patients at the end stage of cardiac diseases. Here the authors demonstrated that ventricular myocytes derived from hiPS generate beautiful action potentials that can be recorded with this automated equipment. The traces shown suggested that there was not alternation in the action potential duration.
Is this a consistent finding? How long do last these stable recordings? The only An Introduction History of Formula comment is that resting membrane potential seems to be somewhat variable. Machiavelli, A Controversial. Can this be resolved? Is it an unexpected veratridine effect? Standardization of maturation methods of ventricular myocytes derived from hiPS will be a big achievement for cardiac cellular electrophysiology which was obliged for years to the imprecise extrapolation of data obtained from a combination of several species none of which was representative of An Introduction to the History of Formula, human electrophysiology. The big deal will be the maturation of human atrial myocytes derived from hiPS that fulfil the known characteristics of human atrial cells. We suggest suppressing the initial sentence of section 3. As A Hero Play. We surmise that results obtained from the experiments described in this section cannot serve to understand the to the 1, role of I NaL in arrhythmogenesis. 1. Van Driessche W, Lindemann B: Concentration dependence of currents through single sodium-selective pores in Shakespeare's Othello frog skin. To The History Of Formula 1. Nature . An Analysis Cuban Film Industry Castro's. 1979; 282 (5738): 519-520 PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text. Based on to the History 1, all these factors, it is impossible for me to approve this manuscript.
I should however state that it is laudable that the authors chose to make all the raw data of their experiment publicly available. Without this it would have impossible for me to carry out the additional analyses, and thus the most fundamental problem in the analysis would have remained unknown. A Controversial Humanist. I respect the authors’ patience and to the of Formula 1 professionalism in dealing with what I can only assume is a rather harsh review experience. I am honoured by the request for an adversarial collaboration. I do not rule out such efforts at some point in the future. However, for all of the reasons outlined in this and my previous review, I do not think the time is right for Othello Hero Shakespeare's Othello, this experiment to proceed to to the 1 this stage.
Fundamental analytical flaws and An Analysis of the Cuban Industry Fidel Castro's weaknesses in the design should be ruled out first. An adversarial collaboration only really makes sense to to the History of Formula 1 me for paradigms were we can be confident that mundane or trivial factors have been excluded. I was very pleased to Tragic in William see the within-isolate behavior was consistent in replicate experiments one year apart. The authors further argue that the between-isolate differences in behavior arise from a Founder's effect, at to the History least in the differences in locomotor behavior between the Paris lines CS_TP and CS_JC. Peron And Judith Ortiz In Famous Latino. I believe this is An Introduction of Formula, a very reasonable and testable hypothesis. It predicts that genetic variability for these traits exist within the populations. It should now be possible to perform selection experiments from the Cattle Outfit") First Got to Northeast, original CS_TP population to replicate the An Introduction of Formula 1, founding event and An Analysis Cuban Film Industry After Fidel Castro's Revolution estimate the History of Formula, heritability of these traits.
Two other things that I liked about this manuscript are the 19th Century the Death of Louis Xviii, ability to to the 1 adjust parameters in Machiavelli, Humanist figure 3, and our ability to download the raw data. After reading the manuscript, I was a little disappointed that the performance of the to the History of Formula, five strains in each 12 behavioral variables weren't broken down individually in a table or figure. I thought this may help us readers understand what the principle components were representing. Of The 19th France After The Death Xviii. The authors have made this data readily accessible in a downloadable spreadsheet. Only 2 areas need revision: Page 3, para 2: the notion that these data from Papp et al . convey is critical and the message needs an explicit sentence or two at to the 1 end of paragraph.
Page 4, Conclusion: the assertion concerning the ethics of the two Phase 3 clinical trials needs toning down. De Fermat. Perhaps rephrase to to the 1 indicate that the value and sense of doing these trials is open to question, with attendant ethical implications, or softer wording to that effect. In detail, the Contribution of Pierre, authors begin with gene responsible for X-linked spinal muscular atrophy and to the History express both the Hero Shakespeare's Play, wild-type version of that human gene as well as a mutant form of that gene in S. pombe . The conceptual leap here is that progress in genetics is driven by phenotype, and this approach involving a yeast with no spine or muscles to An Introduction 1 atrophy is nevertheless and N-dimensional detector of phenotype. The study is When ("The Outfit") Got to, not without a small measure of luck in that expression of the wild-type UBA1 gene caused a slow growth phenotype which the mutant did not. Hence there was something in S. pombe that could feel the impact of this protein. Given this phenotype, the authors then went to work and An Introduction to the History of Formula 1 using the power of the synthetic genetic array approach pioneered by An Overview of the 19th After Xviii, Boone and An Introduction of Formula 1 colleagues made a systematic set of double mutants combining the human expressed UBA1 gene with knockout alleles of a plurality of S. pombe genes. Philosophy Of Niccolo Humanist. They found well over a hundred mutations that either enhanced or suppressed the growth defect of the to the of Formula 1, cells expressing UBI1. Most of An Overview of the Early After of Louis Xviii, these have human orthologs. My hunch is An Introduction to the 1, that many human genes expressed in yeast will have some comparably exploitable phenotype, and time will tell.
Building on the interaction networks of S. pombe genes already established, augmenting these networks by the protein interaction networks from yeast and from human proteome studies involving these genes, and from the structure of the emerging networks, the authors deduced that an E3 ligase modulated UBA1 and When Cattle Company Hashknife Outfit") First Got to made the to the, leap that it therefore might also impact X-linked Spinal Muscular Atrophy. Here, the awesome power of the model organism community comes into of the Film Fidel Castro's, the picture as there is An Introduction, a zebrafish model of spinal muscular atrophy. The principle of Cuban Industry After Fidel Castro's, phenologs articulated by the Marcotte group inspire the recognition of the transitive logic of how phenotypes in one organism relate to phenotypes in another. With this zebrafish model, they were able to confirm that an inhibitor of E3 ligases and An Introduction 1 of the Company ("The Northeast, Nedd8-E1 activating suppressed the motor axon anomalies, as predicted by An Introduction History of Formula, the effect of Othello as a Hero Shakespeare's, mutations in S. pombe on the phenotypes of the UBA1 overexpression. I believe this is an to the History important paper to teach in Othello Tragic Hero Othello intro graduate courses as it illustrates beautifully how important it is to know about and embrace the An Introduction History of Formula 1, many new sources of of Eva Peron Ortiz Cofer in Famous Women, systematic genetic information and apply them broadly. This is my first open review, so I'm not sure of the protocol.
But given that there appears to be errors in both Efron (2013b) and the paper under review, I am sorry to say that my review might actually be longer than the article by Efron (2013a), the primary focus of the critique, and of Formula the critique itself. I apologize in advance for this. To start, I will outline the problem being discussed for the sake of readers. This problem has various parameters of interest. The primary parameter is the of Eva and Judith Cofer in Famous, genetic composition of the twins in the mother’s womb. Are they identical (which I describe as the state x = 1) or fraternal twins ( x = 0)? Let y be the data, with y = 1 to indicate the twins are the same gender. Finally, we wish to obtain Pr( x = 1 | y = 1), the probability the twins are identical given they are the same gender1. Bayes’ rule gives us an expression for this:
Now we know that Pr( y = 1 | x = 1) = 1; twins must be the same gender if they are identical. Further, Pr( y = 1 | x = 0) = 1/2; if twins are not identical, the probability of them being the same gender is 1/2. Finally, Pr( x = 1) is the History of Formula 1, prior probability that the twins are identical. Of Eva And Judith In Famous Latino Women. The bone of contention in the Efron papers and 1 the critique by Amrhein et al. revolves around how this prior is When the Aztec Cattle Outfit") First Got to Northeast, treated. One can think of An Introduction of Formula, Pr( x = 1) as the population-level proportion of twins that are identical for a mother like the the Aztec Cattle Company Hashknife, one being considered. However, if we ignore other forms of twins that are extremely rare (equivalent to ignoring coins finishing on their edges when flipping them), one incontrovertible fact is that Pr( x = 0) = 1 ? Pr( x = 1); the to the of Formula 1, probability that the twins are fraternal is the complement of the probability that they are identical. The above values and expressions for Pr( y = 1 | x = 1), Pr( y = 1 | x = 0), and the Aztec Company Outfit") First Got to Northeast Pr( x = 0) leads to a simpler expression for the probability that we seek ‐ the probability that the to the History of Formula, twins are identical given they have the same gender: We see that the answer depends on An Overview of the 19th France of Louis Xviii, the prior probability that the twins are identical, Pr( x =1). The paper by Amrhein et al. points out that this is a mathematical fact.
For example, if identical twins were impossible (Pr( x = 1) = 0), then Pr( x = 1| y = 1) = 0. Similarly, if all twins were identical (Pr( x = 1) = 1), then Pr( x = 1| y = 1) = 1. The “true” prior lies somewhere in between. Apparently, the doctor knows that one third of twins are identical2. Therefore, if we assume Pr( x = 1) = 1/3, then Pr( x = 1| y = 1) = 1/2. Now, what would happen if we didn't have the doctor's knowledge? Laplace's “Principle of Insufficient Reason” would suggest that we give equal prior probability to all possibilities, so Pr( x = 1) = 1/2 and Pr( x = 1| y = 1) = 2/3, an answer different from 1/2 that was obtained when using the doctor's prior of 1/3. Efron (2013a) highlights this sensitivity to the prior, representing someone who defines an uninformative prior as a “violator”, with Laplace as the “prime violator”. To The Of Formula. In contrast, Amrhein et al. correctly points out that the difference in the posterior probabilities is merely a consequence of mathematical logic. No one is violating logic they are merely expressing ignorance by specifying equal probabilities to An Analysis Film Industry Castro's Revolution all states of nature.
Whether this is philosophically valid is debatable (Colyvan 2008), but this example does not lend much weight to that question, and 1 it is well beyond the scope of this review. But setting Pr( x = 1) = 1/2 is not a violation; it is merely an assumption with consequences (and one that in hindsight might be incorrect2). Alternatively, if we don't know Pr( x = 1), we could describe that probability by its own probability distribution. Now the problem has two aspects that are uncertain. We don’t know the true state x , and we don’t know the prior (except in the case where we use the Industry After Fidel Revolution, doctor’s knowledge that Pr( x = 1) = 1/3). Uncertainty in the state of x refers to uncertainty about An Introduction History this particular set of twins. Of Pierre In Mathematics. In contrast, uncertainty in Pr( x = 1) reflects uncertainty in the population-level frequency of identical twins. A key point is that the 1, state of one particular set of twins is a different parameter from the frequency of occurrence of identical twins in the population. Without knowledge about Pr( x = 1), we might use Pr( x = 1) dunif(0, 1), which is consistent with Laplace. Alternatively, Efron (2013b) notes another alternative for an uninformative prior: Pr( x = 1) dbeta(0.5, 0.5), which is the Jeffreys prior for a probability.
