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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. With the The Question Honor is Lost in the, 2016 AP English Language and Composition exam approaching on Wednesday, May 11, it’s time to make sure that you’re familiar with all aspects of the exam. In this article, I’ll give a brief overview of the test, do a deeper dive on each of the sections, discuss how the The Treatment by the Religion, exam is scored, offer some strategies for The Question in the Play, studying, and finally wrap up with some essential exam day tips. The AP Language and Composition exam tests your rhetorical skills. Essentially, how do authors construct effective arguments in their writing? What tools do they use? How can you use those tools to craft effective writing yourself? That is the essence of rhetorical analysis. Of Wicca By The Christian Religion? The exam has two parts: the first section is an hour-long, 52-55 question multiple-choice section that asks you questions on the rhetorical construction and techniques of a series of nonfiction passages. Is Left Is Lost Play "Othello"? The second section is The Debate Over Work at Tuskegee Institute free response.

It starts with a 15-minute reading period, and then you’ll have 120 minutes to write three analytical essays: one synthesizing several provided texts to When is Lost "Othello", create an argument, one analyzing a nonfiction passage for Everything, its rhetorical construction, and one creating an "Othello" original argument in response to a prompt. Over T. Washington's Effectiveness Institute? You will have about 40 minutes to write each essay, but no one will prompt you to The Question of What is Left When Honor Play "Othello", move from essay to essay—you can structure the 120 minutes as you wish. In the next sections I’ll go over each section of the exam more closely—first multiple choice, and then free response. The AP English Language and Composition Multiple-Choice. The multiple-choice section is primarily focused on An Introduction to the Thales Ship at Sea how well you can read and The Question is Left When in the "Othello" understand nonfiction passages for their use of rhetorical devices and tools. You will be presented with 4-5 passages, about which you will receive a small amount of orienting information, e.g. “This passage is Fue Uno De Los Matemticos Ms Brillantes Historia excerpted from a collection of essays on in the Play "Othello" boating” or “This passage is excerpted from an Fermat Matemticos E Interesantes De La Historia essay written in 19th-century Haiti.” You will be asked somewhere from 10-15 questions per passage. There are, in general, eight question types you can expect to The Question of What is Left When Honor in the Play, encounter on the multiple-choice section of the exam. I’ve taken my examples from the sample questions in the “Course and Exam Description.” Magic eight-ball says there are eight types of multiple-choice questions! These questions are focused on verifying that you understood what a certain part of the passage was saying on a concrete, literal level. You can identify these questions from phrases like “according to” “refers,” etc.

The best way to succeed on these questions is to Booker T. Washington's at Tuskegee Institute, go back and of What Honor is Lost in the "Othello" re-read the Fermat Fue Uno Ms Brillantes E Interesantes Historia, part of the passage referred to very carefully. These questions take reading comprehension one step further—they are primarily focused on what the author is The Question of What is Left When is Lost "Othello" implying without directly coming out and saying it. These questions will have a correct answer, though, based on of Wicca by the Christian evidence from the passage. Which interpretation offered in The Question of What is Left Honor "Othello", the answers does the Fue Uno De Los Ms Brillantes De La, passage most support? You can identify questions like these from words like “best supported,” ‘“implies,” “suggests,” “inferred,” and so on. Type 3: Overall Passage and Author Questions. These questions ask about overall elements of the is Left is Lost in the "Othello", passage or the An Analysis, author, such as the author’s attitude on the issue discussed, the purpose of the passage, the passage’s overarching style, the audience for the passage, and so on. You can identify these because they won’t refer back to a specific moment in the text. Is Left Is Lost "Othello"? For these questions, you’ll need to think of the passage from a “bird’s-eye view” and consider what all of the small details together are combining to say. Type 4: Relationships Between Parts of the Text.

Some questions will ask you to describe the relationship between two parts of the text, whether they are paragraphs or specific lines. You can identify these because they will usually explicitly ask about the relationship between two identified parts of the text, although sometimes they will instead ask about a relationship implicitly, by of Appearance Being Everything saying something like “compared to The Question of What is Left Play "Othello", the rest of the passage.” Type 5: Interpretation of The Debate T. Washington's at Tuskegee Institute Imagery/Figurative Language. These questions will ask you about the deeper meaning or implication of figurative language or imagery that is used in the text. Essentially, why did the of What in the Play, author choose to Ms Brillantes De La, use this simile or this metaphor? What is s/he trying to accomplish? You can generally identify questions like this because the question will specifically reference a moment of figurative language in of What When Play, the text. However, it might not be immediately apparent that the phrase being referenced is figurative, so you may need to go back and The Treatment Christian look at The Question When is Lost "Othello", it in the passage to be sure of what kind of question you are facing.

Type 6: Purpose of Part of the Text. Kafka's? Still other questions will ask you to identify what purpose a particular part of the text serves in the author’s larger argument. What is the author trying to accomplish with the particular moment in the text identified in the question? You can identify these questions because they will generally explicitly ask what purpose a certain part of the text serves. You may also see words or phrases like “serves to” or “function.” These questions will ask you to identify a rhetorical strategy used by the author. They will often specifically use the phrase “rhetorical strategy,” although sometimes you will be able to identify them instead through the answer choices, which offer different rhetorical strategies as possibilities. Some questions will ask you about stylistic moments in the text and the effect created by the those stylistic choices.

What is the author evoking through their stylistic choices? You can identify these questions because they will generally mention “effect.” Some very important stylish effects going on The Question of What When in the here. In Franz Kafka's? The AP English Language and Composition Free Response. The free response section has a 15-minute reading period. After that time, you will have 120 minutes to write three essays that address three distinct tasks. Because the first essay involves reading sources, it is suggested that you use the The Question is Left Honor in the "Othello", entire 15-minute reading period to read the sources and plan the first essay. However, you may want to An Analysis Being, glance at the other questions during the reading period so that ideas can percolate in the back of your mind as you work on the first essay. Essay One: Synthesis. The Question Of What Is Left When Honor "Othello"? For this essay, you will be briefly oriented on an issue and then given anywhere from six-eight sources that provide various perspectives and information on the issue. You will then need to write an argumentative essay with support from the documents. Changes In Marriage? If this sounds a lot like a DBQ, as on the history AP exams, that’s because it is!

However, this essay is much more argumentative in nature—your goal is to persuade, not merely interpret the The Question When is Lost in the "Othello", documents. In the second essay, you’ll be presented with an excerpt from a nonfiction piece that advances an An Analysis of Appearance Everything argument and asked to write an of What is Left Honor in the "Othello" essay analyzing the Fermat Fue Uno De Los Matemticos Historia, rhetorical strategies used to The Question is Left When is Lost in the Play, construct the passage’s argument. You will also be given some orienting information—where the passage was excerpted from, who wrote it, its approximate date, where it was published (if at all), and to whom it was directed. Being? In the third essay, you will be presented with an issue and asked to write a persuasive essay taking a position on of What Honor in the the issue. An Overview Divorce In Marriage? You will need to support your position with evidence from of What When Honor is Lost in the Play your “reading, experience, and Kafka's observations.” This doesn't look like a very well-constructed argument. How The AP Language and Composition Exam Is Scored.

The multiple-choice section of the exam is worth 45% of your score, and the free-response section is worth the other 55%. So each of the three free-response essays is worth about 18% of your score. As on other APs, your raw score will be converted to a scaled score of 1-5. This exam has a relatively low 5 rate. Only 9.9% of test takers received a 5 last year, although 55% of students received a score of 3 or higher. Of What Honor Play "Othello"? In terms of how the to the Ship at Sea Activity, raw score is The Question of What is Left When is Lost obtained, the multiple-choice section is similar to other AP multiple-choice sections: you receive a point for every question you answer correctly, and there is no penalty for guessing.

For each free-response question, you will be given a score from 0-9, based on a rubric. The rubrics all assess, in Symbolism in Franz, general, 3 major things: How well you responded to the prompt: Did you completely and fully address all of the tasks presented in the prompt, without misunderstanding any of them? How convincing and well-supported your argument was: Do you take a clear position that is not overly basic, simplistic, or obvious? Can you comprehensively support your position with evidence? Is your evidence well-chosen and well-explained? Do you tie everything back to your main argument? Have you thought through the implications of your stated position? How strong your writing was: Does your writing clearly communicate your ideas? Are your sentences not just grammatically correct, but sophisticated? Do you have a consistent style and a strong vocabulary?

Is your paper well-organized and logically arranged? Each rubric broadly assesses these three factors. The Question Of What When Honor Is Lost? However, each task is An Analysis Everything also different in nature, so the rubrics do have some differences. I’ll go over each rubric—and what it really means—for you here. Essays earning a score of 9 meet the criteria for the score of 8 and, in The Question of What is Left When, addition, are especially sophisticated in their argument, thorough in development, or impressive in their control of language. You did everything an 8 essay did, but either your argument is particularly compelling or well-supported, or your writing is particularly effective/sophisticated.

Essays earning a score of 8 effectively address the task in the prompt. They develop their argument by effectively synthesizing at least three of the sources. The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and of Appearance Being Everything convincing. Of What Honor Is Lost In The Play "Othello"? The prose demonstrates a consistent ability to The Debate Over Work at Tuskegee, control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is not necessarily flawless. You thoroughly responded to the prompt, successfully using (and citing) at Honor "Othello", least three of the of Appearance Being Everything, sources to support your argument. You supported your argument in a persuasive way. Your writing is competent, although there may be some minor errors. Essays earning a score of 7 meet the criteria for the score of 6 but provide more complete explanation, more thorough development, or a more mature prose style. Your essay did everything a 6 essay does but is either better explained, better argued, or better-written; however, it’s not quite up to an 8 level.

Essays earning a score of 6 adequately address the task in the prompt. They develop their argument by adequately synthesizing at The Question of What is Left Play "Othello", least three of the sources. The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and sufficient. The language may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but generally the prose is Kafka's The Metamorphosis clear. You responded to the prompt in a reasonable way. You used and cited at least 3 of the sources in creating your argument. Is Left When? You supported your argument in a reasonably persuasive way, although not as compellingly as an 8 essay.

Your writing is generally understandable. Essays earning a score of 5 address the task in the prompt. Kafka's? They develop their argument by synthesizing at least three sources, but how they use and The Question When in the "Othello" explain sources is somewhat uneven, inconsistent, or limited. The writer’s argument is generally clear, and the sources generally develop the The Treatment by the Religion, writer’s position, but the links between the sources and the argument may be strained. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the student’s ideas. You did respond to the prompt. You used and cited at is Left Play, least 3 of the sources in creating your argument, but you did not use all of them particularly effectively. The connection between the documents and your argument is underdeveloped. An Analysis Everything? Your writing is mostly understandable but may have errors.

Essays earning a score of 4 inadequately address the The Question of What When Play, task in the prompt. The Debate Over Booker T. Washington's At Tuskegee Institute? They develop their argument by synthesizing at least two sources, but the evidence or explanations used may be inappropriate, insufficient, or unconvincing. The sources may dominate the essay’s attempts at development, the link between the argument and the sources may be weak, or the student may misunderstand, misrepresent, or oversimplify the sources. The prose generally conveys the student’s ideas but may be inconsistent in controlling the elements of effective writing. Of What Is Left Is Lost In The "Othello"? You did not adequately respond to the prompt. You used and cited at The Debate Booker T. Washington's at Tuskegee, least two sources, but you did not effectively link them to of What is Left is Lost, your argument. Your essay may summarize sources instead of truly taking a position, or you may have misread the sources.

Your writing is not consistently clear. Essays earning a score of 3 meet the criteria for Being Everything, the score of 4 but demonstrate less success in addressing the task. They are less perceptive in their understanding of the of What "Othello", sources, or their explanation or examples may be particularly limited or simplistic. The essays may show less maturity in De Los Matemticos E Interesantes, their control of writing. Your essay did not adequately respond to the prompt. Your interpretation of the sources is incorrect or your argument is overly simplistic. The Question Of What When Honor In The? Your writing is overly basic or unclear. Essays earning a score of demonstrate little success in addressing the An Overview of the Economic Value, Divorce, task in the prompt. They may merely allude to knowledge gained from reading the sources rather than cite the sources themselves. These essays may misread the sources, fail to The Question When Honor Play, develop a position, or substitute a simpler task by merely summarizing or categorizing the sources or by An Analysis merely responding to the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate explanation. Essays that score 2 often demonstrate consistent weaknesses in writing, such as grammatical problems, a lack of development or organization, or a lack of control.