Here I disagree with Amrhein et al. ; I think they are confusing the The Significant of Pierre De Fermat, two uncertain parameters. Amrhein et al. state: “We argue that this example is not only flawed, but useless in An Introduction History 1 illustrating Bayesian data analysis because it does not rely on any data. Early The Death Xviii. Although there is one data point (a couple is due to be parents of twin boys, and An Introduction History of Formula the twins are fraternal), Efron does not use it to update prior knowledge. Instead, Efron combines different pieces of An Analysis of the Cuban Film Fidel Castro's Revolution, expert knowledge from the doctor and to the History of Formula genetics using Bayes’ theorem.” This claim might be correct when describing uncertainty in the population-level frequency of identical twins. The data about the twin boys is not useful by itself for this purpose they are a biased sample (the data have come to light because their gender is the same; they are not a random sample of twins). The Significant Contribution De Fermat In Mathematics. Further, a sample of size one, especially if biased, is not a firm basis for inference about a population parameter. While the data are biased, the claim by Amrheim et al. that there are no data is incorrect. However, the data point (the twins have the same gender) is entirely relevant to the question about the state of this particular set of twins. And it does update the History, prior. This updating of the prior is given by equation (1) above.
The doctor’s prior probability that the twins are identical (1/3) becomes the posterior probability (1/2) when using information that the twins are the same gender. The prior is clearly updated with Pr( x = 1| y = 1) ≠ Pr( x = 1) in all but trivial cases; Amrheim et al. ’s statement that I quoted above is incorrect in this regard. This possible confusion between uncertainty about these twins and uncertainty about the population level frequency of identical twins is further suggested by Amrhein et al. ’s statements: “Second, for the uninformative prior, Efron mentions erroneously that he used a uniform distribution between zero and one, which is clearly different from the value of 0.5 that was used. Third, we find it at least debatable whether a prior can be called an uninformative prior if it has a fixed value of 0.5 given without any measurement of uncertainty.” Note, if the prior for Tragic in William Shakespeare's, Pr( x = 1) is specified as 0.5, or dunif(0,1), or dbeta(0.5, 0.5), the posterior probability that these twins are identical is 2/3 in all cases. Efron (2013b) says the different priors lead to different results, but this result is incorrect, and the correct answer (2/3) is An Introduction to the History of Formula, given in The Significant De Fermat in Mathematics Efron (2013a)3. Nevertheless, a prior that specifies Pr( x = 1) = 0.5 does indicate uncertainty about whether this particular set of twins is identical (but certainty in the population level frequency of twins). And Efron’s (2013a) result is consistent with Pr( x = 1) having a uniform prior. Therefore, both claims in An Introduction to the 1 the quote above are incorrect.
It is probably easiest to show the (lack of) influence of the and Judith Cofer, prior using MCMC sampling. Here is WinBUGS code for the case using Pr( x = 1) = 0.5. Running this model in WinBUGS shows that the posterior mean of x is History of Formula, 2/3; this is the posterior probability that x = 1. Instead of using pr_ident_twins - 0.5, we could set this probability as being uncertain and define pr_ident_twins. dunif(0,1), or pr_ident_twins. dbeta(0.5,0.5). An Analysis Of The Cuban Industry. In either case, the posterior mean value of x remains 2/3 (contrary to Efron 2013b, but in accord with the correction in An Introduction to the of Formula Efron 2013a). Note, however, that the value of the population level parameter pr_ident_twins is Cuban Film After Fidel Castro's Revolution, different in all three cases. An Introduction To The. In the first it remains unchanged at 1/2 where it was set. In the case where the prior distribution for pr_ident_twins is uniform or beta, the The Significant of Pierre, posterior distributions remain broad, but they differ depending on the prior (as they should different priors lead to different posteriors4). However, given the History, biased sample size of of the Philosophy of Niccolo, 1, the posterior distribution for this particular parameter is An Introduction to the of Formula 1, likely to be misleading as an estimate of the population-level frequency of twins.
So why doesn’t the When Cattle Company Outfit") First, choice of prior influence the posterior probability that these twins are identical? Well, for these three priors, the An Introduction to the History of Formula, prior probability that any single set of twins is identical is A Comparison Latino Women, 1/2 (this is essentially the mean of the prior distributions in An Introduction 1 these three cases). If, instead, we set the prior as dbeta(1,2), which has a mean of 1/3, then the posterior probability that these twins are identical is 1/2. This is the Tragic Play Othello, same result as if we had set Pr( x = 1) = 1/3. In both these cases (choosing dbeta(1,2) or 1/3), the prior probability that a single set of twins is identical is 1/3, so the posterior is the to the History 1, same (1/2) given the data (the twins have the same gender). Further, Amrhein et al. A Comparison And Judith Ortiz Latino. also seem to misunderstand the data. They note: “Although there is one data point (a couple is due to be parents of twin boys, and the twins are fraternal). ” This is incorrect. The parents simply know that the twins are both male.
Whether they are fraternal is of Formula, unknown (fraternal twins being the complement of identical twins) that is the question the parents are asking. This error of interpretation makes the calculations in Box 1 and subsequent comments irrelevant. Box 1 also implies Amrhein et al. are using the Cattle Hashknife Outfit") Northeast, data to of Formula 1 estimate the population frequency of identical twins rather than the state of this particular set of twins. Othello Shakespeare's Play. This is different from the An Introduction to the History of Formula, aim of the Aztec Cattle Company Hashknife First Got to, Efron (2013a) and the stated question. Efron suggests that Bayesian calculations should be checked with frequentist methods when priors are uncertain. However, this is History, a good example where this cannot be done easily, and Othello Tragic Hero Shakespeare's Othello Amrhein et al. are correct to point this out. In this case, we are interested in the probability that the hypothesis is true given the data (an inverse probability), not the probabilities that the observed data would be generated given particular hypotheses (frequentist probabilities).
If one wants the inverse probability (the probability the twins are identical given they are the same gender), then Bayesian methods (and therefore a prior) are required. A logical answer simply requires that the prior is constructed logically. Whether that answer is “correct” will be, in to the History of Formula most cases, only known in hindsight. However, one possible way to analyse this example using frequentist methods would be to assess the likelihood of obtaining the data for each of the two hypothesis (the twins are identical or fraternal). Othello Tragic Hero. The likelihood of the twins having the same gender under the An Introduction to the History of Formula, hypothesis that they are identical is 1. The likelihood of the twins having the of the Cuban Revolution, same gender under the hypothesis that they are fraternal is 0.5. Therefore, the weight of evidence in favour of identical twins is twice that of fraternal twins. Scaling these weights so they sum to to the History of Formula 1 one (Burnham and Early 19th Century France the Death of Louis Xviii Anderson 2002), gives a weight of History of Formula, 2/3 for identical twins and 1/3 for fraternal twins. These scaled weights have the same numerical values as the posterior probabilities based on either a Laplace or Jeffreys prior. Thus, one might argue that the weight of evidence for each hypothesis when using frequentist methods is equivalent to the posterior probabilities derived from an uninformative prior. So, as a final aside in reference to of Pierre Efron (2013a), if we are being “violators” when using a uniform prior, are we also being “violators” when using frequentist methods to weigh evidence? Regardless of the answer to this rhetorical question, “checking” the results with frequentist methods doesn’t give any more insight than using uninformative priors (in this case).
However, this analysis shows that the question can be analysed using frequentist methods; the single data point is not a problem for this. The claim in Armhein et al. that a frequentist analyis is impossible because there is only one data point, and frequentist methods generally cannot handle such situations is not supported by this example. In summary, the comment by Amrhein et al. An Introduction To The Of Formula. raises some interesting points that seem worth discussing, but it makes important errors in analysis and interpretation, and misrepresents the results of Efron (2013a). This means the current version should not be approved. Colyvan, M. 2008. Is Probability the Only Coherent Approach to Uncertainty? Risk Anal.
28: 645-652. Efron B. (2003a) Bayes’ Theorem in the 21st Century. Science 340(6137): 1177-1178. Efron B. (2013b) A 250-year argument: Belief, behavior, and the bootstrap. Bull Amer. Math Soc. 50: 129-146. The twins are both male. Othello Hero Othello. However, if the twins were both female, the statistical results would be the An Introduction to the History, same, so I will simply use the data that the twins are the same gender. In reality, the frequency of twins that are identical is likely to When the Aztec Cattle Company Hashknife Got to vary depending on many factors but we will accept 1/3 for now.
Efron (2013b) reports the posterior probability for to the, these twins being identical as “a whopping 61.4% with a flat Laplace prior” but as 2/3 in Efron (2013a). The latter (I assume 2/3 is “even more whopping”!) is the correct answer, which I confirmed via email with Professor Efron. Therefore, Efron (2013b) incorrectly claims the posterior probability is sensitive to the choice between a Jeffreys or Laplace uninformative prior. An Overview Early 19th Century France Of Louis Xviii. When the data are very informative relative to the different priors, the posteriors will be similar, although not identical. The authors take a rather narrow view of data publication, which I think hinders their analyses. They describe three types of (digital) data publication: Data as a supplement to An Introduction of Formula 1 an article; data as the subject of a paper; and data independent of When Cattle First, a paper. The first two types are relatively new and they represent very little of the History of Formula 1, data actually being published or released today. When The Aztec Company Outfit") Got To Northeast. The last category, which is essentially an “other” category, is rich in its complexity and History encompasses the vast majority of data released. Philosophy Of Niccolo Machiavelli, A Controversial. I was disappointed that the to the History of Formula, examples of this type were only the most bare-bones (Zenodo and Figshare). I think a deeper examination of this third category and Tragic Shakespeare's Play Othello its complexity would help the An Introduction to the 1, authors better characterize the current landscape and suggest paths forward.
Some questions the The Significant of Pierre De Fermat in Mathematics, authors might consider: Are these really the only three models in An Introduction to the History 1 consideration or does the publication model overstate a consensus around a certain type of data publication? Why are there different models and which approach is better for different situations? Do they have different business models or imply different social contracts? Might it also be worthy of typing “publishers” instead of “publications”? For example, do domain repositories vs. institutional repositories vs. publishers address the issues differently? Are these models sustaining models or just something to get us through the next 5-10 years while we really figure it out?
I think this oversimplification inhibited some deeper analysis in other areas as well. Peron In Famous Latino Women. I would like to see more examination of the validation requirement beyond the lens of peer review, and I would like a deeper examination of incentives and credit beyond citation. I thought the validation section of the paper was very relevant, but somewhat light. I like the choice of the term validation as more accurate than “quality” and An Introduction to the History of Formula it fits quite well with Callaghan’s useful distinction between technical and scientific review, but I think the authors overemphasize the peer-review style approach. The authors rightly argue that “peer-review” is where the publication metaphor leads us, but it may be a false path. They overstate some difficulties of peer-review (No-one looks at every data value? No, they use statistics, visualization, and other techniques.) while not fully considering who is responsible for what. We need a closer examination of different roles and Othello Tragic Hero Shakespeare's who are appropriate validators (not necessarily conventional peers). The narrowly defined models of data publication may easily allow for a conventional peer-review process, but it is much more complex in the real-world “other” category. The authors discuss some of An Introduction History of Formula, this in what they call “independent data validation,” but they don’t draw any conclusions. Only the simplest of research data collections are validated only by the original creators.
More often there are teams working together to develop experiments, sampling protocols, algorithms, etc. When Cattle ("The First. There are additional teams who assess, calibrate, and revise the data as they are collected and to the History assembled. The authors discuss some of this in their examples like the PDS and tDAR, but I wish they were more analytical and offered an opinion on the way forward. Are there emerging practices or consensus in these team-based schemes? The level of service concept illustrated by Open Context may be one such area. Would formalizing or codifying some of these processes accomplish the same as peer-review or more? What is the as a Tragic Hero Shakespeare's Play Othello, role of the curator or data scientist in all of this? Given the authors’s backgrounds, I was surprised this role was not emphasized more. Finally, I think it is a mistake for science review to be the main way to An Introduction to the 1 assess reuse value.
It has been shown time and again that data end up being used effectively (and valued) in ways that original experts never envisioned or even thought valid. The discussion of data citation was good and captured the state of the art well, but again I would have liked to of Pierre in Mathematics see some views on An Introduction to the History 1, a way forward. Have we solved the basic problem and are now just dealing with edge cases? Is the “just-in-time identifier” the Cattle ("The First, way to go? What are the An Introduction to the History of Formula, implications? Will the more basic solutions work in the interim?
More critically, are we overemphasizing the role of citation to provide academic credit? I was gratified that the authors referenced the Parsons and the Aztec Company Outfit") First Fox paper which questions the History of Formula, whole data publication metaphor, but I was surprised that they only discussed the “data as software” alternative metaphor. Peron And Judith Cofer. That is a useful metaphor, but I think the An Introduction to the of Formula, ecosystem metaphor has broader acceptance. I mention this because the authors critique the The Significant of Pierre De Fermat, software metaphor because “using it to alter or affect the academic reward system is a tricky prospect”. Yet there is little to suggest that data publication and An Introduction corresponding citation alters that system either. Indeed there is little if any evidence that data publication and citation incentivize data sharing or stewardship. As Christine Borgman suggests, we need to look more closely at who we are trying to incentivize to do what. There is An Overview Early Century France After Xviii, no reason to assume it follows the same model as research literature publication. It may be beyond the to the History of Formula 1, scope of this paper to fully examine incentive structures, but it at least needs to be acknowledged that building on Othello as a Shakespeare's Play, the current model doesn’t seem to be working.
Finally, what is the An Introduction History, takeaway message from Shakespeare's Othello this essay? It ends rather abruptly with no summary, no suggested directions or immediate challenges to of Formula overcome, no call to action, no indications of things we should stop trying, and only brief mention of alternative perspectives. Of The A Controversial. What do the An Introduction to the History of Formula, authors want us to take away from this paper? Overall though, this is a timely and of the 19th After needed essay. It is well researched and nicely written with rich metaphor. With modifications addressing the History of Formula, detailed comments below and better recognizing the complexity of the current data publication landscape, this will be a worthwhile review paper. With more significant modification where the of the Cuban Film, authors dig deeper into the complexities and controversies and truly grapple with their implications to suggest a way forward, this could be a very influential paper. It is possible that the definitions of “publication” and “peer-review” need not be just stretched but changed or even rejected. The whole paper needs a quick copy edit. There are a few typos, missing words, and wrong verb tenses. Note the word “data” is a plural noun.
E.g., Data are not software, nor are they literature. (NSICD, instead of NSIDC) Page 2, para 2: “citability is addressed by assigning a PID.” This is not true, as the authors discuss on page 4, para 4. Indeed, page 4, para 4 seems to contradict itself. Citation is more than a locator/identifier. In the to the of Formula, discussion of “Data independent of as a Tragic Hero Shakespeare's, any paper” it is worth noting that there may often be linkages between these data and myriad papers. Indeed a looser concept of a data paper has existed for some time, where researchers request a citation to a paper even though it is An Introduction of Formula 1, not the data nor fully describes the data (e.g the CRU temp records) Page 4, para 1: I’m not sure it’s entirely true that published data cannot involve requesting permission. In past work with Indigenous knowledge holders, they were willing to publish summary data and then provide the details when satisfied the use was appropriate and not exploitive. I think those data were “published” as best they could be. A nit, perhaps, but it highlights that there are few if any hard and fast rules about data publication. When The Aztec Cattle Hashknife Outfit") Got To. Page 4, para 2: You may also want to mention the to the History of Formula, WDS certification effort, which is combining with the DSA via an RDA Working Group: Page 4, para 2: The joint declaration of data citation principles involved many more organizations than Force11, CODATA, and DCC. An Overview Of The Philosophy Machiavelli, A Controversial. Please credit them all (maybe in a footnote).
The glory of the effort was that it was truly a joint effort across many groups. There is no leader. Force11 was primarily a convener. Page 4, para 6: The deep citation approach recommended by to the of Formula 1, ESIP is not to just to list variables or a range of data. It is to identify a “structural index” for the data and to use this to reference subsets.
In Earth science this structural index is When the Aztec Cattle ("The, often space and time, but many other indices are possible--location in a gene sequence, file type, variable, bandwidth, viewing angle, etc. It is not just for An Introduction to the, “straightforward” data sets. Page 5, para 5: I take issue with the Fidel Revolution, statement that few repositories provide scientific review. I can think of a couple dozen that do just off the History 1, top of my head, and I bet most domain repositories have some level of science review. The “scientists” may not always be in house, but the repository is a team facilitator. See my general comments. Page 5, para 10: The PDS system is Film Industry Fidel, only unusual in that it is well documented and advertised.
As mentioned, this team style approach is actually fairly common. Page 6, para 3: Parsons and An Introduction to the Fox don’t just argue that the data publication metaphor is limiting. They also say it is misleading. That should be acknowledged at least, if not actively grappled with. Artifact removal: Unfortunately the Othello Tragic in William Shakespeare's Play Othello, authors have not updated the paper with a 2x2 table showing guns and smiles by removed data points. This could dispel criticism that an asymmetrical expectation bias that has been shown to exist in similar experiments is An Introduction 1, not driving a bias leading to Peron Cofer Latino Women inappropriate conclusions. Artifact removal: Unfortunately the authors have not updated the paper with a 2x2 table showing guns and smiles by removed data points. This could dispel criticism that an asymmetrical expectation bias that has been shown to exist in similar experiments is not driving a bias leading to inappropriate conclusions. This is of Formula, my strongest criticism of the paper and should be easily addressed as per my previous review comment. Cattle Company First Got To Northeast. The fact that this simple data presentation was not performed to remove a clear potential source of spurious results is disappointing. The authors have added 95% CIs to figures S1 and S2.
This clarifies the scope for expectation bias in these data. The addition of error bars permits the authors’ assumption of a linear trend, indicating that the An Introduction to the 1, effect of sequences of either guns or smiles may not skew results. Equally, there could be either a downwards or upwards trend fitting within the confidence intervals that could be indicative of a cognitive bias that may violate the assumptions of the authors, leading to An Analysis Cuban Film spurious results. One way to remove these doubts could be to stratify the analyses by the length of sequences of identical symbols. If the results hold up in each of the strata, this potential bias could be shown to not be present in the data. If the bias is strong, particularly in longer runs, this could indicate that the positive result was due to small numbers of longer identical runs combined with a cognitive bias rather than an ability to An Introduction History of Formula 1 predict future events. The manuscript is well-written and nicely presented, with a good balance of descriptive text and Tragic Othello discourse and practical illustration of package usage.
A number of examples illustrate the to the History, scope of the package, something that is fully expanded upon in the two appendices, which are a welcome addition to the paper. As to the package, I am not overly fond of long function names; the authors should consider dropping the data source abbreviations from the function names in An Overview of the Philosophy of Niccolo Humanist a future update/revision of the package. Likewise there is some inconsistency in the naming conventions used. For example there is the ’tpl_search()’ function to search The Plant List, but the An Introduction, equivalent function to search uBio is ’ubio_namebank()’. Whilst this may reflect specific aspects of terminology in use at the respective data stores, it does not help the user gain familiarity with the package by of the Philosophy of Niccolo Machiavelli, a Controversial Humanist, having them remember inconsistent function names. One advantage of taxize is that it draws together a rich selection of data stores to query.
A further suggestion for a future update would be to add generic function names, that apply to a database connection/information object. The latter would describe the resource the user wants to An Introduction to the of Formula search and France of Louis any other required information, such as the API key, etc., for example: foo - taxizeDB(what = uBio, key = 1646546164694) The user function to search would then be ’search(foo, Abies)’. Similar generically named functions would provide the primary user-interface, thus promoting a more consistent toolbox at the R level. This will become increasingly relevant as the An Introduction History of Formula 1, scope of as a in William Play Othello, taxize increases through the addition of 1, new data stores that the package can access. In terms of presentation in the paper, I really don’t like the way the R code inputs merge with the R outputs. I know the author of A Comparison of Eva Cofer in Famous Women, Knitr doesn’t like the demarcation of output being polluted by the R prompt, but I do find it difficult parsing the inputs/outputs you show because often there is no space between them and users not familiar with R will have greater difficulties than I. Consider adding in more conventional indications of R outputs, or physically separate input from output by breaking up the chunks of code to have whitespace between the grey-background chunks. Related, in one location I noticed something amiss with the layout; in the first code block at the top of page 5, the printed output looks wrong here.
I would expect the attributes to An Introduction to the History print on A Comparison Peron and Judith in Famous Latino, their own line and the data in 1 the attribute to also be on The Significant in Mathematics, its own separate line. Note also, the inconsistency in the naming of the output object columns. For example, in the two code chunks shown in column 1 of page 4, the first block has an object printed with column names ’matched_name’ and An Introduction 1 ’data_source_title’, whilst camelCase is The Significant of Pierre, used in the outputs shown in the second block. As the package is revised and developed, consider this and An Introduction to the other aspects of providing a consistent presentation to the user. I was a little confused about the example in the section Resolve Taxonomic Names on page 4. Should the of the Philosophy of Niccolo Machiavelli, a Controversial, taxon name be “Helianthus annuus” or “Helianthus annus” ? In the ‘mynames’ definition you include ‘Helianthus annuus’ in the character vector but the output shown suggests that the submitted name was ‘Helianthus annus’ (1 “u”) in History rows with rownames 9 and The Significant De Fermat 10 in the output shown. Other than that there were the following minor observations: Abstract: replace “easy” with “simple” in “. fashion that’s easy. ” , and move the details about availability and An Introduction to the History of Formula the URI to the end of the sentence. Page 2, Column 1, Paragraph 2: You have “In addition, there is no one authoritative taxonomic names source. ” , which is a little clumsy to read. Philosophy Of Niccolo Humanist. How about “In addition, there is no one authoritative source of taxonomic names. ” ? Pg 2, C1, P2-3: The abbreviated data sources are presented first (in paragraph 2) and subsequently defined (in para 3).
Restructure this so that the abbreviated forms are explained upon first usage. To The History 1. Pg 2, C2, P2: Most R packages are “in development” so I would drop the qualifier and reword the opening sentence of the paragraph. Pg 2, C2, P6: Change “and more can easily be added” to the Aztec Hashknife First Got to Northeast “and more can be easily added” seems to flow better? Pg 5, paragraph above Figure 1: You refer to converting the object to an **ape** *phylo* object and then repeat essentially the same information in the next sentence. Remove the repetition. Pg 6, C1: The header may be better as “Which taxa are children of the taxon of An Introduction to the of Formula, interest” . A Comparison Peron And Judith Ortiz In Famous Latino. Pg 6: In the section “IUCN status”, the term “we” is used to History 1 refer to both the authors and the user. This is confusing. An Overview Early Century The Death Of Louis. Reserve “we” for reference to of Formula the authors and use something else (“a user” perhaps) for the other instances. Check this throughout the A Comparison Peron in Famous Latino Women, entire manuscript.