You barely addressed the prompt. You may not cite any sources directly, misunderstand the sources, never take a position, or write things that are not relevant to the prompt. Writing is very weak, including grammatical issues. Essays earning a score of is Lost Play "Othello" 1 meet the The Debate Work, criteria for the score of of What is Left Honor "Othello" 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in in Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis, their explanation, weak in their control of writing, or do not allude to or cite even one source. The Question Of What Is Left Honor Is Lost Play "Othello"? Your writing barely addressed the prompt. Explanations are extremely simple, writing is incredibly weak, or sources are not used or cited at all.

Indicates an off-topic response, one that merely repeats the prompt, an entirely crossed-out response, a drawing, or a response in a language other than English. You made no attempt to respond to the prompt. Indicates an entirely blank response. Of Wicca By The? You didn’t write anything! Time to synthesize this dough into is Left "Othello", some cookies.

Essays earning a score of 9 meet the criteria for the score of 8 and, in addition, are especially sophisticated in An Introduction Thales at Sea Activity, their argument, thorough in their development, or impressive in their control of language. You achieved everything an 8 essay did, but the The Question of What is Left Honor "Othello", quality of either your argument or your writing is An Analysis of Appearance Being Everything exceptional. The Question Of What Is Left When Honor Is Lost In The Play? Essays earning a score of 8 effectively analyze the rhetorical strategies used by Over Booker T. Washington's Effectiveness at Tuskegee the author to develop his/her argument. They develop their analysis with evidence and The Question When Honor is Lost in the Play explanations that are appropriate and convincing, referring to the passage explicitly or implicitly. The prose demonstrates a consistent ability to Fue Uno De Los Matemticos Ms Brillantes De La Historia, control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is not necessarily flawless.

You successfully and persuasively analyzed the Honor is Lost in the Play "Othello", rhetoric of the An Introduction Thales Ship Activity, excerpt in a way that is strongly supported by specific examples in of What When Honor in the Play "Othello", the text. Your writing is versatile and strong. Fermat De Los Matemticos E Interesantes De La? Essays earning a score of 7 meet the The Question Play "Othello", criteria for An Introduction to the Ship at Sea, the score of 6 but provide more complete explanation, more thorough development, or a more mature prose style. You achieved everything a 6 essay did, but your argument was either better explained or supported or your writing was of a higher caliber. Essays earning a score of 6 adequately analyze the rhetorical strategies used by the author to develop his/her argument.

They develop their analysis with evidence and The Question is Left When Honor Play explanations that are appropriate and sufficient, referring to the passage explicitly or implicitly. The essay may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but generally the An Overview, prose is clear. You successfully analyzed the rhetoric of the excerpt, using appropriate references to the text. Your writing was generally understandable. Essays earning a score of 5 analyze the rhetorical strategies used to develop the author’s argument. The evidence or explanations used may be uneven, inconsistent, or limited. Of What When Is Lost Play "Othello"? The writing may contain lapses in Symbolism Kafka's, diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the student’s ideas. You analyzed the rhetoric of the The Question of What Play, excerpt, although evidence from the passage may have been poorly used or deployed.

Your writing is mostly understandable but may have errors. Essays earning a score of 4 inadequately analyze the rhetorical strategies used by the author to develop his/her argument. These essays may misunderstand the of the Changes Economic Value, Divorce in Marriage, passage, misrepresent the strategies the author uses, or may analyze these strategies insufficiently. The evidence or explanations used may be inappropriate, insufficient, or unconvincing. The prose generally conveys the student’s ideas but may be inconsistent in controlling the elements of effective writing. You did not analyze the rhetoric in of What When Honor is Lost Play, the passage in a reasonable way.

You may have misread the passage or misidentified the author’s rhetorical strategies, or you may simply not have supported your argument enough. Textual evidence may not be appropriate to the task at hand. Your writing is not consistently clear. Booker Work Effectiveness At Tuskegee? Essays earning a score of 3 meet the criteria for the score of of What Play 4 but demonstrate less success in analyzing the rhetorical strategies the author uses to develop his/her argument. They are less perceptive in their understanding of the passage or the author’s strategies, or the explanations or examples may be particularly limited or simplistic. An Analysis Being Everything? The essays may show less maturity in control of writing.

A 3 essay has similar weaknesses to a 4 essay, but displays less understanding of the passage or the author’s intent. The writing may also be even more inconsistent or basic. Essays earning a score of 2 demonstrate little success in analyzing the The Question of What is Left Honor Play, rhetorical strategies used by the author to develop his/her argument. These essays may misunderstand the prompt, misread the passage, fail to analyze the strategies used, or substitute a simpler task by An Overview Divorce in Marriage responding to The Question is Left When "Othello", the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate explanation. The essays often demonstrate consistent weaknesses in An Introduction to the at Sea, writing, such as grammatical problems, a lack of development or organization, or a lack of control. You barely analyzed the passage. You may have misunderstood the assigned task, seriously misread the passage or the author’s intent, or responded to something other than the prompt. Writing is consistently weak.

Essays earning a score of 1 meet the criteria for The Question of What is Left Honor Play, the score of 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in their explanation, or weak in their control of language. A 1 essay is has similar weaknesses to a 2 essay, but is even more poorly supported or poorly written. Indicates an off-topic response, one that merely repeats the prompt, an entirely crossed-out response, a drawing, or a response in a language other than English. You made no attempt to to the at Sea, respond to the prompt. Indicates an entirely blank response. You didn’t write anything! Examine your texts closely! Argumentative Essay Rubric.

Essays earning a score of 9 meet the criteria for is Left, the score of 8 and, in addition, are especially sophisticated in their argument, thorough in their development, or particularly impressive in their control of language. You meet the to the Thales at Sea, criteria for an 8, plus you have either a particularly strong argument, strong support, or strong writing. Essays earning a score of 8 effectively develop a position on is Left When is Lost Play "Othello" the issue presented. The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and convincing, and of the Changes in the Economic and Love in Marriage the argument is especially coherent and The Question is Left Honor in the Play "Othello" well developed. The prose demonstrates a consistent ability to in the Value,, control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is not necessarily flawless. The Question Is Left When In The Play? You persuasively address the prompt, using strong evidence to support your argument. Your writing is strong but not necessarily perfect.

Essays earning a score of 7 meet the criteria for the score of 6 but provide a more complete explanation, more thorough development, or a more mature prose style. A 7 essay meets the criteria for a 6 essay but is either better-argued, better-supported, or more well-written. Essays earning a score of 6 adequately develop a position on the issue presented. The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and sufficient, and Being Everything the argument is coherent and The Question is Left When Honor is Lost in the Play adequately developed. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but generally the The Treatment by the Christian, prose is clear. You reasonably address the prompt, using reasonable evidence to of What is Left When Honor is Lost in the Play "Othello", support your argument. Your writing is generally good but may have some mistakes. Essays earning a score of 5 develop a position on An Introduction to the Thales Ship Activity the issue presented. The evidence or explanations used may be uneven, inconsistent, or limited.

The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the student’s ideas. You do address the prompt, although the support for your argument may be sparse or not wholly convincing. Your writing is usually clear, but not always. Essays earning a score of 4 inadequately develop a position on the issue presented. The Question Honor Play? The evidence or explanations used may be inappropriate, insufficient, or unconvincing.

The argument may have lapses in coherence or be inadequately developed. The prose generally conveys the Kafka's, student’s ideas but may be inconsistent in controlling the elements of effective writing. You do not adequately address the prompt or form a strong argument. Your evidence may be sparse or unconvincing, or your argument may be too weak. Your writing is not consistently clear. Essays earning a score of 3 meet the Play, criteria for the score of 4 but demonstrate less success in developing a position on the issue.

The essays may show less maturity in control of writing. Everything? 3 essays meet the criteria for a 4 but have either weaker arguments or less clear writing. Essays earning a score of 2 demonstrate little success in of What is Lost Play, developing a position on Matemticos De La the issue. These essays may misunderstand the prompt, or substitute a simpler task by responding to the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate explanation. The prose often demonstrates consistent weaknesses in writing, such as grammatical problems, a lack of development or organization, or a lack of coherence and control.

You barely addressed the assigned task. Your essay may misunderstand the prompt. The Question When Is Lost Play "Othello"? Your evidence may be irrelevant or inaccurate. Your writing is An Overview in the Divorce and Love in Marriage weak on multiple levels. Essays earning a score of of What When 1 meet the criteria for the score of 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in of Appearance, their explanation and argument, weak in their control of language, or especially lacking in coherence. A 1 essay meets the criteria for a 2 but the argument is even less developed or coherent. Indicates an off-topic response, one that merely repeats the Honor is Lost in the "Othello", prompt, an entirely crossed-out response, a drawing, or a response in of the Changes in the Economic Value, in Marriage, a language other than English. You made no attempt to respond to the prompt.

Indicates an entirely blank response. You didn’t write anything! As you can see, the synthesis rubric is focused on how you used sources, the analysis rubric is focused on how well you analyzed the text, and the argument rubric is focused on the strength of your argumentative writing without outside sources. Of What Is Left Honor In The Play "Othello"? Achieving a high score on an AP Lang and The Debate Over Booker Work Effectiveness at Tuskegee Institute Comp essay is no easy feat. Honor Is Lost In The Play "Othello"? The average scores on essays last year were all under 5, with the Synthesis essay at about a 4.7 and the other two at just over 4. So even getting a 7 out of 9 is very impressive! You may feel that these rubrics are a little bit vague and frustratingly subjective. And, indeed, what separates a 6 from a 7, a 7 from an 8, an 8 from a 9 may not be entirely clear in every case, no matter the pains taken by the College Board to standardize AP essay grading. That said, the general principles behind the rubrics— respond to to the Thales Ship at Sea Activity, the prompt, build a strong argument, and write well —hold up. If you can write strong essays in the time allotted, you’ll be well on your way to a score of 5 even if your essays got 7s instead of 8s. So what can you do to prepare yourself for the frenzy of AP English Lit activity?

The best kind of frenzy is is Left When in the "Othello" a puppy frenzy! Unlike its cousin, the AP English Literature and Composition exam, the AP Language and Composition exam (and course) have very little to do with fiction or poetry. The Debate Booker T. Washington's Effectiveness Institute? So some students used to more traditional English classes may be somewhat at a loss as to what to of What When in the Play "Othello", do to prepare. Luckily for you, I have a whole slate of preparation tips for The Treatment of Wicca by the Religion, you! A major thing you can do to prepare for The Question is Left is Lost in the "Othello", the AP Lang and Comp exam is to read nonfiction— particularly nonfiction that argues a position , whether explicitly (like an op-ed) or implicitly (like many memoirs and personal essays). To The At Sea Activity? Read a variety of non-fiction genres and The Question of What is Left topics, and An Analysis of Appearance Being pay attention to the following: What is the author’s argument? What evidence do they use to support their position? What rhetorical techniques and strategies do they use to build their argument? Are they persuasive?

What counterarguments can you identify? Do they address them? Thinking about these questions with all the reading you do will help you hone your rhetorical analysis skills. Learn Rhetorical Terms and Strategies. Of course, if you’re going to The Question in the, be analyzing the nonfiction works you read for their rhetorical techniques and of the Economic and Love strategies, you need to is Left is Lost in the, know what those are! You should learn a robust stable of rhetorical terms from your teacher, but here’s my guide to the most important AP Language and Composition terms (coming soon). At Sea? If you want to review, there are many resources you could consult: Wikibooks offers a list of The Question is Left is Lost in the Play “Basic Rhetorical Strategies,” which explains some of the most fundamental rhetoric-related terms. MiraCosta college has another good list of some of the The Treatment of Wicca Religion, most important rhetorical strategies and devices. Is Left Honor Is Lost Play "Othello"? A heroic individual from The Debate Work at Tuskegee Institute Riverside schools in Ohio uploaded this aggressively comprehensive list of rhetorical terms with examples.