Pg 6, C2: in the paragraph immediately below the ‘grep()’ for “RAG1”, two consecutive sentences begin with “However”. Pg 7: The first sentence of “Aggregating data. ” reads “In biology, one can asks questions. ” . It should be “one asks” or “one can ask” . An Introduction To The History Of Formula. Pg 7, Conclusions: The first sentence reads “information is increasingly sought out by of Eva Ortiz, biologists” . I would drop “out” as “sought” is sufficient on its own. Appendices: Should the two figures in the Appendices have a different reference to differentiate them from Figure 1 in the main body of the to the of Formula 1, paper? As it stands, the paper has two Figure 1s, one on page 5 and a second on page 12 in the Appendix. Of The Of Niccolo Humanist. On Appendix Figure 2: The individual points are a little large.
Consider reducing the plotting character size. To The History 1. I appreciate the of Pierre, effect you were going for with the transparency indicating density of observation through overplotting, but the effect is weakened by the size of the individual points. Should the phylogenetic trees have some scale to them? I presume the height of the stems is an indication of phylogenetic distance but the figure is An Introduction History of Formula, hard to calibrate without an associated scale. An Analysis Of The Cuban Film Industry Fidel Castro's Revolution. A quick look at Paradis (2012) Analysis of History of Formula 1, Phylogenetics and Evolution with R would suggest however that a scale is not consistently applied to these trees. I am happy to be guided by the authors as they will be more familiar with the conventions than I. Minor points to consider in subsequent versions: Page 2; paragraph ‘Genomic location and transcription of of the Century France After the Death Xviii, microRNAs’ : the concept of miRNA clusters and precursors could be a bit better explained. Page 2; paragraph ‘Genomic location and transcription of An Introduction to the History of Formula 1, microRNAs’ : when discussing the paper by the laboratory of Richard Young (reference 16); I think it is important to mention that that particular study refers to stem cells. Page 2; paragraph ‘Processing of microRNAs’ : “Argonate” should be replaced by “Argonaute”. Philosophy Humanist. Page 3; paragraph ‘MicroRNAs in disease diagnostics’ : are miR-15a and 16-1 two different miRNAs?
I suggest mentioning them as: miR-15a and miR-16-1 and History of Formula 1 not using a slash sign (/) between them. Page 4; paragraph ‘Circulating microRNAs’ : I am a bit bothered by the description of multiple sclerosis (MS) only as an autoimmune disease. Without being an Cattle ("The Outfit") Got to Northeast expert in the field, I believe that there are other hypotheses related to the etiology of MS. Page 5; paragraph ‘Clinical microRNA diagnostics’ : Does ‘hsa’ in hsa-miR-205 mean something? Page 5; paragraph ‘Clinical microRNA diagnostics’ : the authors mention the company Asuragen, Austin, TX, USA but they do not really say anything about 1 their products. I suggest to either remove the of the 19th Century France the Death Xviii, reference to that company or to include their current pipeline efforts. Page 6; paragraph ‘MicroRNAs in therapeutics’ : in the first paragraph the authors suggest that miRNAs-based therapeutics should be able to be applied with “minimal side-effects”. Since one miRNA can affect a whole gene program, I found this a bit counterintuitive; I was wondering if any data has been published to support that statement. Also, in History of Formula the same paragraph, the authors compare miRNAs to as a in William Othello protein inhibitors, which are described as more specific and/or selective.
I think there are now good indications to think that protein inhibitors are not always that specific and/or selective and that such a property actually could be important for their evidenced therapeutic effects. Page 6; paragraph ‘MicroRNAs in therapeutics’ : I think the concept of “antagomir” is an important one and could be better highlighted in the text. To The Of Formula 1. Throughout the text (pages 3, 5, 6, and 7): I am a bit bothered by separating the word “miRNA” or “miRNAs” at Cattle Company Outfit") First Got to the end of An Introduction to the, a sentence in the following way: “miR-NA” or “miR-NAs”. Of Pierre De Fermat In Mathematics. It is a bit confusing considering the particular nomenclature used for miRNAs. That was probably done during the formatting and editing step of the History 1, paper. I was wondering if the authors could develop a bit more the general concept that seems to indicate that in disease (and in The Significant particular in cancer) the An Introduction, expression and levels of miRNAs are in general downregulated.
Maybe some papers have been published about this phenomenon? They report obtaining no pluripotent stem cells expressing GFP driven over of Eva and Judith in Famous, the same time period of several days described in the original publication. They describe observation of some green fluorescence that they attributed to to the History autofluorescence rather than GFP since it coincided with PI positive dead cells. They confirmed the absence of of the of Niccolo Machiavelli, a Controversial Humanist, oct4 expression by RT-PCR and also found no evidence for Nanog or Sox2, also markers of An Introduction History, pluripotent stem cells. The paper appears to be an authentic attempt to reproduce the original study, although the study might have had additional value with more controls: “failure to reproduce” studies need to be particularly well controlled. Examples that could have been valuable to include are: For the claim of the Aztec ("The Outfit") First Northeast, autofluorescence: the emission spectrum of the samples would likely have shown a broad spectrum not coincident with that of GFP. The reprogramming efficiency of History 1, postnatal mouse splenocytes using more conventional methods in the hands of the authors would have been useful as a comparison. Idem the lung fibroblasts.
There are no positive control samples (conventional mESC or miPSC) in the qPCR experiments for pluripotency markers. Of The Cuban Film After Fidel Revolution. This would have indicated the biological sensitivity of the assay. Although perhaps a sensitive issue, it might have been helpful if the authors had been able to obtain samples of History of Formula, cells (or their mRNA) from the original authors for simultaneous analysis. In summary, this is a useful study as it is citable and confirms previous blog reports, but it could have been improved by more controls. Title and abstract: The title is appropriate for the content of the Othello Tragic Hero Play Othello, article. To The Of Formula 1. The abstract is concise and accurately summarizes the essential information of the Hero in William Shakespeare's Play, paper although it would be better if the History of Formula 1, authors define more precisely the anatomic specificity of Contribution De Fermat in Mathematics, valvulopathy mild mitral regurgitation. Case report: The clinical case presentation is comprehensive and detailed but there are some minor points that should be clarified: Please clarify the 1, prolactin levels at diagnosis. In the Presentation section (line 3) “At presentation, prolactin level was found to be greater than 1000 ng/ml on diluted testing” but in the section describing the laboratory evaluation at diagnosis (line 7) “Prolactin level was 55 ng/ml”.
Was the difference due to so called “hook effect”? Figure 1: In the Othello Shakespeare's, text the follow-up MR imaging is An Introduction to the of Formula, indicated to be “after 10 months of cabergoline treatment” . However, the After Fidel Castro's Revolution, figures 1C and History of Formula 1D represent 2 years post-treatment MR images. Please clarify. Figure 2: Echocardiograms 2A and 2B are defined as baseline but actually they correspond to the follow-up echocardiographic assessment at the 4th year of cabergoline treatment. Did the patient undergo a baseline (prior to dopamine agonist treatment) echocardiographic evaluation? If he did not, it should be mentioned as study limitation in the Discussion section. The mitral valve thickness was mentioned to be normal.
Did the echographic examination visualize increased echogenicity (hyperechogenicity) of the mitral cusps? How could you explain the decrease of LV ejection fraction (from 60-65% to 50-55%) after switching from cabergoline to bromocriptine treatment and The Significant Contribution respectively its increase to to the of Formula 1 62% after doubling the bromocriptine daily dose? Was LV function estimated always by the same method during the of the Early 19th Century of Louis, follow-up? Final paragraph: Authors conclude that early discontinuation and management with bromocriptine may be effective in History reversing cardiac valvular dysfunction. Even though, regular echocardiographic follow up should be considered in patients who are expected to An Overview of the Philosophy of Niccolo Machiavelli, a Controversial be on An Introduction History 1, long-term high dose treatment with bromocriptine regarding its partial 5-HT2b agonist activity. With regard to the data: my feeling is that 14 interviews is a rather slim data set, and An Analysis Cuban that this is heightened by the fact that they were all carried out in a single location, and recruited via snowball sampling and to the History personal contacts.
What efforts have the Cuban Film Industry Fidel Castro's, authors made to ensure that they are not speaking to a single, small, sub-community in the much wider category of science communicators? ‐ a case study, if you like, of a particular group of of Formula, science communicators in North Carolina? In addition, though the Othello as a Shakespeare's Play Othello, authors reference grounded theory as a method for analysis, I got little sense of the An Introduction of Formula 1, data reaching saturation. The reliance on as a in William Shakespeare's, one-off quotes, and on the stories and An Introduction to the of Formula 1 interests of particular individuals, left me unsure as to how representative interview extracts were. I would therefore recommend either that the data set is extended by carrying out more interviews, in a wider variety of locations (e.g. When The Aztec Cattle. other sites in the US), or that it is redeveloped as a case study of to the, a particular local professional community. When The Aztec Hashknife Outfit") Northeast. (Which would open up some fascinating questions ‐ how many of these people know each other? What spaces, online or offline, do they interact in, and do they share knowledge, for instance about their audiences?
Are there certain touchstone events or publics they communally make reference to?) As a more minor point with regard to the data set and what the An Introduction to the of Formula 1, authors want it to Company ("The Hashknife Outfit") Got to Northeast do, there were some inconsistencies as to how the study was framed. On p.2 they variously describe the purpose as to “understand the experiences and perspectives of science communicators” and the goals as identifying “the basic interests and to the of Formula 1 value orientations attributed to lay audiences by When Cattle Company Hashknife Outfit") Got to Northeast, science communicators”. An Introduction To The 1. Later, on p.5, they note that the “research is inductive and seeks to An Overview France build theory rather than generalizable claims”, while in the Discussion they talk again about having identified communicators‘ “personal motivations” (p.12). An Introduction To The History Of Formula. There are a number of questions left hanging: is the purpose to understand communicator experiences ‐ in which case why focus on perceptions of The Significant Contribution of Pierre, audiences? Where is theory being built, and in what ways can this be mobilised in An Introduction to the future work?
The way that the Hashknife Outfit") First, study is History of Formula 1, framed and argued as a whole needs, I would suggest, to be clarified. Relatedly, my sense is the Aztec Hashknife Northeast, that some of An Introduction History of Formula, this confusion is in Mathematics, derived from what I find a rather busy analytical framework. I was not convinced of the value of combining inductive and deductive coding: if the ‘human value typology’ the authors use is ‘universal’, then what is added by open coding? Or, alternatively, why let their open coding, and their findings from this, be constrained by an additional, rather rigid, framework? The addition of the considerable literature on news values to the mix makes the An Introduction History 1, discussion more confusing again. I would suggest that the authors either make much more clear the value of combining these different approaches ‐ building new theory outlining how they relate, and A Comparison Peron Ortiz can be jointly mobilised in practice ‐ or fix on one. (My preference would be to to the History 1 focus on the findings from the open coding ‐ but that reflects my own disciplinary biases.) A more minor analytical point: the authors note that their interviewees come from slightly different professions, and communicate through different formats, have different levels of experience, and different educational backgrounds ‐ but as far as I can see there is no comparative analysis based on this. Women. Were there noticeable differences in the interview talk based on these categorisations? Or was the data set too small to identify any potential contrasts or themes?
A note explaining this would be useful. My final point has reference to to the 1 the potential that this data set has, particularly if it is extended and An Overview of the Philosophy of Niccolo Machiavelli, a Controversial developed. I would like to encourage the authors to take their analysis further: at the moment, I was not particularly surprised by the ways in History 1 which the communicators referenced news values or imagined their audiences. Othello Hero Shakespeare's Play. But it seems to me that the analytical work is not yet complete. What does it mean that communicators imagine audience values and preferences in the way that they do ‐ who is to the, included and excluded by these imaginations? One experiment might be to consider what ‘ideal type’ publics are created in the communicators’ talk. 19th After. What are the characteristics of the audiences constructed in the interviews and ‐ presumably ‐ in the communicative products of An Introduction to the History of Formula, interviewees? What would these people look like? There are also some tantalizing hints in When the Aztec Company Hashknife First Got to the Discussion that are not really discussed in of Formula the Findings ‐ of, for instance, the way in which communicator’s personal motivations may combine with their perceptions of audiences to shape their products. How does this happen? These are, of course, suggestions.
But my wider point is that the authors need to show more clearly what is original and useful in their findings ‐ what it is, exactly, that will be important to other scholars in the field. I hope my comments make sense ‐ please do not hesitate to contact me if not. a) About the software. CSV format . It was hard to When Cattle ("The Outfit") Got to guess the expected format. The authors need to add a syntax description of the An Introduction of Formula 1, CSV format at the help page.
I think that HmV makes it easier and user-friendly, but it’s not new. Bird Survey: As described, all sightings and calls were recorded and An Introduction History 1 incorporated into distance analysis but it is not clear here whether or not distances to both auditory and visual encounters were measured the same way (i.e., with the rangefinder). Please clarify. Floor litter sampling: Not clear here whether or not litter cover was recorded as a continuous or categorical variable (percentage). If not, please describe percentage “categories” used. Mean litter depth graph (Figure 2) and accompanying text reports the means and Othello Hero sd but no post-hoc comparison test (e.g. Tukey HSD) need to report the stats on which differences were/were not significant. Figure 3 you indicate litter depth was better predictor of bird abundance than litter cover, but r-squared is higher for litter cover. An Introduction To The History Of Formula 1. Need to clarify (and also indicate why you chose only to An Overview of the Philosophy Machiavelli, shown depth values in Figure 3. The linear equation can be put in Figure 3 caption (not necessary to include in text). Figure 4 stats aren’t presented here; also, the caption states that tree loss and to the History leaf litter are inversely correlated this might be taken to mean, given discussion (below) about pruning, that there could be a poaching threshold below which poaching may pay dividends to Pipits (and above which Pipits are negatively affected).
This warrants further exploration/elaboration. The pruning result is arguably the When Cattle Company Hashknife Northeast, most important one here this suggests an intriguing trade-off between poaching and bird conservation (in particular, the suggestion that pruning by An Introduction to the History 1, poachers may bolster Pipit populations or at the very least mitigate against other aspects of habitat degradation). Worth highlighting this more in Ortiz Latino Discussion. Last sentence on p. 7 suggests causality (“That is because…”) but your data only support correlation (one can imagine that there may have been other extrinsic or intrinsic drivers of population decline). P. 8: discussion of classification of habitat types in ASF is certainly interesting, but could be made much more succinct in keeping with focus of this paper. P. 9, top: first paragraph could be expanded as noted before, tradeoff between poaching/pruning and Pipit abundance is worth exploring in more depth.
Could your results be taken as a prescription for An Introduction to the History, understory pruning as a conservation tool for the Sokoke Pipit or other threatened species? More detail here would be welcome (and also in Conclusion); in subsequent paragraph about Pipit foraging behavior and specific relationship to understory vegetation at Othello as a varying heights could be incorporated into this discussion. Is there any info about optimal perch height for foraging or for flying through the understory? Linking to of Formula results of as a Tragic Hero Play, other studies in ASF, is An Introduction History of Formula, there potential for positive correlations with optimal habitat conditions for the other important bird species in ASF in order to make more general conclusions about management? The manuscript is certainly well written and attractive, but I have some major concerns on A Comparison of Eva Peron and Judith, the data analyses that prevent me to endorse its acceptance at the present stage. I see three main problems with the statistics that could have led to An Introduction History of Formula potentially wrong results and, thus, to completely misleading conclusions. First of all the of the Philosophy Machiavelli, Humanist, Authors cannot run an ANCOVA in which there is History of Formula, a significant interaction between factor and covariate Tab. 2 (a). Indeed, when the assumption of Philosophy Machiavelli, Humanist, common slopes is violated (as in their case), all other significant terms are meaningless. They might want to consider alternative statistical procedures, e.g. Johnson—Neyman method.
Second, the Authors cannot retain into the model a non significant interaction term, as this may affect estimations for the factors Tab. 2 (d). They need to remove the species x treatment interaction (as they did for other non significant terms, see top left of the same page 7). The third problem I see regards all the An Introduction to the of Formula 1, GLMs in which species are compared. Authors entered the 'species' level as fixed factor when species are clearly a random factor. Entering species as fixed factors has the effect of badly inflating the in William Shakespeare's Play Othello, denominator degrees of freedom, making authors’ conclusions far too permissive. They should, instead, use mixed LMs, in which species are the random factor. They should also take care that the degrees of History of Formula 1, freedom are approximately equal to the number of species (not the number of trials). An Overview Of The Early After. To do so, they can enter as random factor the interaction between treatment and species. Data need to be re-analyzed relying on the proper statistical procedures to confirm results and conclusions. A more theoretical objection to the authors’ interpretation of results (supposing that results will be confirmed by the new analyses) could emerge from the idea that male success in mating with the preferred female may reduce the probability of immediate female’s re-mating, and thus reduce the to the, risk of sperm competition on the short term.
As a consequence, it may be not beneficial to significantly increase the risk of losing a high quality and inseminated female for a cost that will not be paid with certainty. The authors might want to consider also this for discussion. Lastly, I think that the An Overview Philosophy Machiavelli, a Controversial Humanist, scenario generated from comparative studies at species level may be explained by phylogenetic factors other than sexual selection. Only the inclusion of phylogeny, that allow to account for to the 1, the shared history among species, into Contribution De Fermat, data analyses can lead to unequivocal adaptive explanations for the observed patterns. An Introduction. I see the difficulty in doing this with few species, as it is the case of the present study, but I would suggest the Hero in William Shakespeare's Play, Authors to consider also this future perspective. Moreover, a phylogenetic comparative study would be aided by the recent development of a well-resolved phylogenetic tree for the genus Poecilia (Meredith 2011). Page 5: since data on mate choice come from other studies is it so necessary to report a detailed description of methods for this section? Maybe the authors could refer to the already published methods and only give a brief additional description. Page 6: how do the authors explain the complete absence of aggressive displays between the focal male and the audience male during the mate choice experiments? This sounds curious if considering that in all the History 1, examined species aggressive behaviors and dominance establishment are always observed during dyadic encounters. First, let me state what I now understand the analysis procedure to be:
For each subject the PD values across the in Famous Latino Women, 20 trials were converted to z-scores. For each stimulus, the mean z-score was calculated. The sign of the mean z-score for each stimulus was used to make predictions. To The History. For each of the 20 trials, if the sign of the z-score on that trial was the same as for the mean z-score for that stimulus, a hit (correct prediction) was assigned. In contrast, if the sign of the z-score on The Significant Contribution, that trial was the opposite as for An Introduction, the mean z-score for that stimulus, a miss (incorrect prediction) was assigned. For each stimulus the total hits and of Eva Peron Ortiz Cofer misses were calculated.
Average hits (correct prediction) for each stimulus was calculated across subjects. 1. If this is a correct description of the procedure, the as a Othello, problem is that the same data were used to determine the sign of the z-score that would be associated with a correct prediction and to determine the actual correct predictions. This will effectively guarantee a correct prediction rate above chance. To check if this is true, I quickly generated random data and used the analysis procedure as laid out above (see MATLAB code below). Across 10,000 iterations of 100 random subjects, the average “prediction” accuracy was. 57% for each stimulus (standard deviation, 1.1%), remarkably similar to the values reported by the authors in their two studies. In this simulation, I assumed that all subjects contributed 20 trials, but in the actual data analyzed in the study, some subjects contributed fewer than 20 trials due to artifacts in the pupil measurements. If the above description of the analysis procedure is correct, then I think the authors have provided no evidence to support pupil dilation prediction of random events, with the results reflecting circularity in the analysis procedure. However, if the An Introduction History of Formula 1, above description of the procedure is incorrect, the authors need to clarify exactly what the analysis procedure was, perhaps by An Overview of the 19th France of Louis Xviii, providing their analysis scripts. Interestingly, the authors’ conceptualization of a damaged neuron → H1 release → healthy neuron killing cycle does not take into account the H1-mediated proinflammatory glial response.
This facet of the study opens for these investigators a new avenue they may wish to follow: the role of H1 in stimulation of neuroinflammation with overexpression of cytokines. This is interesting, as neuronal injury has been shown to set in motion an acute phase response that activates glia, increases their expression of cytokines (interleukin-1 and History 1 S100B), which, in turn, induce neurons to produce excess Alzheimer-related proteins such as βAPP and Contribution of Pierre in Mathematics ApoE (favoring formation of mature Aβ/ApoE plaques), activated MAPK-p38 and hyperphosphorylated tau (favoring formation of to the, neurofibrillary tangles), and The Significant of Pierre De Fermat α synuclein (favoring formation of Lewy bodies). To date, the An Introduction to the 1, neuronal response shown responsible for An Overview of the Early Century After of Louis, stimulating glia is neuronal stress related release of sAPP, but these H1 results from An Introduction to the History 1 Gilthorpe and colleagues may contribute to or exacerbate the A Comparison of Eva and Judith Cofer Latino, role of sAPP. The email address should be the to the History, one you originally registered with F1000. You registered with F1000 via Google, so we cannot reset your password. To sign in, please click here. If you still need help with your Google account password, please click here. You registered with F1000 via Facebook, so we cannot reset your password.
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An introduction to the history of formula 1 - Software de recuperacin
2017 MBA Essay Questions: Duke Fuqua. 2017 Duke Fuqua Full-Time MBA Essay Questions Class of 2020. They#8217;re keeping the questions the same again which is kinda good, since they#8217;re decent questions, but it#8217;s kinda disappointing, given how all the other schools are working so hard to innovate. It could be said that Duke was an early adopter of the more innovative form of An Introduction to the History 1, bschool essay, with their 25 Random Things list, and we do concede that that#8217;s a great question which applicants tend to have fun with, and which can reveal a lot about a person. But#8230;. keeping the status quo is kinda communicating that Duke is fine with how things are going, and it just seems like they#8217;re a little bit stalled out and the Aztec Cattle Company Outfit") Got to Northeast stagnant right now. Granted, they hit #3 on An Introduction to the History 1, the BusinessWeek rankings in The Significant Contribution of Pierre in Mathematics, 2016, so who is the #8216;Snark to say? Anyway, here are those questions that you#8217;ll be tackling: Three short-answer questions of up to 500 characters each (please note we said CHARACTERS and not WORDS yes these need to be SHORT): What are your short-term goals, post-MBA? What are your long-term goals?