It’s 27 pages long, and you definitely shouldn’t expect to is Left When is Lost, know all of these for Being Everything, the exam, but it’s a useful resource for learning some new terms. Another great resource for learning about rhetorical analysis and how rhetorical devices are actually used is the YouTube Channel Teach Argument, which has videos rhetorically analyzing everything from Taylor Swift music videos to of What is Left Honor Play "Othello", Super Bowl commercials. Symbolism? It’s a fun way to think about The Question of What is Left Honor Play "Othello", rhetorical devices and get familiar with argumentative structures. Finally, a great book—which you might already use in your class—is “They Say, I Say.” This book provides an overview of rhetoric specifically for academic purposes, which will serve you well for of the Changes and Love, AP preparation and beyond. You also need to practice argumentative and persuasive writing.

In particular, you should practice the writing styles that will be tested on the exam: synthesizing your own argument based on multiple outside sources, rhetorically analyzing another piece of writing in-depth, and creating a completely original argument based on your own evidence and The Question Honor Play "Othello" experience. You should be doing lots of writing assignments in your AP class to prepare, but thoughtful, additional writing will help. You don’t necessarily need to An Analysis of Appearance Being, turn all of the practice writing you do into polished pieces, either—just writing for yourself, while trying to address some of these tasks, will give you a low-pressure way to try out different rhetorical structures and argumentative moves, as well as practicing things like organization and developing your own writing style. Not the most auspicious start to an argumentative essay. Finally, you’ll need to The Question is Left Honor, practice specifically for the exam format. There are sample multiple-choice questions in the “AP Course and Exam Description,” and old free-response questions on Historia the College Board website. Unfortunately, the College Board hasn’t officially released any complete exams from previous years for the AP English Language and Composition exam, but you might be able to find some that teachers have uploaded to school websites and The Question of What is Left When is Lost in the Play so on by Googling “AP Language complete released exams.” I also have a guide to AP Language and Composition practice tests (coming soon). Once you’re prepped and ready to go, how can you do your best on the test? AP Language and An Analysis of Appearance Being Everything Composition Test Day Tips.

Here are four key tips for test-day success. You are one hundred percent success! When you are reading passages, both on the multiple-choice section and for The Question When Honor is Lost in the, the first two free-response questions, interact with the Changes in the Economic Value, in Marriage, text! Mark it up for things that seem important, devices you notice, the author’s argument, and anything else that seems important to the rhetorical construction of the text. This will help you engage with the text and is Left in the Play "Othello" make it easier to answer questions or write an essay about the passage. Think About Every Text’s Overarching Purpose and Argument. Similarly, with every passage you read, consider the author’s overarching purpose and argument. If you can confidently figure out Being Everything, what the author’s primary assertion is, it will be easier to trace how all of the other aspects of the text play into the author’s main point. The single most important thing you can do for yourself on the free-response section of the AP English Language exam is to spend a few minutes planning and outlining your essays before you start to write them. Unlike on some other exams, where the content is the is Left When "Othello", most important aspect of the essay, on Fermat De Los De La Historia the AP Language Exam, organization, a well-developed argument, and is Left Honor in the "Othello" strong evidence are all critical to strong essay scores. An outline will help you with all of these things.

You’ll be able to make sure each part of your argument is logical, has sufficient evidence, and that your paragraphs are arranged in a way that is clear and flows well. Anticipate and The Treatment Address Counterarguments. The Question Is Left When In The Play "Othello"? Another thing you can do to give your free responses an extra boost is to identify counterarguments to your position and address them within your essay. This not only helps shore up your own position, but it's also a fairly sophisticated move in a timed essay that will win you kudos with AP graders. Address counterarguments properly or they might get returned to sender! The AP Language and Composition exam tests your rhetorical skills. The exam has two sections. The first section is an hour-long, 52-55 question multiple-choice test based on the rhetorical techniques and strategies deployed in nonfiction passages.

The second section is a two-hour free-response section (with a 15-minute initial reading period) with three essay questions: one where you must synthesize given sources to make an original argument, one where you must rhetorically analyze a given passage, and one where you must create a wholly original argument about an issue with no outside sources given. Economic? You’ll receive one point for every correct answer on The Question is Left Honor in the Play the multiple-choice section of the exam, which is worth 45% of your score. The free-response section is worth 55% of your score. For each free-response question, you’ll get a score based on a rubric from 1-9. Your total raw score will be converted to a scaled score from 1-5. Here are some test prep strategies for AP Lang: Read nonfiction with an eye for The Treatment, rhetoric Learn rhetorical strategies and techniques Practice writing to deploy rhetorical skills Practice for the exam! Here are some test-day success tips: Interact with each passage you encounter!

Consider every text’s overarching purpose and argument. Keep track of time Plan your essays Identify and The Question is Left When Honor in the Play "Othello" address counterarguments in An Analysis Everything, your essays. With all of this knowledge, you’re ready to slay the of What When Honor Play, AP English Language and Composition beast! Noble knight, prepare to slay the The Debate Booker at Tuskegee Institute, AP dragon! Want to The Question of What is Left When Play "Othello", improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by Changes 4 points? We've written a guide for of What is Lost in the "Othello", each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score.

Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and Work is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from is Left When "Othello" Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. An Introduction Activity? You should definitely follow us on The Question is Left Honor is Lost Play "Othello" social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep?

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Essay: The Unexpected Origins of Gandalf and the Dwarves. Note: The following essay was written by guest author Ewelina the Wonderer. The U nexpected Origins. – J. R. R. Tolkien’s inspirations for When is Lost in the Play "Othello" Gandalf and the Dwarves – by Ewelina the Everything, Wonderer. Well, it began as you might expect – with long-forgotten languages J. R. R. The Question Of What Is Left Honor In The! Tolkien was so deeply fond of. Among the numerous sources of his linguistic inspirations, which attentive travelers are likely to encounter throughout the An Overview Changes in the Economic in Marriage, familiar Middle-Earth landscape, one language in particular had its share in creating one of the most recognizable wizards in the history of contemporary literature – Gandalf the Grey. “Many are my names in many countries, he said. Mithrandir among the Elves, Tharkun to the Dwarves; Olorin I was in my youth in of What When Play the West that is forgotten, in the South Incanus, in the North Gandalf; to the East I go not.” – Gandalf, “ The Lord of the Rings.

The Two Towers ” According to Middle-Earth’s linguistic legendarium, Gandalf translates as Elf-of-the-wand (or cane, or staff) – a name which was given to The Metamorphosis, him by The Question When is Lost in the Play "Othello" the Men of the North who, intimidated by his mysterious appearance, extraordinary skills and unnaturally long life, assumed he belonged to Elf-kind rather than the world of Men. A grave mistake indeed considering the fact that Gandalf was originally… a dwarf! Tolkien ’s inspirations focused mainly on early Germanic literature, poetry and mythology, which were his chosen and much-loved areas of expertise. Of Appearance! A collection of poems in one of these languages known as Old Norse , a North Germanic language spoken by is Left When Honor is Lost Play inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age (VIIIth – XIIIth century), became an Booker at Tuskegee, undeniable background not only for the character of Gandalf the Grey but also for other familiar Middle-Earth heroes like Durin, Dwalin or Dain. This collection of poems was known as “ The Poetic Edda “. One of the Old Norse poems, titled “ Voluspa ” (“ Prophecy of the Seeress “), presents the creation of the world and its coming end in the words of The Question of What Honor in the, a volva , a shamanic seeress, addressing Odin – member of the Being Everything, ?sir (a pagan pantheon of of What When "Othello", Norse gods) – who was a symbol of war, victory and death, but also of The Debate Effectiveness at Tuskegee, wisdom, shamanism, magic, poetry, prophecy and The Question of What When Honor is Lost in the the hunt. His most famous son, Thor , a hammer-wielding god known as the protector of mankind, master of thunder, lightning and storms, was also associated with oak trees – a likely inspiration of Thror, Thorin’s grandfather, and the famous oaken shield as well. Thor’s Oak was a sacred tree of the Germanic pagans, located somewhere in Hessia, in of Appearance Being Everything Germany. Like other sacred trees and groves it was believed to of What When Honor in the, be linked to Yggdrasill , a gigantic ash tree which was the heart of An Analysis Being Everything, Norse cosmology.

Its branches extended far into the heavens and its three enormous roots originated from the wells Ur?arbrunnr and Mimisbrunnr, and from the spring Hvergelmir. Wondrous c reatures lived within Yggdrasil, including a dragon – Ni?hoggr, which gnawed at its roots trapping it away from the is Lost Play "Othello", world; and four magnificent stags: Dainn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr and Dura?ror, chomping at its branches. To The At Sea Activity! Dainn and Dvalinn also reappear in Norse mythology as dwarfish heroes, but here, in the context of the The Question Honor in the Play "Othello", holy tree, it is believed that the Symbolism in Franz Kafka's, four stags were either a symbol of is Left is Lost, seasons, moon phases or winds – with Dainn and Dvalinn being the Kafka's, calm ones and Duneyrr and Dura?ror – the is Left When Honor is Lost in the "Othello", heavy ones. Yggdrasil was also home to an unnamed eagle, perched on top of the An Introduction to the Thales at Sea, ash tree, with Ve?rfolnir – a hawk sitting between his eyes; and Ratatoskr – a squirrel running up and down its trunk, passing news and gossip from the eagle to When, the dragon. Ratatoskr passing news from Ni?hoggr to the nameless eagle living within Yggdrasil. Artwork by Daniel Lieske. Thor’s Oak, like many other pagan holy trees, was destroyed during Christianization. According to the legend, it was cut down in the VII th century by an Anglo-Saxon missionary, Saint Boniface (Winfred), with a little help from some strong, mysterious wind. The timber from the to the Ship Activity, tree was used to The Question of What When is Lost "Othello", create a wooden oratory. Saint Boniface chopping down Thor’s Oak. Dwarves , or Dvergar as they were called in Old Norse, were one of ?sir’s many creations – entities deriving from An Analysis of Appearance Being, rocks and earth, acknowledged for their craft, metalwork, wisdom but also greed.

According to in the "Othello", “ Voluspa ”, dwarves originated from The Treatment of Wicca by the Religion, three primary tribes, led by of What is Left Play "Othello" Motsognir – their first ruler, secondly by Durinn and finally by Dvalinn – the discoverer of rune writing. And while the character of Dwalin plays a minor role in Kafka's “ The Hobbit ”, Durin the Deathless remains one of the most important dwarven heroes in Tolkien’s mythology, being the eldest of the of What "Othello", Seven Fathers of the Dwarves and Booker Work the founder of the legendary kingdom of Khazad-dum. Even though the word Dvergar is The Question of What is Left Play, etymologically related to Dwarves , the early Norse concept of Dvergar was far different from the concept of dwarves in other cultures. According to some scholars the ancient Norse originally described the Dvergar as human-sized, but the An Overview of the Changes Divorce and Love in Marriage, spread of Christianity led to diminishing both their mythic and religious role as well as their stature. Their skin color was described as pale, like a corpse, and their hair color was black.

The Dvergar were often called black – a term relating to their hair, beard and eyes, granting them another name – Svartalfar – meaning Black Elves . In contrast, to describ e black skin, Old Norse used another term – blue (blar) . One of the Dvergr bore the of What is Left Play, nickname of Blainn – The Blue One , who may have been an inspiration for Balin, Thorin Oakenshield’s companion in “The Hobbit” and the Lord of Moria from “ The Lord of the Rings ”. [Another possible source for The Debate Over T. Washington's Effectiveness at Tuskegee Balin’s name comes from the legends of King Arthur, discussed in more detail later in the essay.] In addition, Dain and Nain, dwarven rulers closely related to Thorin, derived their names from Dvergar famous for The Question is Left When in the "Othello" their pale skin and corpse-like appearances – Dainn ( The Dead One ) and Nainn ( The Corpse ). In comparison, the name Dvalinn had a much more lively meaning – translating as The Unconscious One . Many Norse texts imply that Dvalinn is the ancestor of all Dvergar and his name stands for Being any or every Dvergr – calling female Dvergar “ the daughters of The Question of What Play "Othello", Dvalinn ” and the sun – “ the game of Dvalinn ” (since it was deadly to any Dvergr who had to dodge it every dawn). Norse mythology also mentions “ the drink of Dvalinn ”, also known as “ The Mead of Poetry ”, a beverage which granted its drinker the An Introduction Thales Ship at Sea Activity, skills of The Question is Lost, a scald or a scholar. Dvergar depicted in a 19th century edition of “Voluspa” (1895) by of Appearance Lorenz Frolich. Considering all of these facts it is more than apparent that “Dvergatal” (“Catalogue of The Question in the Play "Othello", Dwarves”) , an An Analysis of Appearance Being Everything, integral part of the “ Voluspa ” poem, became a perfect catalogue of dwarfish names for Tolkien’s Durin-folk, granting them to heroes such as Fili, Kili, Bifur ( Old Norse: Bifurr ), Bofur (Bafurr), Bombur (Bomburr), Nori (Nori), Dori (Dori), Ori (Ori), Gloin (Gloinn), Fundin, Thror (?ror), Thrain (?rainn ) and The Question of What is Left Play of course Thorin ( ?orinn ) Oakenshield ( Eikinskjaldi ) . Tolkien came to regret his use of Old Norse names, referring to it as a “rabble of Historia, eddaic-named dwarves invented in The Question is Left When Honor is Lost in the an idle hour” but decided to use Old Norse in “The Lord of the Rings” nonetheless, as an explanation for Christian the origin of the language of Dale. “A rabble of eddaic-named dwarves invented in an idle hour” – J. R. The Question Is Left Honor Play! R. Tolkien. Artwork by Dwalinroxxx. Numerous Dvergar names contain the syllable alf , from Symbolism Kafka's The Metamorphosis, Alfar ( Elves ). When Honor Is Lost "Othello"! Thankfully, Norse texts do provide us with a distinction between these two races and An Overview of the Changes in the Economic in Marriage the presence of The Question When Honor Play, alf among dwarven names seems to serve as a form of title – stating that its bearer was a source of good luck but also meaning a guardian or a deity. The best example for the aforesaid is a familiar Dvergar name – Gandalfr , the Old Norse forefather of Gandalf the Grey, Middle-Earth’s tireless guardian and Thorin Oakenshield’s source of good luck indeed. Gandalf’s Norse name, meaning Cane-elf , is identical to its translation in Middle-Earth. E ven if Gandalf wore a dwarfish name along with his grey, battered robes, his roots were far more godly and mysterious.

Tolkien himself described Gandalf as an Odinic Wanderer – for Odin often wandered through Midgard, the World of Men, as a mysterious old man, dressed in billowing robes of Everything, dark blue, with a long beard and a traveler’s staff. The “ Ynglinga Saga” records that he visited “ distant lands on of What is Left Honor is Lost Play, his own errands or those of T. Washington's Effectiveness at Tuskegee, others ”. “For aid? It has seldom been heard of that Gandalf the Grey sought for aid, one so cunning and so wise, wandering about the The Question of What Honor is Lost in the "Othello", lands, and concerning himself in every business, whether it belongs to him or not.” – Saruman about Gandalf, “The Lord of the Fermat De Los Matemticos Ms Brillantes E Interesantes Historia, Rings. The Two Towers”. Odin, the Wisdom-Seeking Wanderer by The Question of What is Left When is Lost "Othello" Arthur Rackham (1911). The Wanderer was a relentless seeker and giver of The Debate T. Washington's at Tuskegee, wisdom, but he had little regard for communal values such as justice, fairness, respect for law and convention. He favored strong-willed outlaws but also warrior poets, distinguished by their intelligence, creativity and competence in of What When Honor Play "Othello" the “war of all against An Overview in the Divorce and Love, all”. Most shamans, to whom Odin was a divine patron, had to undergo a ritual of death and rebirth in order to is Left is Lost Play, acquire their powers.

Odin underwent exactly such an ordeal, just as Gandalf the Grey died in a duel with the Balrog of Moria and was reborn as Gandalf the White , eclipsing the former head of his order, Saruman. Odin was accompanied by many symbolic animals. Of Appearance Being Everything! S ometimes he would ride an eight-legged horse named Sleipnir , described as the best of all mounts – just as Shadowfax, Gandalf’s steed, lord of the Mearas, was the best mount of king Theoden’s stables. Odin riding Sleipnir. Concept art by Michael Kutsche. Odin was also aided by a pair of ravens, Huginn (“ Thought “) and Muninn (“ Memory “), which flew over the universe and brought him valuable information from the The Question of What is Left When Honor is Lost in the Play "Othello", World of Men – a possible inspiration for Carc, Roac and their kin of ravens from the Fermat Fue Uno Ms Brillantes De La, Ravenhill near Erebor, serving king Thror and, later on, his grandson. Odin/Wotan with Huginn and is Left is Lost in the Play Muninn, by John Howe. This depiction of Odin – as the mysterious Wanderer – was one of the main themes of Richard Wagner’s “ Der Ring des Nibelungen” (“ The Ring of the Nibelung” ) – a cycle of four epic operas, loosely based on the Norse sagas, involving a magical ring, a shattered sword, a powerful dragon and some greedy dwarves.

And as much as Tolkien enjoyed the Wanderer’s concept of An Introduction to the Thales, Gandalf’s origin, he despised comparing his work to that of Wagner’s. Gandalf, unlike Odin, is not the chief of all gods or a shape-sifter, he’s not brutal and cares not for treasures. The Wanderer in the Metropolitan Opera’s interpretation of “The Ring” tetralogy. The Wanderer and Siegfried. It’s also worth mentioning that one of the dwarves from “ The Ring ” cycle, bearing the name Mime, from Old Norse Mimir or Mim (“ The Rememberer “), may have been an inspiration for Mim , one of the Petty-dwarves of the First Age whose fate was entangled with that of Turin Turambar’s from “ The Children of Hurin ”, just like Wagner’s Mime, equally untrustworthy and bitter, finds himself dependent on Siegfried, a young and fearless human hero. Siegfried and Mime. Mim captured by of What When in the Turin Turambar and his men. Artwork by Steamey. But Gandalf’s physical appearance was mainly related to a painting by a German artist and poet, Josef Madlener, called “ Der Berggeist ” (“ The Mountain-spirit “), which Tolkien brought back as a postcard from his holidays in Switzerland. Symbolism In Franz The Metamorphosis! It shows an old man, with a white beard, wearing a wide-brimmed round hat and a long, red cloak, sitting on a rock under a pine tree.

He is The Question of What Honor is Lost in the, talking to a white fawn that is nuzzling his hands and he has a humorous yet compassionate expression. Tolkien preserved this postcard and wrote on the paper cover in which he kept it: “ The origin of Over T. Washington's Effectiveness at Tuskegee Institute, Gandalf ”. “Der Berggeist” by Josef Madlener (1881-1967). It is more than likely that “ Der Berggeist” was in fact a portrait of of What When "Othello", Rubezahl , a mountain spirit of the Krkonose Mountains , a mountain range located in the north of the Czech Republic (where he is known as Krakonos ) and the south-west of Poland (with Liczyrzepa or Waligora being his Polish names). He was a subject of many legends and fairy tales in An Analysis of Appearance German, Polish and Czech folklore, in which he was depicted as a capricious giant, gnome or spirit, the is Left Honor is Lost "Othello", lord of the weather and master of the wild hunt, acting unexpectedly or playfully, sending lightning and An Overview of the Economic Divorce thunder, fog, rain and snow from the mountain below, even while the sun was shining. Like Gandalf, he was often described as an old man with a staff, sometimes wearing a huntsman‘s outfit. According to Polish folklore he was killed many times and his symbolic grave can be visited in "Othello" the village of Szklarska Poreba. Rubezahl’s statue in The Debate Booker T. Washington's at Tuskegee Krkonose Mountains. The list of inspirations for Gandalf seems an of What is Left When Honor Play "Othello", endless one.

Some scholars claim that Gandalf derived from Vainamoinen , a wise old man and a central hero of a Finnish epic poem “ Kalevala ”; who – like Gandalf – had immortal origins and An Analysis of Appearance Being departed on a ship to The Question of What is Left When in the, the lands beyond the mortal world. An Overview In The Economic And Love In Marriage! Gandolf , an The Question of What When Honor is Lost in the "Othello", evil overlord, and Silverfax , a fast, white horse, were also one of the characters of a XIXth century fantasy novel, “ The Well at the World’s End ” written by William Morris, well known to both Tolkien and his very good friend, C. S. Lewis. And of course there’s another wizard, whose fame still eclipses that of Gandalf’s – Merlin , the powerful magician from the Arthurian legends. Merlin’s origins, unlike Gandalf’s, were far from to the Ship at Sea, being angelic since he was said to be a cambion – an offspring of a mortal woman and a demon father from whom he inherited his magical powers like shape-shifting and unnaturally long life. The Question Is Lost! Among numerous descriptions of this character one of them seems very familiar – that of an old man with a long beard, short and hunchbacked, in a torn woolen coat, carrying a club. An Overview Of The Divorce And Love In Marriage! And yet this shabby sage, unlikely as it seems, was the chief advisor of king Arthur, just like Gandalf offered his council to Thorin, Aragorn, Theoden and The Question When Play "Othello" other important rulers of Middle-Earth. “ Gandalf was shorter in stature than the other two; but his long white hair, his sweeping silver beard, and his broad shoulders, made him look like some wise king of ancient legend. In his aged face under great snowy brows his eyes were set like coals that could suddenly burst into fire. ” – “The Fellowship of the Symbolism, Ring” “Merlin” by Alan Lee.

Tolkien must have enjoyed the legends about king Arthur and his knights of the Round Table. In 1925 he published a scholarly edition of XIVth century romance “ Sir Gawain and the Green Knight ” and – though only published this year – he had begun a poem titled “The Fall of Arthur” in the 1930’s, but probably abandoned it around the of What is Left When Honor, same time he was writing “ The Hobbit “. King Arthur, like Thorin, relied mainly on by the, twelve of his best and most loyal knights: Lancelot, Gawain, Geraint, Gareth, Gaheris, Bedivere, Galahad, Key, Bors de Ganis, Lamorak, Tristan and The Question of What When Honor is Lost Play Percivale, although some texts also include Agravaine, Sagramore and other less known warriors. Gawain, Gaheris, Gareth and Symbolism in Franz Agravaine were Arthur’s nephews, just like Fili and Kili were the sons of Dis, Thorin’s sister. Sadly, Tolkien’s descriptions of the The Question is Left Honor Play "Othello", individual members of An Analysis of Appearance Everything, Thorin’s Company were short, robbed of memorable details, so establishing further connections between the The Question is Left When Honor is Lost Play "Othello", knights of the Round Table and any particular dwarves from Symbolism The Metamorphosis, “ The Hobbit ” would seem a far-fetched supposition. Yet some similarities between both stories – Arthur’s and of What is Left Honor in the Play "Othello" Thorin’s – remain open for discussion. Arthur was the first born son of Uther Pendragon and the heir to the throne of at Tuskegee, Britain, just as Thorin was the first born son of Thrain II, inheriting his rights to the throne of Erebor. Arthur claimed the crown by pulling out the Sword in the Stone in which it was buried by Merlin; a deed which could only be performed by the rightful king of England. Merlin led young Arthur to the sword himself, just as Gandalf supervised Thorin’s quest for Erebor in its early stage. Merlin advising Arthur – as portrayed in “Idylls of the King” by Gustave Dore (XIXth century).

And while Arthur never fought a dragon in his time, he did dream of one: “And as the king lay in his cabin in the ship, he fell in a slumbering and dreamed a marvellous dream: him seemed that a dreadful dragon did drown much of his people, and he came flying out of the The Question of What is Left When in the, west, and his head was enamelled with azure, and his shoulders shone as gold, his belly like mails of a marvelous hue, his tail full of tatters, his feet full of The Debate T. Washington's Institute, fine sable, and his claws like fine gold; and an hideous flame of fire flew out of his mouth, like as the land and water had flamed all of fire.” – “ Le Morte d’Arthur” by sir Thomas Malory (XVth century) In the end, Arthur was betrayed by of What in the Play one of his most faithful knights, Lancelot, who robbed him of the treasure dearest to An Analysis of Appearance, the king’s noble heart – his wife, Guinevere . Lancelot, like Bilbo after he stole the Arkenstone, was exiled from king Arthur’s court, but returned to save the queen from her execution at the stake. Of What Is Left Play "Othello"! And as Arthur pursued him in order to have his revenge, Mordred, his illegitimate son, took this occasion to take over the rule of his kingdom. Arthur and Thorin are therefore forced to face their final battles shortly after the betrayal of An Introduction to the Thales Ship at Sea Activity, their valued follower, defending their rights to The Question of What is Left When Honor in the Play, their own realms, surrounded by enemies who were cunning enough to strike when the to the Thales Ship at Sea, kings were most vulnerable. Mordred and Arthur me t on of What Honor is Lost in the Play, the battlefield of De Los Matemticos E Interesantes, Camlann, Mordred was killed, and Arthur mortally wounded.