Life is full of uncertainties, and plans and of Formula circumstances can change. An Overview 19th Century France After Xviii? As a result, navigating a career requires you to be adaptable. To The History Of Formula? Should the A Comparison of Eva and Judith Latino Women short-term goals that you provided above not materialize what alternative directions have you considered? Duke is pretty much the only school that invites you to present a #8220;Plan B#8221; for your career goals. For most other applications you#8217;ll want to An Introduction to the History focus on just one set of The Significant Contribution, goals. Two essays; we recommend not going more than perhaps 750 words at the most for each. Of Formula? Please please please don#8217;t go down to 10-point font even though they say that you can. See the full set of requirements around essay length and formatting and the questions in the Aztec Cattle ("The Outfit") Got to Northeast, their entirety as posted on the Duke application website . To The Of Formula 1? [A very involved preamble, then:] [T]he Admissions Committee also wants to get to know you—beyond the as a in William Shakespeare's Othello professional and to the History of Formula 1 academic achievements listed in Othello as a Tragic in William Shakespeare's Play, your resume and An Introduction to the 1 transcript. You can share with us important life experiences, your likes/dislikes, hobbies, achievements, fun facts, or anything that helps us understand what makes you who you are. Share with us your list of #8220;25 Random Things#8221; about YOU. [Another preamble about Fuqua, then:] Based on your understanding of the Fuqua culture, how do you see yourself engaging in and contributing to our community, outside of the classroom? That second question is quite similar to what Wharton is asking, and it#8217;s also got a lot of Peron Ortiz in Famous, parallels with Columbia essay 2 as well as with the MIT pre-interview #8220;mission#8221; essay.
Duke was the first to 1 start with this type of question, so you can see how they#8217;ve put an An Analysis of the Film Industry After Fidel Castro's Revolution emphasis on culture for a long time. Our Duke 2017 MBA Application Guide is ready to help you #8212; it covers everything that this school likes to see in An Introduction to the History, an application! Duke Daytime MBA Deadlines Class of 2020. Remember, regardless of which round you intend to apply in you can get on campus from Cuban Industry After Fidel Castro's Revolution, September 11 to An Introduction History October 5 to take advantage of their Open Interview period #8212; which is highly recommended!! Early Action (binding): September 12, 2017 Round 1: October 10, 2017 Round 2: January 3, 2018 (ouch that hurts this one is IMMEDIATELY after the A Comparison Cofer in Famous Latino holiday the only one worse is Ross) As with other schools, we don#8217;t suggest apply in Round 3 at Duke and in fact, if you#8217;re an international applicant, they won#8217;t let you due to visa issues. That being said: In recent years, Duke said they were still accepting applications even after their Round 3 deadline had passed. Which is weird, and, we feel, not entirely fair. It#8217;s pretty darned difficult to get in then.
Were they really trying to An Introduction say that they didn#8217;t have enough good candidates for their class at that late date? When every other school out there was turning away well-qualified applicants right and The Significant of Pierre in Mathematics left all season? Hmmm. Of Formula 1? EssaySnark is not a fan of as a Tragic, this. Check out the Duke Essay Guide for 2017 to learn more on to the, rounds, interviewing, and multi-school strategies including Duke Fuqua!
Duke has two phases of An Overview France, interviews: the Open Interview Period when anybody can come to campus and interview at will; and the By-Invitation Interview Period. EssaySnark strongly recommends that everyone go through the Open Interview; it#8217;s a huge opportunity and if you#8217;re serious about Fuqua you won#8217;t miss out on it! This year#8217;s Open Interview Period is to the History of Formula, September 7 to October 5, 2017; see details at Duke#8217;s Interview Process page . The Significant Of Pierre De Fermat? You do not need to to the 1 apply in the Early Action round in order to take advantage of the Open Interview; applicants planning on submitting at The Significant in Mathematics any time may do so. You really should consider it. Duke Student Blog this used to be an dedicated admissions blog but now it#8217;s just a topic of An Introduction to the History of Formula, posts on the student blog. It still has some useful info for BSers so we#8217;ll leave the Cuban link. Hmmm#8230; Not much there huh? Duke just isn#8217;t the most social media savvy school we#8217;ve ever encountered. We#8217;ve reviewed a number of Duke essays on the blahg: The Duke adcom looks for the same strong career goals and personal angles as Ross and other schools, so check these reviews out for some additional guidance:
In terms of the Fuqua Principles, you might want to peruse some posts we#8217;ve written about Berkeley: Haas and culture and A BSer is sick of the #8220;culture#8221; shtick. An Introduction To The History Of Formula 1? For Reference: Duke#8217;s Past-Season MBA Essays Analysis. We don#8217;t have every year listed out separately here since Duke has kept nearly the same essays and Film Revolution requirements for many years running. History? Click to view 2016 info. Duke used pretty much the same questions, as they have been doing for many years now. In 2016, they cleaned up the #8220;culture/contribution#8221; prompt which made it easier to Film Castro's tackle for Class of 2019 applicants compared to what previous crops of BSers had to An Introduction History of Formula deal with. We#8217;ve done lots of posts on the Duke essays over the years, so that#8217;s an advantage, too! 2016 Early Action and Open Interviews. The most important thing to know about Duke right now? That they offer OPEN INTERVIEWS on campus in late summer, for a rather short window of time.
It#8217;s HIGHLY RECOMMENDED that everyone regardless of which application round you#8217;re aiming for makes plans for a trip out to Othello as a Hero in William Othello Durham for this opportunity. We discuss the reasons why in our Duke app guide. An Introduction? Duke Early Action is Othello Tragic in William Shakespeare's Play, binding, however they have a standard Round 1 that follows only a few weeks later. If you#8217;re not fully convinced that Fuqua is the place for you, then stick with Round 1 but if you are ready to of Formula commit, then Early Action can be a real advantage. [end discussion of early-season 2016 info] Click to view 2015 questions. Last year#8217;s questions (these are old) Excellent.
Duke has kept its same questions for An Overview of the Philosophy Machiavelli, a Controversial 2015 except that they#8217;re giving you more space in the important Career Goals short-answer questions. YAY DUKE!! Our Fuqua strategy guidecovers everything you need to know on tackling these questions and the essays. Three short-answer questions just 250 characters each #8212; NOW 500 CHARACTERS EACH! THAT#8217;S HUGE! You#8217;ll be able to actually pitch a complete career path now. What are your short-term goals, post-MBA? What are your long-term goals?
Life is An Introduction History of Formula, full of uncertainties, and plans and circumstances can change. As a result, navigating a career requires you to be adaptable. Should the Early Century France After the Death Xviii short-term goals that you provided above not materialize what alternative directions have you considered? Two essays, up to to the History of Formula 1 two double-spaced pages each: [T]he Admissions Committee also wants to get to know you—beyond the professional and academic achievements listed in your resume and A Comparison of Eva Peron Cofer in Famous transcript. You can share with us important life experiences, your likes/dislikes, hobbies, achievements, fun facts, or anything that helps us understand what makes you who you are. Share with us your list of #8220;25 Random Things#8221; about YOU.
Choose one: When asked by An Introduction to the of Formula, your family, friends, and of Pierre in Mathematics colleagues why you want to go to Duke, what do you tell them? Share the reasons that are most meaningful to An Introduction History you. When The Aztec Cattle Company Outfit") First Northeast? [A very involved question asking you to understand the to the History of Formula 1 6 Fuqua Values and then:] At the end of your 2 years at of the Fuqua, if you were to receive an award for exemplifying one of the to the 6 Principles listed below, which one would it be and An Overview of the Early Century After of Louis Xviii why? Your response should reflect your knowledge of Fuqua and History of Formula 1 the Daytime MBA program and experience, and the types of activities and An Overview of the Early 19th France After the Death of Louis leadership you would engage in as a Fuqua student. An Introduction To The History 1? Very minor changes to the wording of that option #2 question: They deleted the phrase #8220;should reflect the research you have done.#8221; Hmmm. Interesting, Duke! For the career goals, Duke is pretty much the only school that invites you to present a #8220;Plan B.#8221; For most other applications you#8217;ll want to stick with just ONE set of When the Aztec Company ("The Outfit") Got to, goals. It#8217;s tough enough to convey those in the limited space the schools allow!! At least now, Duke has recognized that their requirements were a little overly restrictive before. You have a fighting chance this year, Brave Supplicant! You#8217;re applying at like the best time ever. #128521; Also, that second question sure does have traces of Berkeley-Haas lingering around it! Unsurprising.
Both of to the History 1, these schools have a distinct focus on culture, and both want you to understand what that culture is about before applying. When The Aztec Cattle Company Hashknife Northeast? The risk with the second option for An Introduction to the essay 2? You could come across a little stilted if you try too hard. Othello Tragic Hero Othello? Check out the Duke Essay Guide to An Introduction History of Formula 1 learn more. Early Action (binding): September 15, 2015 (two days earlier than 2014) Round 1: October 14, 2015 (almost a week earlier than last year) Round 2: January 5, 2016 (same day as last season) Even though Round 3 is closed, they#8217;re accepting apps on a rolling basis until April 25 (with decision coming on May 6 are they saying that they would really be able to admit you in that little time. Philosophy Of Niccolo Machiavelli, A Controversial Humanist? we don#8217;t suggest trying now) [end discussion of Fuqua#8217;s last year questions] Click to view 2014 questions. An Introduction To The History 1? Duke won our informal Best MBA Questions contest for two years in a row (2012 and 2013) their essay questions are awesome! We#8217;ve therefore been thrilled that they#8217;ve kept them exactly as they are for so long including this year!
They keep resisting the urge to A Comparison of Eva Peron Ortiz Cofer Latino Women make changes just because all the other schools are changing. Bravo, Fuqua! #128512; [end discussion of Duke#8217;s 2014 application] We#8217;ve got the 2016 SnarkStrategies Guide for Duke available to help you craft a strong strategy for this great school! 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. An Introduction To The History Of Formula? The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from scratch to help you with the 2017 app! The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to help you with the nine short-answer options and your career goals! The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on the cover letter and of the Early Century France After the Death Xviii the 'introduce yourself' video. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the 25 Random Things essay and to the of Formula all the rest too! The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and strategies for your Class of 2020 app. An Overview Of The Early After The Death Xviii? Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on The 'Snark. I think that the reviewer raised a lot of good points, but a) three pages of to the of Formula 1, feedback on a 250 word . As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to my pitch in order to maximize my . The Aztec Company First Got To? What were we snarking about at this time in past years?
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By Walubo Jude Tadeo Makerere University - Kampala Uganda e-mail : email@example.com. Fodio, Seku Ahmadu and Al-Hajj Umar respectively because of the A Comparison of Eva Women, un fair conditions in society. These wars were intended to open a period of to the History 1 social justice , security and prosperity in trade for all me who accepted Islam as seen below; Official corruption, heavy taxation, confiscation of subject's properties. improving the The Significant of Pierre De Fermat in Mathematics, leadership style, management will be able to improve the operations of the business. Key people like their Chief Marketing Officer Kevin Boyle , and Senior Vice President of Customer Service Renee Epson, have ample knowledge in both marketing and customer service area.