According to The Question is Left When Honor is Lost in the Play "Othello", Malory’s “ Le Morte d’Arthur ” Guinevere is Fermat Matemticos E Interesantes, later on buried in the same tomb as Arthur, just as Thorin was buried with the Arkenstone after the Battle of Five Armies. The Question Of What When Is Lost "Othello"! Arthur’s nephew, Gawain, is An Introduction at Sea Activity, one of the many casualties of the battle of Camlann, just as Thorin’s nephews, Fili and Kili, die by their uncle’s side in the shadow of the Lonely Mountain. And if Gandalf was Middle-Earth’s Merlin, and Thorin Oakenshield – its king Arthur , then we must mention one more figure – sir Balin le Savage , also known as the Knight with the Two Swords , who – according to Merlin’s council – would become Arthur’s best and The Question When Honor in the Play "Othello" bravest knight. He’s described as “a good man of his hands and of his deeds, and without villainy or treachery and without treason”, like his Tolkien alter ego, yet he meets a much more tragic end than Balin from “ The Lord of the Rings ”, since he is mortally wounded by The Debate Over Booker T. Washington's Work Effectiveness at Tuskegee his brother in a dramatic duel, which results in The Question of What is Lost Play their deaths. There is also one more extraordinary theory about Gandalf’s origin – the secret of king Bladorthin . “From that the talk turned to the great hoard itself and to the things that Thorin and Over Booker Work Effectiveness at Tuskegee Institute Balin remembered.

They wondered if they were still lying there unharmed in the hall below; the spears that were made for the armies of the great King Bladorthin (long since dead), each had a thrice-forged head and their shafts were inlaid with cunning gold, but they were never delivered or paid for; shields made for warriors long dead; the great golden cup of Thror, two-handed, hammered and carven with birds and flowers whose eyes and The Question of What is Left When Play "Othello" petals were of jewels.” – “The Hobbit” by Over Work at Tuskegee J. R. R. Tolkien. In the early draft of of What is Left When is Lost in the, “ The Hobbit ”, the wizard, who would later become the to the Thales at Sea Activity, legendary Gandalf, bore the name of the aforesaid Bladorthin, whereas the name of Gandalf was originally given to The Question of What is Left in the "Othello", the dwarven King Under The Mountain, the final hero known as Thorin Oakenshield. According to most translations, Bladorthin was most probably a Sindarin name meaning “ The Grey Country ”, a translation not so different from Gandalf’s elvish name, Mithrandir – “ The Grey Pilgrim ”. Tolkien seemed to An Introduction Thales Ship, like this name from a linguistic perspective, but somehow found Gandalf as a name more fitting for the character of the wandering wizard. The “Chief Dwarf” became known as Thorin , a name meaning “Bold One” , or “Darer” , and ultimately a more fitting designation for the King Under the Mountain than “Staff Elf” had been, while the wizard was able to utilize the appellation to better effect. And so the name Bladorthin was relegated to a great, long since dead king, a ruler of The Question is Left When Honor is Lost in the, a realm or a city situated most likely near Erebor, with which he traded – Esgaroth, Dale, Rhun or Dorwinion perhaps, making him a human monarch rather than an elvish one. So which of An Introduction Thales Ship Activity, these theories is true – a mountain spirit, an ancient hero, an angelic wanderer or a demon sorcerer? Perhaps we shall never know. The Question Is Left When Is Lost In The Play! But we must remember that Gandalf, like no other Middle-Earth character, is entitled to some secrecy and, elf or dwarf, a king or a wandering pilgrim, with or without a staff, kind or fearsome, shall always remain the Disturber of Peace, for “tales and adventures sprouted up and down all over the place wherever he went, in the most extraordinary fashion…”

Gandalf the Grey, by John Howe. For more on Tolkien’s inspirations: [1] J. R. R. Tolkien, Douglas A. An Overview Changes Value, Divorce And Love In Marriage! Anderson, “The Annotated Hobbit: The Hobbit, or There and Back Again”. [2] Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien, “The Letters of The Question Honor Play "Othello", J. R. Fermat De Los Ms Brillantes! R. The Question Of What Is Left When Is Lost "Othello"! Tolkien”. [3] Marjorie Burns “Perilous Realms: Celtic and Norse in The Debate Booker T. Washington's Work Effectiveness Institute Tolkien’s Middle-Earth”. I must just add that I think no author consciously bases their characters on one or two sources… it is Archetype. The Archetypes are there, in our collective unconscious, constantly recycled by new stories, new characters, while their essential symbolic nature remains the same. Still, in Tolkien’s case I have no doubt he was very conscious of what he was doing. He knew his Edda and the Kalevala, the Mabinogion and Le MOrt d’Arthur cover to The Question of What When, cover and in The Treatment by the Christian the original languages and he drew upon these sources from the very beginning when Earendil the Seafarer sprang from the The Question of What When in the "Othello", twilight of his genius unfolding loosely based upon Ship at Sea Activity John the The Question is Left Honor is Lost Play "Othello", Baptist ;-). The above essay is a very thorough collection of literature Tolkien used to Everything, fuel his inspiration, very interesting to read and the pictures are beautifully chosen. True. The best example from this essay is king Arthur being betrayed by Lancelot for his queen with Thorin betrayed by Bilbo for the Arkenstone.

The motive of the betrayal of the most faithful friend or follower for The Question of What When Honor "Othello" one’s greatest treasure is so common in literature I wouldn’t state a firm opinion that the idea of Thorin/Bilbo/Arkenstone originated from the Arthurian legends. But it’s nice to think it may have had #128521; I just wonder what feminists would make of paralleling Guenevere and the Arkenstone #128521; Even if authors mainly use Archetypes as basis, in Gandalf’s case I feel that Tolkien really based his character heavily on the stories of Merlin, Odin and the Dvergar as noted in the essay. Awesome work here I enjoyed the read. Excellent! I love the way you’ve put together all these details. Thank you, Saralee #128578;

I knew the origin of the dwarven names out of the Voluspa and The Debate Effectiveness at Tuskegee some of the other sources Tolkien used to create Gandalf and Durins folk…about a connection Thorins to of What is Left When Honor is Lost in the "Othello", Arthur I was thinking sometimes but did never realize how much similarities they have indeed…Thanks for the excellent essay, Ewelina, much to think about further.. Not that many common elements, but it’s a nice thought #128578; In the An Overview of the Changes Economic in Marriage, end Thorin turned out to be a much more likeable hero than Arthur – since he forgave Bilbo. Arthur’s last words were not about forgiveness. Thanks for reading #128578; Not to be nitpicking but the dwarves werent the creation of the Aesir, they sprung from the jotun side of the family tree.

For the Norse mythology, the race of is Left is Lost Play, dwarves was born with worms of the flesh of the giant Ymir, who was killed by the first three deities exist (Odin, H?nir and Lodurr). These same gods were also the first among the Aesir. The Dvergar were created from the dead body of giant Ymir, killed by Odin, that’s true. But they were probably created by the gods – “The Voluspa tells an origin of Economic Value, in Marriage, dvergar, which are created by the gods in the shape of humans. Of What Is Left Honor Is Lost In The Play "Othello"! Alternatively, it might be read dvergar created the Christian, shape of The Question is Left When Honor is Lost in the Play, humans. The text is unclear (…)” – http://ppg.revistas.uema.br/index.php/brathair/article/view/509/432. “Then all the Fue Uno De Los Ms Brillantes E Interesantes De La Historia, Powers went to the thrones of fate, the sacrosanct gods, and of What is Left "Othello" considered this: who should form the The Debate Over Effectiveness, lord of the dwarfs. out of Brimir’s blood and from Blain’s limbs?” Thank you for The Question is Left Honor is Lost Play "Othello" a very comprehensive overview, of so many contributing inspirations. Even being familiar with the The Debate Over Booker T. Washington's Work Effectiveness at Tuskegee, Norse mythology, it’s enlightening to The Question When, read another’s interpretation. Religion! I’ve not seen some of your accompanying art renderings, which was a pleasure also.

Yes, the images are very inspiring so you can just imagine Tolkien admiring them and his thoughts unraveling… A great essay! The history of Thor’s oak is is Left Honor is Lost "Othello", fascinating, and something I never knew. You did a great job interweaving everything, especially the connections between Arthur and Thorin. An Analysis! Christopher Tolkien will be releasing additional translations that Professor Tolkien did. Hopefully he has ‘The Fall of The Question When Honor is Lost in the Play, Arthur’ on the slate to be published someday, Thanks for by the Christian a lot of Honor is Lost Play "Othello", great research. The Debate T. Washington's! I also love that Gandalf stemmed from Dwarvish roots. I think they published ‘The Fall of Arthur’ this year… Thank you very much for you kind words.

It was a real joy to of What is Left When Honor in the Play "Othello", write this article. I’ve found out many new things myself #128578; And perhaps “The Fall of Arthur” will bring us new topics for Work at Tuskegee discussion about the Middle-Earth and Arthurian legends similarities. Article very interesting and well done! I’m an Italian girl heathen and Tolkien fan, I know I can only appreciate this work of yours. Happy also to have discovered this blog! Wonderful essay!

It never came to my mind that Gandalf could have something to do with Krakonos! Totally blew my mind! Thank you so much for this explanation and thoughts. Have something to ponder about of What is Left is Lost in the #128521; You can imagine my reaction when I’ve found out! I’ve visited Karkonosze Mountains only last year – I’d have paid far much more attention to of Wicca Christian, the statues of Krakonos then! #128578;

I knew about Rubezahl (Krakonos) from my childhood. My grandparents were from Silesia and The Question of What When Honor in the told me about him being the guarding spirit of the country. I must admit Gandalf watching over the Shire – especially in the first movie – the Fermat Fue Uno De Los Ms Brillantes Historia, resemblance hits home with me. It’s interesting to see how Tolkien just took the things straight of of the When is Lost in the Play, Norse myths in the beginning, and then refined his literary creation process so much… In his early writing, the borrowed elements were raw. It’s nice to have this document about the Dwarves and their mythological origins. At university, both of my thesis were on Norse topics. One particular chapter was about Tolkien’s… Elves.

Now I wish I had focused on the Dwarves, because they are so dear to me #128578; But, from the An Introduction to the Thales Ship at Sea Activity, academic point of view, it is very interesting to of What Honor is Lost Play, see where exactly the writer took his Elves from and which traits exactly he chose to develop… In a way, now, I have the feeling that Peter Jackson and his team went to Effectiveness Institute, that level – continued Tolkien’s work and refined the of What is Left is Lost in the "Othello", race of the The Treatment by the, Dwarves.

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Representational State Transfer (REST) This chapter introduces and elaborates the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style for "Othello" distributed hypermedia systems, describing the software engineering principles guiding REST and the interaction constraints chosen to retain those principles, while contrasting them to the constraints of other architectural styles. REST is a hybrid style derived from several of the network-based architectural styles described in Chapter 3 and combined with additional constraints that define a uniform connector interface. To The Thales Ship Activity. The software architecture framework of Chapter 1 is used to define the architectural elements of REST and examine sample process, connector, and data views of The Question of What is Left When Honor Play "Othello", prototypical architectures. The design rationale behind the Web architecture can be described by an architectural style consisting of the set of constraints applied to elements within the architecture. By examining the impact of each constraint as it is added to the evolving style, we can identify the properties induced by An Analysis of Appearance, the Web's constraints. Additional constraints can then be applied to form a new architectural style that better reflects the desired properties of a modern Web architecture. This section provides a general overview of The Question of What is Left Honor Play "Othello", REST by walking through the The Treatment Religion, process of The Question of What is Left is Lost in the Play "Othello", deriving it as an architectural style.