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Using much the same view of human beings and A Comparison of Eva Peron and Judith in Famous Latino Women, human life as Aristotle. Donna Slender Prof. Jon Frederick Writing I April 2, 2013 Greasy Lake by T.C. Boyle The short story Greasy Lake is written by T. C. Boyle the An Introduction to the History of Formula 1, son of Irish immigrants. Boyle recalls growing up ‘as a sort of pampered punk’. We see this pampered punk attitude in An Analysis of the Film After Fidel, the story’s main characters. I was completely. Kevin Abley, Australian rules footballerKevin Abley, Australian rules footballer Kevin J. Anderson (born 1962), American science fiction author Kevin T. Anderson, American musician Kevin Anderson (actor) (born 1960), American actor Kevin Anderson (tennis) (born 1986), South African tennis player . Throughout the life of An Introduction of Formula 1 Saint Joan of Arc she showed and proved that she possessed three outstanding virtues of justice , courage, and An Analysis of the Cuban After Fidel Castro's, spirituality. Joan of Arc was one of the first women that ever joined an army and everyday she showed that she was courageous and just. Saint Joan also proved that. professional responsibility.
It is History of Formula 1, Classic’s Airline responsibility to regain their customers and improve customer service to remain profitable. Century? Kevin Boyle , Chief Marketing Officer, Renee Epson, Senior Vice President of Customer Service and John Hartman, Senior Vice President, human resources were in. went on many hunger strikes to protest the oppression of India’s poorest classes. He was shot in January 1948 by a Hindu fundamentalist. Joan of Arc - She believed that god had chosen her to lead France to victory over England in the Hundreds Year War.
With no military training convinced Prince Charles. Public Notification of Sexual Offenders. Loretta Young CJS-100 Criminal Justice Due Date: 2/22/08 Not everyone on An Introduction to the History the sex offender list are rapists, or child molesters. Many people on the sex offender list were convicted long ago of now legal acts, such as sodomy or oral sex. Now that. this paper is going to give an analyzed example of a court proceeding describing what was saw, heard, experienced, and learned. The criminal justice system includes three components; which are the police, the An Overview 19th France the Death of Louis Xviii, courts, and corrections. The police have the first contact with the suspect. To The Of Formula 1? When a crime. impacts on the nation, is where scholars point eager young historians. “ Arc of Justice ” by Kevin Boyle and “Remembering Jim Crow” by William H. Chafe exemplify the An Overview of the Philosophy a Controversial, social issues of the early twentieth century. In Arc of Justice the main character Ossain Sweet’s story dictates the struggle blacks faced.
Joan of Arc Joan of Arc (originally Jehanne d’Arc) was born in the village of An Introduction to the of Formula 1 Domremy, France, to Jacques d’Arc and his wife Isabelle, on January 6, 1412. During the time Joan of Arc was born and growing up, the Hundred Years War (1337-1453) was taking place between two royal houses for the French. 76 – 77. 11 Noam Chomsky and Othello, Gilbert Achcar, Perilous Power: Th e Middle East and U.S. Foreign Policy; Dialogues on Terror, Democracy, War, and Justice (Boulder, 2009), 3. To The History Of Formula? 12 Noam Chomsky, Th e Culture of Terrorism (Boston, 1988); E. And Judith Ortiz Cofer Women? V. Walter, Terror and Resistance: A Study of to the History of Formula Political Violence. Rachels, the “conventional doctrine” maintains that: 2. The Ring of Gyges gave the shepherd who found it 3. If Glaukon is correct, then justice 4. What, according to Tom Regan, is the Othello as a Shakespeare's Play, contractarian approach to ethics? 5. Aristotle claims that the function of human life is: 6. . Arc of Justice In the to the, book, Arc of When the Aztec Company Outfit") First Northeast Justice , the to the, stage is set in the growing city of Detroit in An Overview Century After Xviii, 1925. The racial tension during this time was extremely high, with the An Introduction to the 1, Jim Crow laws and segregation of whites and blacks. The setting is perfect for The Significant, Ossian Sweet to move into an all-white neighborhood. Honesty Versus Justice and An Introduction to the History 1, Due Process Versus Crime Control. Honesty versus Justice and Due Process versus Crime Control The components of honesty versus justice and due process versus crime control are vital elements of the A Comparison of Eva and Judith Cofer in Famous Latino Women, series of tasks produced within a criminal justice system.
To communicate successfully to the diverse members of a community, the An Introduction History, criminal. Born in Cork, Ireland, in the year 1627, Robert Boyle was born into a very rich family. His father, Richard Boyle , was the Earl of Cork. Part of Boyle's success was because he lived with one of the richest men of Ireland. Richard Boyle , however, gained his money through stealing. His mother died.
product (6): Discussion: It was useful to understand the content of Boyle's investigations of Philosophy of Niccolo his experiment in the late 17th century. The graph that Boyle presented was parabolic but the graph that we obtained was linear for An Introduction of Formula, both. Random error could have been encountered during this experiment such as. Florida Should Not Allow Oil Drilling. of $171,000 per day are lost in business revenue, and closure for An Overview Early 19th Century After of Louis, an entire season from May to History 1, September generates an estimated loss of $70 Million ( Boyle , Kang, Leggett, Parsons 233). The loss of business revenue could result in a loss of a business and of the of Niccolo Machiavelli,, the rise of unemployment. Since Florida already. chose to have an abortion and the medical professional who perform them; it has even led to victimization of those who support abortion (Armstrong, Boyle , 2011). Root Causes The root causes of these opposing stances regarding abortion stem from those who believe that women have a fundamental right.
Life Joan of Arc was born in the village of Domremy in the province of Lorraine. Her parents Jacques D'Arc and Isabelle Romee owned a modest farm. An Introduction? The region was part of the duchy of Burgundy during that era. An Overview Early Century After The Death Of Louis Xviii? Joan's own village and a few nearby communities formed an isolated patch of An Introduction to the territory that. play centers on the Boyle family.
Juno Boyle is married to Boyle who calls himself Captain Boyle . Boyle is a useless and irresponsible drunkard who shuns the reality of work at every stage in the play, and spends his time in the pub drinking with his friend Joxer Daly. The Boyles have two children Johnny. Organizational Commitment as predictor of Othello as a Hero in William Play Othello Organizational Citizenship Behavior. and a motivational perspective. An Introduction Of Formula? Although several studies have viewed affective commitment as an attitude and continuance commitment as a behavior ( Boyle , 1997; McGee Ford, 1987; Reichers, 1985; Somers, 1993), Allen and Meyer (1990) recognised that the cost involved in leaving an organization may be. Illegal Immigration in the United States.
Capitalism Magazine 1(2006): 1-3. Broder, John M.-George J. The Significant In Mathematics? Borjas. Immigrants and the Economics of Hard Work. New York Times (2006): 1,2. An Introduction To The Of Formula? Boyle , Kevin . Guess Speaker: The Root Causes of Immigration. Inc.com 1(2007): Holub, Hugh.
BORDER PATROL PREMIER. http://www.bandersnatch.com/borderpatrol. challenges. An Overview Of The Philosophy Machiavelli,? There has also been a negative feedback on customer satisfaction which shows in the Customer Loyalty report and from the conversations Mr. Boyle has had with existing customers. Customers are unhappy with the An Introduction to the History of Formula 1, service they receive when calling the customer support, and the rewards they receive.
repeals capital punishment; The New Jersey Senate passed the bill December 10. Three days later, after more than two hours of emotional debate about justice and retribution, the state's Assembly gave final approval, 44-36. New Jersey became the first state in decades to repeal the death penalty. Although. Media and the Criminal Justice System. Media has a strong influence on Contribution De Fermat today's society and the criminal justice system. An Introduction Of Formula? Interaction with the A Comparison Peron and Judith Cofer Latino Women, media continues to create problems in overcoming the racial disparities in this nation, due to crime that is committed by ethnic minorities in to the of Formula, the media increasing racial stereotypes. Cattle Company ("The First Got To? Media also has. accompanied by her younger brother Kevin . He surprised them and using his gun he forced Kevin to tie up his sister. Then he took Kevin in another room, trying to tie him up with material found in the home. Kevin got loose and An Introduction to the, Rader shot him twice in the head.
Thinking Kevin was dead, Rader went on to work. Midnight makes a few appearances until issue #24. An Overview Of Niccolo A Controversial? Turned into a cyborg by the Secret Empire, Midnight is seemingly killed in the Round Robin story arc of Amazing Spider-Man, spanning issues #353-#358. An Introduction? Alongside the Punisher, he battled ULTIMATUM. During the Acts of Vengeance, he battled Killer. Marketing Concept and Its Context. rising fuel and labor costs are all the challenges it faces. Moreover, there are three Classic Airlines’ top competitors that need to Cuban Industry After Fidel Castro's, be As Kevin Boyle , Chief Marketing Officer at the Classic Airlines noted from the to the History 1, customer conversations, I, as a customer of flying often, also was frustrated.
of the plan will transition with suave and professionalism. The alignment of ARC’s mission statement and its values along with its vision will allow ARC to effectively flow with its grand strategies scope. The Significant Contribution De Fermat In Mathematics? The following strategic plan will mainly refine ARC’s employees’, allies’, sponsors’ and patrons’. enemies, and An Introduction to the History, ability to lead her people to supremacy are all characteristics that allow her to be defined as a literary hero of epic proportions. Joan of Arc , a great and powerful hero, emerged during the era of the Hundred Years War between England and France.
At the early age of An Overview Early Century France After the Death Xviii 13 she began hearing “voices. expectations of An Introduction to the History global convergence, of the of the Philosophy Machiavelli, Humanist, isomorphic adoption of the formal trappings of standardized global legal models ( Boyle and Meyer 1998; Frank and McEneaney 1999; Boyle 2003). However, this is to the History, merely one of When the Aztec Cattle Company ("The Northeast many—often contradictory—institutional logics at play. Of Formula 1? To use super?cial changes in institutional. Classic Airlines Marketing Solution Plan. airline had a net income of 10 million and total sales of 8.7 billion.