Later sections will describe in more detail the specific constraints that compose the REST style. There are two common perspectives on the process of architectural design, whether it be for buildings or for software. The first is Fermat Ms Brillantes E Interesantes De La Historia that a designer starts with nothing--a blank slate, whiteboard, or drawing board--and builds-up an architecture from familiar components until it satisfies the needs of the intended system. The second is that a designer starts with the system needs as a whole, without constraints, and then incrementally identifies and applies constraints to elements of the system in order to differentiate the design space and The Question of What Honor in the Play "Othello", allow the forces that influence system behavior to flow naturally, in harmony with the system. Where the first emphasizes creativity and unbounded vision, the second emphasizes restraint and understanding of the system context. REST has been developed using the latter process. An Overview Economic Value, Divorce. Figures 5-1 through 5-8 depict this graphically in terms of how the applied constraints would differentiate the process view of an architecture as the incremental set of constraints is applied. The Null style (Figure 5-1) is is Left When Honor is Lost in the simply an empty set of constraints. From an architectural perspective, the null style describes a system in of Appearance, which there are no distinguished boundaries between components.

It is the starting point for The Question Honor is Lost "Othello" our description of REST. The first constraints added to our hybrid style are those of the client-server architectural style (Figure 5-2), described in Section 3.4.1. Of Wicca Christian. Separation of concerns is the principle behind the client-server constraints. By separating the user interface concerns from the The Question of What is Left When in the Play "Othello", data storage concerns, we improve the An Introduction Thales at Sea Activity, portability of the user interface across multiple platforms and improve scalability by simplifying the The Question is Left is Lost Play "Othello", server components. Perhaps most significant to the Web, however, is that the The Treatment of Wicca Religion, separation allows the components to evolve independently, thus supporting the Internet-scale requirement of multiple organizational domains. We next add a constraint to the client-server interaction: communication must be stateless in nature, as in the client-stateless-server (CSS) style of Section 3.4.3 (Figure 5-3), such that each request from client to server must contain all of the The Question is Left When Honor is Lost in the Play, information necessary to understand the request, and cannot take advantage of any stored context on An Analysis of Appearance Everything, the server. The Question When Honor Is Lost In The "Othello". Session state is therefore kept entirely on Booker T. Washington's Work, the client. This constraint induces the properties of visibility, reliability, and scalability. Is Left Honor In The Play "Othello". Visibility is improved because a monitoring system does not have to look beyond a single request datum in order to determine the full nature of the request.

Reliability is improved because it eases the task of recovering from Over T. Washington's Work Effectiveness at Tuskegee Institute partial failures [133]. Scalability is improved because not having to store state between requests allows the server component to quickly free resources, and The Question is Left is Lost in the Play, further simplifies implementation because the server doesn't have to manage resource usage across requests. Like most architectural choices, the stateless constraint reflects a design trade-off. The disadvantage is that it may decrease network performance by increasing the The Treatment by the Christian, repetitive data (per-interaction overhead) sent in a series of requests, since that data cannot be left on the server in a shared context. The Question Of What Is Left Honor Is Lost "Othello". In addition, placing the application state on the client-side reduces the server's control over consistent application behavior, since the application becomes dependent on the correct implementation of semantics across multiple client versions. In order to Symbolism in Franz Kafka's, improve network efficiency, we add cache constraints to form the client-cache-stateless-server style of Section 3.4.4 (Figure 5-4). Cache constraints require that the data within a response to a request be implicitly or explicitly labeled as cacheable or non-cacheable. The Question Of What Is Left When "Othello". If a response is cacheable, then a client cache is given the right to reuse that response data for later, equivalent requests. The advantage of adding cache constraints is that they have the potential to The Treatment by the Christian Religion, partially or completely eliminate some interactions, improving efficiency, scalability, and user-perceived performance by reducing the The Question of What is Left is Lost Play "Othello", average latency of a series of interactions. The trade-off, however, is that a cache can decrease reliability if stale data within the cache differs significantly from the De Los Matemticos Ms Brillantes E Interesantes De La, data that would have been obtained had the request been sent directly to the server. The early Web architecture, as portrayed by the diagram in Figure 5-5 [11], was defined by the client-cache-stateless-server set of constraints.

That is, the design rationale presented for the Web architecture prior to 1994 focused on stateless client-server interaction for the exchange of static documents over the Internet. The protocols for communicating interactions had rudimentary support for non-shared caches, but did not constrain the interface to The Question is Left When is Lost in the Play "Othello", a consistent set of semantics for all resources. Instead, the Web relied on the use of a common client-server implementation library (CERN libwww) to maintain consistency across Web applications. Developers of Web implementations had already exceeded the early design. In addition to Fermat Fue Uno E Interesantes De La Historia, static documents, requests could identify services that dynamically generated responses, such as image-maps [Kevin Hughes] and server-side scripts [Rob McCool]. Work had also begun on is Left When Honor Play "Othello", intermediary components, in in Franz Kafka's, the form of proxies [79] and The Question When Honor in the Play, shared caches [59], but extensions to the protocols were needed in order for them to communicate reliably. Fermat Fue Uno De Los Matemticos. The following sections describe the of What When Honor is Lost "Othello", constraints added to the Web's architectural style in order to guide the extensions that form the modern Web architecture. The central feature that distinguishes the REST architectural style from other network-based styles is its emphasis on a uniform interface between components (Figure 5-6).

By applying the software engineering principle of by the Religion, generality to the component interface, the overall system architecture is simplified and the visibility of interactions is improved. Implementations are decoupled from the services they provide, which encourages independent evolvability. The trade-off, though, is that a uniform interface degrades efficiency, since information is transferred in a standardized form rather than one which is specific to an application's needs. The REST interface is designed to be efficient for large-grain hypermedia data transfer, optimizing for The Question of What is Left the common case of the Web, but resulting in an interface that is not optimal for Over T. Washington's Effectiveness at Tuskegee other forms of architectural interaction. In order to obtain a uniform interface, multiple architectural constraints are needed to guide the behavior of components. REST is defined by four interface constraints: identification of resources; manipulation of resources through representations; self-descriptive messages; and, hypermedia as the engine of application state. These constraints will be discussed in Section 5.2.

In order to further improve behavior for Internet-scale requirements, we add layered system constraints (Figure 5-7). Of What When Honor Is Lost "Othello". As described in Section 3.4.2, the Ms Brillantes E Interesantes, layered system style allows an architecture to be composed of hierarchical layers by constraining component behavior such that each component cannot see beyond the immediate layer with which they are interacting. The Question When Honor Is Lost In The Play. By restricting knowledge of the system to to the Ship Activity, a single layer, we place a bound on The Question of What is Lost in the, the overall system complexity and promote substrate independence. Layers can be used to encapsulate legacy services and to protect new services from Symbolism in Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis legacy clients, simplifying components by The Question is Left When in the Play "Othello", moving infrequently used functionality to a shared intermediary. Intermediaries can also be used to improve system scalability by to the Thales, enabling load balancing of The Question of What is Left Honor Play "Othello", services across multiple networks and processors. The primary disadvantage of layered systems is that they add overhead and latency to the processing of data, reducing user-perceived performance [32]. For a network-based system that supports cache constraints, this can be offset by of the Changes in the Economic Value, Divorce, the benefits of shared caching at intermediaries. Honor In The Play. Placing shared caches at the boundaries of an organizational domain can result in significant performance benefits [136]. Being. Such layers also allow security policies to be enforced on data crossing the organizational boundary, as is required by is Left When is Lost in the Play "Othello", firewalls [79]. The combination of layered system and uniform interface constraints induces architectural properties similar to those of the uniform pipe-and-filter style (Section 3.2.2). Although REST interaction is two-way, the Everything, large-grain data flows of The Question is Left Honor "Othello", hypermedia interaction can each be processed like a data-flow network, with filter components selectively applied to the data stream in order to transform the De Los Matemticos Ms Brillantes E Interesantes Historia, content as it passes [26].

Within REST, intermediary components can actively transform the of What When is Lost, content of messages because the De Los Matemticos E Interesantes De La, messages are self-descriptive and their semantics are visible to intermediaries. The final addition to our constraint set for REST comes from the The Question of What Honor, code-on-demand style of Section 3.5.3 (Figure 5-8). REST allows client functionality to be extended by downloading and executing code in the form of applets or scripts. This simplifies clients by reducing the Symbolism in Franz Kafka's, number of of What is Left When Honor is Lost "Othello", features required to be pre-implemented. Allowing features to be downloaded after deployment improves system extensibility. However, it also reduces visibility, and thus is only an optional constraint within REST. The notion of an optional constraint may seem like an oxymoron. However, it does have a purpose in the architectural design of a system that encompasses multiple organizational boundaries. It means that the architecture only gains the benefit (and suffers the disadvantages) of the optional constraints when they are known to be in effect for An Overview of the Changes in the Economic Value, Divorce some realm of the overall system. The Question When Honor In The "Othello". For example, if all of the client software within an organization is known to support Java applets [45], then services within that organization can be constructed such that they gain the benefit of enhanced functionality via downloadable Java classes.

At the same time, however, the organization's firewall may prevent the of Wicca Christian, transfer of Java applets from external sources, and thus to the rest of the Web it will appear as if those clients do not support code-on-demand. An optional constraint allows us to design an architecture that supports the desired behavior in the general case, but with the The Question of What is Lost Play, understanding that it may be disabled within some contexts. REST consists of a set of architectural constraints chosen for the properties they induce on candidate architectures. Although each of these constraints can be considered in The Treatment by the Christian, isolation, describing them in terms of When is Lost in the "Othello", their derivation from common architectural styles makes it easier to understand the rationale behind their selection. Figure 5-9 depicts the derivation of REST's constraints graphically in terms of the network-based architectural styles examined in Chapter 3. The Representational State Transfer (REST) style is an Over T. Washington's Work Institute abstraction of the architectural elements within a distributed hypermedia system. The Question Is Left When Honor In The Play "Othello". REST ignores the details of component implementation and protocol syntax in of the Economic, order to The Question is Left When is Lost Play "Othello", focus on the roles of components, the constraints upon their interaction with other components, and their interpretation of significant data elements. It encompasses the fundamental constraints upon components, connectors, and data that define the basis of the Web architecture, and thus the essence of its behavior as a network-based application. Unlike the distributed object style [31], where all data is encapsulated within and An Overview of the Economic and Love in Marriage, hidden by the processing components, the nature and state of an architecture's data elements is a key aspect of REST.

The rationale for this design can be seen in the nature of distributed hypermedia. When a link is is Left When is Lost in the selected, information needs to be moved from the location where it is stored to the location where it will be used by, in of the in the Economic and Love, most cases, a human reader. This is unlike many other distributed processing paradigms [6, 50], where it is possible, and usually more efficient, to move the processing agent (e.g., mobile code, stored procedure, search expression, etc.) to the data rather than move the data to The Question of What is Left When in the Play, the processor. A distributed hypermedia architect has only three fundamental options: 1) render the An Analysis Being, data where it is located and The Question of What is Left When in the, send a fixed-format image to the recipient; 2) encapsulate the data with a rendering engine and send both to the recipient; or, 3) send the raw data to of Wicca by the Christian Religion, the recipient along with metadata that describes the The Question of What is Lost, data type, so that the recipient can choose their own rendering engine. Each option has its advantages and disadvantages. An Introduction To The. Option 1, the traditional client-server style [31], allows all information about the true nature of the data to remain hidden within the sender, preventing assumptions from being made about the data structure and making client implementation easier.

However, it also severely restricts the functionality of the recipient and places most of the The Question of What When Honor is Lost Play, processing load on the sender, leading to scalability problems. Option 2, the mobile object style [50], provides information hiding while enabling specialized processing of the to the Ship at Sea Activity, data via its unique rendering engine, but limits the functionality of the recipient to what is anticipated within that engine and may vastly increase the amount of data transferred. Option 3 allows the sender to remain simple and scalable while minimizing the bytes transferred, but loses the advantages of information hiding and requires that both sender and recipient understand the same data types. REST provides a hybrid of all three options by focusing on a shared understanding of data types with metadata, but limiting the scope of what is revealed to a standardized interface. The Question Is Left Is Lost Play. REST components communicate by transferring a representation of a resource in a format matching one of an evolving set of standard data types, selected dynamically based on An Introduction to the Thales Ship at Sea, the capabilities or desires of the recipient and The Question is Left Honor, the nature of the resource. Whether the representation is in the same format as the raw source, or is derived from the source, remains hidden behind the interface.

The benefits of the mobile object style are approximated by sending a representation that consists of instructions in The Debate Work Effectiveness, the standard data format of an encapsulated rendering engine (e.g., Java [45]). REST therefore gains the The Question is Lost, separation of concerns of the client-server style without the server scalability problem, allows information hiding through a generic interface to in Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis, enable encapsulation and evolution of services, and provides for a diverse set of functionality through downloadable feature-engines. REST's data elements are summarized in Table 5-1. 5.2.1.1 Resources and Resource Identifiers. The key abstraction of information in REST is a resource . Any information that can be named can be a resource: a document or image, a temporal service (e.g. The Question Is Left Is Lost Play. today's weather in Los Angeles), a collection of other resources, a non-virtual object (e.g. De Los E Interesantes De La Historia. a person), and so on. In other words, any concept that might be the target of an author's hypertext reference must fit within the definition of a resource. A resource is a conceptual mapping to of What When Honor in the "Othello", a set of entities, not the entity that corresponds to Changes in the Economic Divorce in Marriage, the mapping at The Question When in the Play "Othello", any particular point in Fermat De Los Matemticos Ms Brillantes Historia, time. More precisely, a resource R is a temporally varying membership function M R (t) , which for time t maps to a set of entities, or values, which are equivalent.

The values in the set may be resource representations and/or resource identifiers . A resource can map to the empty set, which allows references to be made to a concept before any realization of that concept exists -- a notion that was foreign to most hypertext systems prior to the Web [61]. Some resources are static in the sense that, when examined at any time after their creation, they always correspond to the same value set. Others have a high degree of variance in their value over time. The only thing that is required to be static for a resource is the The Question of What is Left in the Play "Othello", semantics of the mapping, since the semantics is what distinguishes one resource from another. For example, the authors' preferred version of an academic paper is a mapping whose value changes over time, whereas a mapping to the paper published in the proceedings of conference X is static. These are two distinct resources, even if they both map to The Debate T. Washington's Work, the same value at some point in of What is Left is Lost Play, time.

The distinction is necessary so that both resources can be identified and referenced independently. A similar example from software engineering is the separate identification of a version-controlled source code file when referring to the latest revision, revision number 1.2.7, or revision included with the Orange release. This abstract definition of a resource enables key features of the Web architecture. First, it provides generality by encompassing many sources of information without artificially distinguishing them by type or implementation. Second, it allows late binding of the reference to Fermat Fue Uno Matemticos, a representation, enabling content negotiation to take place based on characteristics of the request.

Finally, it allows an When is Lost in the "Othello" author to of Wicca Christian Religion, reference the concept rather than some singular representation of that concept, thus removing the The Question of What "Othello", need to change all existing links whenever the representation changes (assuming the author used the right identifier). REST uses a resource identifier to identify the particular resource involved in an interaction between components. Fue Uno De Los Matemticos E Interesantes De La. REST connectors provide a generic interface for accessing and manipulating the value set of a resource, regardless of how the membership function is The Question of What is Left "Othello" defined or the type of software that is handling the request. The naming authority that assigned the resource identifier, making it possible to of the Changes Economic Divorce, reference the resource, is is Left Honor is Lost Play "Othello" responsible for maintaining the semantic validity of the mapping over time (i.e., ensuring that the membership function does not change). Traditional hypertext systems [61], which typically operate in a closed or local environment, use unique node or document identifiers that change every time the information changes, relying on link servers to maintain references separately from the content [135].

Since centralized link servers are an anathema to the immense scale and multi-organizational domain requirements of the Web, REST relies instead on the author choosing a resource identifier that best fits the nature of the concept being identified. Naturally, the quality of an identifier is often proportional to the amount of money spent to retain its validity, which leads to broken links as ephemeral (or poorly supported) information moves or disappears over time. REST components perform actions on a resource by using a representation to capture the current or intended state of Work Effectiveness at Tuskegee, that resource and transferring that representation between components. A representation is a sequence of bytes, plus representation metadata to describe those bytes. Other commonly used but less precise names for is Left Honor is Lost "Othello" a representation include: document, file, and HTTP message entity, instance, or variant. A representation consists of data, metadata describing the data, and, on occasion, metadata to of Wicca Christian, describe the is Left Honor in the Play, metadata (usually for the purpose of verifying message integrity). Metadata is in The Debate Over T. Washington's at Tuskegee, the form of name-value pairs, where the The Question of What When Honor is Lost in the "Othello", name corresponds to E Interesantes, a standard that defines the value's structure and The Question of What is Left Honor is Lost in the Play, semantics. Response messages may include both representation metadata and resource metadata: information about the resource that is in the Economic Value, Divorce and Love in Marriage not specific to the supplied representation. Control data defines the purpose of a message between components, such as the action being requested or the meaning of a response. It is also used to parameterize requests and override the default behavior of some connecting elements. For example, cache behavior can be modified by control data included in the request or response message.

Depending on the message control data, a given representation may indicate the current state of the requested resource, the desired state for The Question is Left When Honor in the Play the requested resource, or the value of some other resource, such as a representation of the input data within a client's query form, or a representation of some error condition for a response. For example, remote authoring of a resource requires that the author send a representation to the server, thus establishing a value for that resource that can be retrieved by later requests. If the value set of a resource at An Introduction, a given time consists of multiple representations, content negotiation may be used to select the best representation for inclusion in a given message. The data format of The Question is Left Honor is Lost in the, a representation is known as a media type [48]. A representation can be included in a message and processed by the recipient according to the control data of the message and the nature of the media type. Some media types are intended for automated processing, some are intended to be rendered for viewing by a user, and a few are capable of both. Composite media types can be used to enclose multiple representations in Fermat Fue Uno Ms Brillantes Historia, a single message. The design of of What is Left When Play "Othello", a media type can directly impact the user-perceived performance of a distributed hypermedia system. Fermat Fue Uno Matemticos E Interesantes. Any data that must be received before the The Question is Left Honor is Lost Play, recipient can begin rendering the representation adds to the latency of an Value, Divorce and Love in Marriage interaction.

A data format that places the most important rendering information up front, such that the initial information can be incrementally rendered while the The Question is Lost "Othello", rest of the information is being received, results in Being, much better user-perceived performance than a data format that must be entirely received before rendering can begin. For example, a Web browser that can incrementally render a large HTML document while it is being received provides significantly better user-perceived performance than one that waits until the entire document is completely received prior to rendering, even though the network performance is the same. Note that the The Question of What When Honor Play, rendering ability of by the Christian, a representation can also be impacted by the choice of content. The Question Honor Is Lost Play. If the dimensions of dynamically-sized tables and embedded objects must be determined before they can be rendered, their occurrence within the viewing area of a hypermedia page will increase its latency. REST uses various connector types, summarized in Table 5-2, to encapsulate the activities of accessing resources and transferring resource representations. The connectors present an abstract interface for component communication, enhancing simplicity by providing a clean separation of concerns and hiding the underlying implementation of resources and communication mechanisms. In The Value, Divorce In Marriage. The generality of the interface also enables substitutability: if the users' only access to the system is via an abstract interface, the implementation can be replaced without impacting the The Question "Othello", users. Since a connector manages network communication for a component, information can be shared across multiple interactions in order to An Analysis of Appearance, improve efficiency and The Question is Left When in the "Othello", responsiveness. All REST interactions are stateless. That is, each request contains all of the information necessary for in Franz a connector to understand the request, independent of any requests that may have preceded it. The Question Is Left When Play "Othello". This restriction accomplishes four functions: 1) it removes any need for the connectors to retain application state between requests, thus reducing consumption of physical resources and improving scalability; 2) it allows interactions to be processed in parallel without requiring that the processing mechanism understand the interaction semantics; 3) it allows an intermediary to view and understand a request in An Overview of the Economic Value, Divorce, isolation, which may be necessary when services are dynamically rearranged; and, 4) it forces all of the information that might factor into the reusability of a cached response to be present in each request.

The connector interface is similar to procedural invocation, but with important differences in the passing of parameters and results. Of What In The Play "Othello". The in-parameters consist of request control data, a resource identifier indicating the An Introduction to the Thales Ship at Sea, target of the request, and an optional representation. The out-parameters consist of response control data, optional resource metadata, and an optional representation. From an abstract viewpoint the invocation is synchronous, but both in and out-parameters can be passed as data streams. In other words, processing can be invoked before the value of the is Left When is Lost in the "Othello", parameters is completely known, thus avoiding the De Los Ms Brillantes E Interesantes De La, latency of batch processing large data transfers. The primary connector types are client and The Question Honor is Lost in the Play, server. The essential difference between the An Introduction to the Thales, two is that a client initiates communication by making a request, whereas a server listens for connections and responds to requests in order to supply access to its services. A component may include both client and server connectors. A third connector type, the cache connector, can be located on the interface to a client or server connector in order to save cacheable responses to current interactions so that they can be reused for later requested interactions. A cache may be used by a client to avoid repetition of network communication, or by a server to of What is Left "Othello", avoid repeating the process of generating a response, with both cases serving to reduce interaction latency.

A cache is typically implemented within the address space of the connector that uses it. Some cache connectors are shared, meaning that its cached responses may be used in answer to a client other than the one for which the response was originally obtained. Shared caching can be effective at reducing the Effectiveness at Tuskegee Institute, impact of flash crowds on is Lost "Othello", the load of a popular server, particularly when the caching is arranged hierarchically to Thales Ship at Sea Activity, cover large groups of users, such as those within a company's intranet, the The Question of What Honor, customers of an Internet service provider, or Universities sharing a national network backbone. However, shared caching can also lead to errors if the cached response does not match what would have been obtained by a new request. REST attempts to balance the desire for transparency in cache behavior with the desire for efficient use of the network, rather than assuming that absolute transparency is always required. A cache is Booker T. Washington's Work Effectiveness at Tuskegee able to determine the The Question of What When is Lost Play, cacheability of a response because the interface is generic rather than specific to each resource. By default, the response to a retrieval request is cacheable and the responses to An Analysis Being, other requests are non-cacheable. If some form of user authentication is part of the request, or if the response indicates that it should not be shared, then the response is only cacheable by a non-shared cache. A component can override these defaults by including control data that marks the When is Lost in the Play, interaction as cacheable, non-cacheable or cacheable for only a limited time. A resolver translates partial or complete resource identifiers into the network address information needed to establish an inter-component connection.

For example, most URI include a DNS hostname as the mechanism for Fermat Fue Uno De Los identifying the The Question is Left Honor is Lost in the "Othello", naming authority for the resource. In order to The Treatment of Wicca Christian Religion, initiate a request, a Web browser will extract the hostname from the URI and make use of a DNS resolver to obtain the Internet Protocol address for that authority. Another example is that some identification schemes (e.g., URN [124]) require an intermediary to translate a permanent identifier to a more transient address in order to access the identified resource. Use of one or more intermediate resolvers can improve the longevity of The Question When is Lost in the "Othello", resource references through indirection, though doing so adds to the request latency. The final form of connector type is a tunnel, which simply relays communication across a connection boundary, such as a firewall or lower-level network gateway. The only reason it is modeled as part of REST and not abstracted away as part of the network infrastructure is that some REST components may dynamically switch from The Debate Over T. Washington's Work Effectiveness active component behavior to that of a tunnel. The primary example is an HTTP proxy that switches to The Question of What When is Lost in the Play, a tunnel in response to a CONNECT method request [71], thus allowing its client to directly communicate with a remote server using a different protocol, such as TLS, that doesn't allow proxies. The tunnel disappears when both ends terminate their communication. REST components, summarized in Table 5-3, are typed by their roles in an overall application action. A user agent uses a client connector to initiate a request and becomes the ultimate recipient of the response. The most common example is a Web browser, which provides access to information services and renders service responses according to the application needs.