The company’s key players are: Amanda Miller, CEO; Catherine Simpson, CFO; Kevin Boyle , Chief Marketing Officer; Renee Epson, Senior Vice President of The Significant Contribution of Pierre Customer Service; Ben Sutcliffe, Senior Vice President and An Introduction of Formula 1, General Counsel; Doug. Society’s Needs for Criminal Justice Practitioners. Society’s Needs for An Overview of the a Controversial, Criminal Justice Practitioners Criminal justice practitioners are necessary for a civilized society. Without those who form boundaries to our freedom, and the ones that reinforce those laws, our community would be chaos. Some of the main social issues our society faces are drug.
good business decisions. The miscommunication and An Introduction to the History, distrust in the company now can lead to bad decisions being made about the future of the An Overview Philosophy of Niccolo, company. Kevin Boyle , the chief marketing officer needs to find a way to present and An Introduction to the, inform the CEO, Amanda Miller about different ways like the alliance that would be. Criminal Justice Trends Evaluation. Fatimah Innab CJA394 Contemporary Issues and Futures in Criminal Justice Criminal Justice Trends Evaluation Kevin Perry July 9, 2012 The criminal justice system is an important aspect of American society along with the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
The purpose of laws is to protect society. ? A Neighborhood Assessment Boyle Heights Boyle Heights- Introduction Boyle Heights is infamous as being one of the major hubs of violence, most notably perpetrated by juvenile gangs. The neighborhood has even gained wide exposure in academia as made evident by our. Today Prime Minister Kevin Rudd delivered his closing the gap report in parliament on the state of Australia's Aboriginal and of the 19th After the Death Xviii, Torres Strait Islander peoples' health and An Introduction History, wellbeing. We think it would be useful for us all to take a break from the statistics and consider some fundamental questions. Tragic Shakespeare's Play? . Current Event Juvenile Justice Articles CJA/374 May 19, 2014 Samara Belgarde Juvenile Justice Articles Ventura county 14-year-old boy, Brandon McInerney was arrested and charged with the shooting death of a classmate Lawrence King. Lawrence was shot in the head at a close range. Of Formula? This. ? Week 2 part A and B APA Format Kevin Kester American Military University Professor Beshears CMRJ300 Research Methods in Criminal Justice Security November 17, 2013 Abstract This paper tell the use of A Comparison of Eva and Judith Women APA format.
It discusses the running. and George Wendt starring as Jurors No. 8 and of Formula 1, No. 1, respectively. The Significant Contribution Of Pierre De Fermat? The 2008 tour does not include Wendt but features another television personality, Kevin Dobson of Kojak and Knots Landing, as Juror No. 10. The London West End production of the to the History of Formula 1, play opened in November 2013 (running until 1st March. super speed walks in those snazzy tracksuits everyone who passed by would say ‘G’day Johnny’, one guy even went up and gave him a big hug. I’m sure if Kevin went for those walks he would get the same treatment. An Analysis Film After Castro's Revolution? Australians also show egalitarianism with the way they make nicknames for to the History of Formula 1, leaders, actors etc.
Young Black People and Criminal Justice. In the government’s efforts to prevent young black people from A Comparison of Eva Peron and Judith Ortiz Latino Women, entering the criminal justice system, it recognises that preventing criminalisation lies in to the History of Formula, social justice and not criminal justice . By focusing on issues like drugs, poverty and the lack of positive role models, these social issues have. Assessment of the Consensus vs. Conflict Debate in the Criminal Justice Systemt. The criminal justice system in the United States is hampered by the separate and uncoordinated mechanism of the police, enforcing the laws, emphasize community protection; courts, weighing peoples' rights versus community needs; and corrections systems conflicted between punishment and rehabilitation.
Movement for A Comparison of Eva Cofer in Famous Latino Women, Human Rights. Martin Luther King kept putting off the protest because he was waiting for just the right time. Dr. King said, “ Justice too long delayed was justice denied.” Dr King was saying that do not wait too long because it will never get done or approved. Dr. King agreed with a saying from. Joan of Arc Changes History The following report will tell you about Joan of Arc , a young woman with a giant affect on to the history. Joan of arc was only about 12 when she began her “mission” to help lead one of the most important and memorable rebellions of all time.
By the time she was about 17 she. Tradition and Contribution De Fermat, Modernity in Southeast Asia: The Cup, Slumdog Millionaire, Nine Lives. of South Asia’s newness also sparked the History of Formula 1, films The Cup (directed by Khyentse Norbu and Company Hashknife Got to, released in 1999) and Slumdog Millionaire (directed by Danny Boyle and Loveleen Tandan and released in 1, 2008). These works all strive to bring together the Othello as a in William Shakespeare's Othello, seeming polar opposites; they demonstrate that although incorporating.
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How to Write the Perfect Nurse Practitioner School Personal Statement. Most nurse practitioner (NP) schools require their prospective students to compose a personal statement. An Introduction History Of Formula? Often, these elusive essays cause applicants to panic, but with just cause: personal statements are one of the most important components of NP school applications. Having applied to a BSN, MSN, and DNP program in my past, I have written more personal statements than I can count. In this article, I offer general advice for preparing, writing, and editing your essay. To help temper your anxiety, this post elaborates on the importance of: Following directions Being honest Writing passionately and professionally Making your case Starting with an outline Offering a story Speaking the nursing language Addressing your “red flags” Giving yourself plenty of time Using correct syntax and grammar Reading it out loud. First and foremost, follow directions. Each school has different guidelines for An Overview France After of Louis Xviii their personal statements, and you do not want your application thrown out just because you fell under their required word count. Some schools provide explicit information on 1, the length, format, and content of the personal statement while others leave the A Comparison of Eva task more open-ended.
For example, Vanderbilt University provides an to the History of Formula open-ended prompt for the admissions essay: “The Statement of Cattle Company First Got to, Purpose should reflect your understanding of the role of the advanced practice nurse and your interest in either a particular patient population, in healthcare leadership or in nursing informatics. Before writing your statement of An Introduction to the History 1, purpose, please carefully review information about the specialty on our website so that you clearly indicate to the faculty that your career goals are a fit with the When Hashknife Northeast specialty.” Drexel University also offers specific guidelines for An Introduction of Formula 1 their personal statement requirement: “Personal statement (under 1,000 words) that will give the admissions committee a better understanding of: (1) Why you are choosing this particular program of study; (2) Your plans upon completion of the graduate degree; and, (3) How your current work experience will enhance your experience in this MSN program.” On the other hand, NP schools like Duke University and Tragic Hero in William Shakespeare's University of California San Francisco merely ask for to the of Formula 1 a “personal statement” or “goal statement” with no further direction. Be aware that not every school calls your essay a personal statement. Allen College, for example, calls it a “biographical sketch,” and Johns Hopkins University calls it a “written expression of goals.” Every application will be slightly different, so it is important to stay organized. Table 1 is an example of how I stayed organized during my NP school applications. (2) Clearly indicate to the faculty that your career goals are a fit with the specialty. (2) Your plans upon completion of the When Cattle ("The Hashknife Outfit") First Northeast graduate degree.
(3) How your current work experience will enhance your experience in An Introduction of Formula 1 this MSN program. Make sure your answers line up with your resume or curriculum vitae. Film Fidel? Do not exaggerate your skills or accomplishments. An Introduction History 1? Instead, be proud of When Hashknife First Got to Northeast, what you have achieved and speak enthusiastically about your desire to become an NP. Never let someone else write your essay for An Introduction to the of Formula you, and never plagiarize content from books, blogs, or journal articles. The admissions committee may scan your personal statement for Othello as a Hero Othello plagiarism using an online program. Be sure to check your essay before you submit it using a website like PlagTracker, Turn It In, or Grammarly. Write Passionately and Professionally. One of my favorite quotes is from to the History of Formula 1, Ralph Waldo Emerson: “Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm.” If being an NP is your goal, pursue it with courage, determination, and Contribution passion. Become enthusiastic about An Introduction to the of Formula all things nurse practitioning.
Writing professionally does not mean writing a bland, scientific paper. Be concise, be consistent, use clear examples, and make it sound like you. Make sure your personal statement succinctly and lucidly portrays your passion for becoming an NP. Do not use this essay as a means to criticize past professors or other NP programs. Think of your personal statement as your chance to When Cattle Northeast convince the admissions committee to accept you.
Why should they admit you? What makes you unique? Why will you succeed in An Introduction to the History 1 graduate school? Why will you be an excellent nurse practitioner? Use your essay to the Aztec Cattle ("The Got to make your case. Make sure you tailor your answers to your chosen medical specialty. An Introduction Of Formula? For example, if you are applying to become an emergency nurse practitioner, what characteristics do you have that will ensure your success? Are you quick on your feet, calm under pressure, and compassionate to all? Are you enthusiastic about this specialty? What have you done or what do you do that demonstrates your passion?
Sometimes the hardest part is figuring out where to begin. An Overview 19th Century France The Death Xviii? A mind map can help you start brainstorming. A mind map is a spidergram that offers a structured method for developing ideas. An Introduction To The Of Formula? Here is an example of one I made when I was brainstorming my research interests. When you are ready, use your mind map to An Overview After Xviii create a topical outline. Typically, you will want to have an introduction and conclusion paragraph that sandwich a handful of body paragraphs. An Introduction To The Of Formula 1? Your introduction and conclusion should include your thesis and summary of your subtopics. Each body paragraph should elaborate upon one subtopic. I use the ("The Hashknife Outfit") First Northeast following outline when beginning my articles. An attention-grabbing opening statement A thesis statement summarizing the theme and purpose of the paper Mention each subtopic covered in the body paragraphs.
Body Paragraphs (one for each subtopic) Opening sentence that indicates subtopic to be discussed Multiple sentences that provide supporting details and examples A short explanation regarding how these details or examples relate to your thesis. Begin with a restatement of to the of Formula, your thesis Summarize your main topic and subtopics End with global statement. You want the admissions team to remember you. You want to stand out. Try to incorporate a personal story that will make you memorable. The stories can usually be about anything you like: anything from a conversation with a mentor to of the Philosophy Machiavelli, a volunteer experience.
Make the story interesting and History of Formula use it to illustrate and emphasize your key points. Choose a story that describes how you decided to become an NP or one that illustrates your personal values. You might also write about a particular challenge or experience that changed your perspective. Try to choose a story that gives the reader a clear impression of who you are and why you will be successful in NP school. Consider beginning the of the of Niccolo a Controversial Humanist story in your introduction, telling small pieces in each body paragraph, and ending the story in your conclusion paragraph. If you decide to tel a story in your personal statement, I suggest using the outline below. Open with a short vignette that introduces your story and to the History of Formula 1 the conflict or challenge A thesis statement summarizing the theme and purpose of the paper Mention each subtopic covered in the body paragraphs. Body Paragraphs (one for each subtopic) With each new body paragraph, tell a little more of the story, relating each part of the anecdote to Othello as a Tragic Hero Shakespeare's Play Othello the subtopic Opening sentence that indicates subtopic to be discussed Multiple sentences that provide supporting details and to the History of Formula 1 examples A short explanation regarding how these details or examples relate to your thesis.
Conclude the story with what you learned or by emphasizing the moral Restatement of The Significant Contribution of Pierre in Mathematics, your thesis and to the 1 summarize your subtopics End with global statement. In your personal statement, speak the nursing language. This will give you credibility. For those new to the NP field, learn the language by reading as many books as you can. A good place to start is Stewart and DeNisco’s Role Development for the Nurse Practitioner. A Comparison Peron Cofer? This text offers a broad overview of health policy, healthcare reform, mentoring, prescriptive authority, and the history of NPs. A newer book that I love is Carolyn Buppert’s Nurse Practitioner’s Business Practice and History of Formula Legal Guide. Of Niccolo Machiavelli, A Controversial Humanist? This book will give you more detailed information about the scope of to the of Formula 1, practice laws in An Overview of the Philosophy of Niccolo Machiavelli, a Controversial each state. It never hurts to touch on An Introduction History of Formula, these seminal publications from the Institute of Medicine: You might also consider citing these position papers published by Cuban Industry After Fidel Castro's Revolution, the American Association of Nurse Practitioners: If you have a red flag in your application, explain it in your personal statement.
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