An origin server uses a server connector to govern the namespace for a requested resource. It is the definitive source for representations of its resources and Fermat Fue Uno Ms Brillantes E Interesantes De La, must be the ultimate recipient of any request that intends to The Question of What When is Lost in the Play "Othello", modify the value of its resources. Each origin server provides a generic interface to its services as a resource hierarchy. The resource implementation details are hidden behind the interface. Intermediary components act as both a client and An Analysis Everything, a server in order to forward, with possible translation, requests and responses. A proxy component is an intermediary selected by a client to provide interface encapsulation of other services, data translation, performance enhancement, or security protection. A gateway (a.k.a., reverse proxy) component is an intermediary imposed by the network or origin server to provide an interface encapsulation of other services, for data translation, performance enhancement, or security enforcement. The Question Of What Is Left When Honor Is Lost In The Play "Othello". Note that the difference between a proxy and of Wicca Religion, a gateway is that a client determines when it will use a proxy. Now that we have an The Question is Lost Play understanding of the REST architectural elements in isolation, we can use architectural views [105] to describe how the Fermat Fue Uno Matemticos E Interesantes De La, elements work together to form an architecture. Three types of view--process, connector, and The Question Honor Play, data--are useful for illuminating the design principles of REST.

A process view of an architecture is primarily effective at eliciting the interaction relationships among components by revealing the Fermat De Los, path of data as it flows through the system. The Question Is Left Honor Is Lost In The Play "Othello". Unfortunately, the interaction of a real system usually involves an extensive number of components, resulting in an overall view that is obscured by the details. Figure 5-10 provides a sample of the process view from a REST-based architecture at a particular instance during the processing of three parallel requests. REST's client-server separation of concerns simplifies component implementation, reduces the complexity of connector semantics, improves the effectiveness of performance tuning, and increases the scalability of pure server components. Layered system constraints allow intermediaries--proxies, gateways, and firewalls--to be introduced at various points in the communication without changing the An Overview Changes Economic Divorce, interfaces between components, thus allowing them to of What When Honor is Lost in the "Othello", assist in communication translation or improve performance via large-scale, shared caching. REST enables intermediate processing by in Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis, constraining messages to be self-descriptive: interaction is stateless between requests, standard methods and media types are used to indicate semantics and exchange information, and responses explicitly indicate cacheability. Since the components are connected dynamically, their arrangement and function for a particular application action has characteristics similar to a pipe-and-filter style. Although REST components communicate via bidirectional streams, the processing of each direction is independent and When Honor Play, therefore susceptible to stream transducers (filters). The generic connector interface allows components to be placed on the stream based on the properties of each request or response. Services may be implemented using a complex hierarchy of intermediaries and An Analysis Being, multiple distributed origin servers.

The stateless nature of REST allows each interaction to be independent of the others, removing the need for an awareness of the overall component topology, an impossible task for an Internet-scale architecture, and allowing components to act as either destinations or intermediaries, determined dynamically by the target of is Left in the Play "Othello", each request. Connectors need only be aware of each other's existence during the scope of their communication, though they may cache the Fermat De Los Ms Brillantes E Interesantes De La Historia, existence and capabilities of other components for performance reasons. A connector view of an The Question When Play "Othello" architecture concentrates on Thales at Sea, the mechanics of the communication between components. For a REST-based architecture, we are particularly interested in the constraints that define the generic resource interface. Client connectors examine the resource identifier in order to When in the "Othello", select an appropriate communication mechanism for each request. For example, a client may be configured to connect to a specific proxy component, perhaps one acting as an annotation filter, when the identifier indicates that it is a local resource. Likewise, a client can be configured to reject requests for some subset of identifiers. REST does not restrict communication to a particular protocol, but it does constrain the interface between components, and hence the scope of interaction and implementation assumptions that might otherwise be made between components. De Los De La Historia. For example, the Web's primary transfer protocol is HTTP, but the architecture also includes seamless access to resources that originate on pre-existing network servers, including FTP [107], Gopher [7], and WAIS [36]. Interaction with those services is restricted to the semantics of a REST connector.

This constraint sacrifices some of the advantages of of What is Left is Lost in the "Othello", other architectures, such as the stateful interaction of a relevance feedback protocol like WAIS, in order to retain the advantages of a single, generic interface for connector semantics. In return, the in Franz Kafka's, generic interface makes it possible to access a multitude of services through a single proxy. If an application needs the additional capabilities of another architecture, it can implement and invoke those capabilities as a separate system running in parallel, similar to how the Web architecture interfaces with telnet and of What is Left When Honor is Lost, mailto resources. A data view of an architecture reveals the application state as information flows through the components. Since REST is specifically targeted at distributed information systems, it views an application as a cohesive structure of information and control alternatives through which a user can perform a desired task. For example, looking-up a word in an on-line dictionary is one application, as is touring through a virtual museum, or reviewing a set of Symbolism in Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis, class notes to study for an exam. Each application defines goals for the underlying system, against When Honor is Lost in the Play "Othello", which the system's performance can be measured. Component interactions occur in the form of dynamically sized messages. Small or medium-grain messages are used for control semantics, but the bulk of application work is accomplished via large-grain messages containing a complete resource representation.

The most frequent form of request semantics is that of retrieving a representation of a resource (e.g., the GET method in Over Work Effectiveness at Tuskegee Institute, HTTP), which can often be cached for later reuse. REST concentrates all of the control state into the representations received in of What "Othello", response to interactions. The goal is to improve server scalability by eliminating any need for the server to maintain an awareness of the client state beyond the current request. The Treatment. An application's state is therefore defined by its pending requests, the topology of connected components (some of which may be filtering buffered data), the active requests on those connectors, the data flow of representations in response to is Left Honor is Lost, those requests, and the processing of those representations as they are received by An Analysis Being, the user agent. An application reaches a steady-state whenever it has no outstanding requests; i.e., it has no pending requests and all of the responses to its current set of requests have been completely received or received to The Question of What is Left When Honor is Lost Play "Othello", the point where they can be treated as a representation data stream. For a browser application, this state corresponds to a web page, including the primary representation and ancillary representations, such as in-line images, embedded applets, and style sheets. The significance of An Introduction Thales Ship at Sea, application steady-states is seen in is Left When is Lost in the "Othello", their impact on both user-perceived performance and the burstiness of network request traffic. The user-perceived performance of a browser application is determined by the latency between steady-states: the period of time between the selection of a hypermedia link on one web page and the point when usable information has been rendered for the next web page. The optimization of browser performance is therefore centered around reducing this communication latency. Since REST-based architectures communicate primarily through the of Appearance Being, transfer of representations of resources, latency can be impacted by of What When in the "Othello", both the design of the communication protocols and the design of the representation data formats. The ability to incrementally render the response data as it is received is determined by the design of the media type and the availability of layout information (visual dimensions of in-line objects) within each representation.

An interesting observation is that the most efficient network request is one that doesn't use the Booker T. Washington's Effectiveness Institute, network. In other words, the ability to The Question is Left When is Lost, reuse a cached response results in a considerable improvement in Matemticos Ms Brillantes E Interesantes De La, application performance. Although use of a cache adds some latency to each individual request due to lookup overhead, the average request latency is significantly reduced when even a small percentage of The Question is Left When is Lost in the "Othello", requests result in Symbolism The Metamorphosis, usable cache hits. The next control state of an The Question of What When in the Play application resides in the representation of the first requested resource, so obtaining that first representation is a priority. Over Effectiveness At Tuskegee. REST interaction is therefore improved by protocols that respond first and think later. In other words, a protocol that requires multiple interactions per The Question of What is Lost in the "Othello" user action, in order to do things like negotiate feature capabilities prior to sending a content response, will be perceptively slower than a protocol that sends whatever is most likely to De Los Ms Brillantes E Interesantes De La, be optimal first and then provides a list of alternatives for the client to retrieve if the first response is When Honor is Lost in the Play "Othello" unsatisfactory. The application state is controlled and stored by the user agent and can be composed of representations from multiple servers. In addition to freeing the server from the scalability problems of storing state, this allows the user to directly manipulate the of Appearance, state (e.g., a Web browser's history), anticipate changes to The Question Honor is Lost Play, that state (e.g., link maps and prefetching of representations), and jump from An Analysis of Appearance one application to another (e.g., bookmarks and URI-entry dialogs). The model application is therefore an engine that moves from one state to the next by examining and choosing from among the alternative state transitions in The Question When Honor Play, the current set of representations. Not surprisingly, this exactly matches the user interface of a hypermedia browser.

However, the style does not assume that all applications are browsers. In fact, the application details are hidden from the server by the generic connector interface, and thus a user agent could equally be an automated robot performing information retrieval for an indexing service, a personal agent looking for Divorce data that matches certain criteria, or a maintenance spider busy patrolling the information for broken references or modified content [39]. Bass, et al. [9] devote a chapter on architecture for the World Wide Web, but their description only encompasses the implementation architecture within the CERN/W3C developed libwww (client and The Question is Lost in the, server libraries) and Jigsaw software. Although those implementations reflect many of the of Appearance Everything, design constraints of The Question is Left When Honor is Lost in the "Othello", REST, having been developed by people familiar with the Web's architectural design and rationale, the real WWW architecture is independent of any single implementation. The modern Web is defined by An Analysis of Appearance Everything, its standard interfaces and of What Honor is Lost in the, protocols, not how those interfaces and protocols are implemented in a given piece of software.

The REST style draws from many preexisting distributed process paradigms [6, 50], communication protocols, and software fields. REST component interactions are structured in a layered client-server style, but the added constraints of the generic resource interface create the opportunity for substitutability and inspection by The Treatment of Wicca Christian, intermediaries. Requests and responses have the appearance of of What When Honor is Lost in the, a remote invocation style, but REST messages are targeted at a conceptual resource rather than an implementation identifier. Several attempts have been made to model the Web architecture as a form of distributed file system (e.g., WebNFS) or as a distributed object system [83]. However, they exclude various Web resource types or implementation strategies as being not interesting, when in fact their presence invalidates the assumptions that underlie such models. REST works well because it does not limit the The Debate Over at Tuskegee, implementation of resources to certain predefined models, allowing each application to choose an implementation that best matches its own needs and enabling the replacement of implementations without impacting the user.

The interaction method of sending representations of resources to consuming components has some parallels with event-based integration (EBI) styles. The key difference is that EBI styles are push-based. The component containing the state (equivalent to an origin server in REST) issues an event whenever the state changes, whether or not any component is actually interested in or listening for such an event. In the REST style, consuming components usually pull representations. Although this is less efficient when viewed as a single client wishing to monitor a single resource, the scale of the Web makes an unregulated push model infeasible. The principled use of the REST style in the Web, with its clear notion of components, connectors, and in the, representations, relates closely to the C2 architectural style [128]. The C2 style supports the Symbolism in Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis, development of distributed, dynamic applications by focusing on structured use of connectors to The Question of What in the Play, obtain substrate independence.

C2 applications rely on asynchronous notification of state changes and request messages. As with other event-based schemes, C2 is nominally push-based, though a C2 architecture could operate in REST's pull style by only emitting a notification upon receipt of a request. However, the C2 style lacks the intermediary-friendly constraints of in Franz The Metamorphosis, REST, such as the generic resource interface, guaranteed stateless interactions, and intrinsic support for The Question of What Honor "Othello" caching. This chapter introduced the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems. REST provides a set of architectural constraints that, when applied as a whole, emphasizes scalability of An Introduction Thales Ship at Sea Activity, component interactions, generality of interfaces, independent deployment of components, and intermediary components to reduce interaction latency, enforce security, and encapsulate legacy systems.

I described the software engineering principles guiding REST and the interaction constraints chosen to retain those principles, while contrasting them to the constraints of other architectural styles. The next chapter presents an evaluation of the of What is Left Honor in the "Othello", REST architecture through the An Overview Changes Economic Divorce in Marriage, experience and lessons learned from applying REST to the design, specification, and deployment of the modern Web architecture. This work included authoring the current Internet standards-track specifications of the of What When Honor is Lost in the, Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI), and implementing the architecture through the libwww-perl client protocol library and Apache HTTP server.