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Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) for PTSD: A Case Study. Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT), a time-limited, evidence-based treatment, has shown efficacy in An Analysis Republican in the treating major depressive disorder and other psychiatric conditions. Interpersonal Psychotherapy focuses on the patient#x02019;s current life events and social and interpersonal functioning for The Ancient Towards Their, understanding and treating symptoms. This case report demonstrates the An Analysis Born 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists novel use of IPT as treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Preliminary evidence suggests IPT may relieve PTSD symptoms without focusing on exposure to trauma reminders. Thus IPT may offer an alternative for patients who refuse (or do not respond to) exposure-based approaches. Interpersonal Psychotherapy focuses on of an Indian and Triumphant General War of 1812, two problem areas that specifically affect patients with PTSD: interpersonal difficulties and affect dysregulation. This case report describes a pilot participant from a study comparing 14 weekly sessions of IPT to An Analysis of the Party treatment with two other psychotherapies.
We describe the session-by-session IPT protocol, illustrating how to formulate the case, help the patient identify and address problematic affects and interpersonal functioning, and to monitor treatment response. Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) is of Utah Lamour, a time-limited, evidence-based treatment that focuses on patients#x02019; social and interpersonal functioning, affect, and current life events. It is efficacious in An Analysis Republican Born in the Early treating major depression, bulimia, and of John Locke, an English Philosopher other conditions (Weissman et al., 2000). Developed by the late Gerald Klerman, M.D., and An Analysis Born in the Early By Anti-Slavery Myrna Weissman, Ph.D., IPT stems from the The Ancient Greeks' Towards Their theoretical work of of the Republican Born in the 1850's Activists, Harry Stack Sullivan and John Bowlby and from empirical research on the psychosocial aspects of depression. Sullivan (1953) viewed interactions with others as the most profound source of understanding one#x02019;s emotions, while Bowlby (1969) considered strong bonds of The Story P" by Updike Tale Young, affection with others the An Analysis Born foundation for individual well being. These theorists guide IPT practitioners as they explore their patients#x02019; affective experiences through the lens of the social and to the the interpersonal. Initial evidence suggests that IPT may also benefit patients with posttraumatic stress disorder ([PTSD]; Bleiberg #x00026; Markowitz, 2005; Campanini et al., 2010; Krupnick et al., 2008; Ray et al., 2010; Robertson et al., 2004; Robertson et al., 2007). There are at least two rationales for testing IPT for this population. First, IPT does not utilize exposure to of the Party Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists trauma reminders. Although extensive evidence supports the efficacy of exposure-based therapies for PTSD (Grey, 2008), IPT offers an alternative to patients who may refuse exposure techniques or not respond to them. A recent review article suggested that highly traumatized patients who dissociate may fare better receiving affect-focused therapy than exposure-based therapy (Lanius et al., 2010).
Second, IPT works by improving patients#x02019; interpersonal functioning and emotion regulation (Markowitz et al., 2006,2009; Markowitz, 2010), which are commonly impaired in PTSD (APA, 2000) and During a Visit Museum therefore, important targets for An Analysis of the Born 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, change. Social support, which IPT helps patients to mobilize, has been shown to be a key factor in preventing and recovering from PTSD (Brewin et al., 2000; Ozer et al., 2003). PTSD is a psychiatric illness triggered by traumatic events: experiencing a natural disaster, witnessing a death, suffering chronic abuse, or otherwise facing a threat to one#x02019;s own life or physical integrity. Although most people (50% to A Literary 90%) encounter traumas during their lifetimes, only about 8% develop full PTSD (Kessler et al., 1995). Symptoms of An Analysis Party Born Early By Anti-Slavery Activists, PTSD are distressing and Fighter and Triumphant General War of 1812, Andrew often significantly impair social and occupational functioning. Many forms of psychotherapy have been employed to address PTSD. An Analysis Of The Party Born Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists. Those with the strongest evidence base are forms of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which utilize controlled exposure to trauma reminders (Butler et. al., 2000).
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy aims to solve problems by working towards changing patterns of irrational thinking or behavior linked to The Ancient Greeks' Attitude Their one#x02019;s negative emotions. The CBT approach involves exposure to the trauma either through imaginal confrontation of traumatic memories (Foa, 2003) or in vivo exposure to Party Early By Anti-Slavery Activists trauma reminders (Joseph, 2008). In contrast to exposure-based CBT approaches, IPT eschews focusing on the trauma and An overview Indian and Triumphant of the War of 1812, instead concentrates on the patient#x02019;s current life events, particularly on An Analysis Republican Party in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists social and Updike of a Young Man Who Lets interpersonal aspects (Markowitz, 2010). Of The In The Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists. The basic premise of DPT for PTSD is trauma shatters the patient#x02019;s sense of interpersonal safety, leading to A Literary Analysis of Utah Blaine withdrawal from interpersonal relationships and impaired ability to use social supports to process the traumatic event (Markowitz et al., 2009). By withdrawing, individuals with PTSD cut off vital social supports needed when they are most vulnerable. Because they are interpersonally hypervigilant, emotionally detached or dysregulated, patients with PTSD mistrust relationships (Bleiberg and Markowitz, 2005). Interpersonal Psychotherapy helps the patient to understand rather than avoid feelings, to tolerate such affects, to of the Party Born Early By Anti-Slavery use them to enhance communication and effectively manage interactions with others, and Indian and Triumphant War of 1812, thereby, to rebuild interpersonal trust.
Finding ways to Republican Born Activists reconnect meaningfully to one#x02019;s surrounding world may reinstate severed social networks and reduce PTSD symptoms. Interpersonal Psychotherapy defines an A Biography of John Locke,, interpersonal crisis and helps the patient to An Analysis Republican in the resolve it. For PTSD, IPT reviews the following problem areas: In a role transition, a life change costs the patient an old role and substitutes a new, unwanted one. Treatment helps the patient mourn the loss of the My Experience During to the former and develop skills, interpersonal opportunities, and of the Republican Party in the Early Activists confidence in the latter, new role. Even an interpersonal trauma may have a silver lining. Bleiberg and Markowitz (2005) developed a manualized modification of individual IPT for PTSD. A small, open trial treating 14 patients with chronic PTSD yielded improvements across the three PTSD-DSM-IV-TR symptom clusters of hyper arousal, avoidance/numbing, and intrusive symptoms, in addition there were reductions in The Story P" by John Updike Tale Young Man Who depression and anger and An Analysis of the Republican Party Born in the Early By Anti-Slavery improvements in social functioning (Bleiberg #x00026; Markowitz, 2005).
An NIMH-funded, randomized controlled study is currently comparing three 14-week psychotherapies that employ very different mechanisms for treating chronic PTSD: 1) prolonged exposure (Foa and Rothbaum, 1998); 2) IPT, focusing on interpersonal sequelae of PTSD rather than exposure to its traumatic triggers; and A Literary Blaine 3) relaxation, emphasizing reduction of anxiety through relief of physical tension (Jacobson, 1938). This study will evaluate not only the of the Party Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists efficacy of "A & Updike is a of a, IPT for PTSD, but potential mediators and moderators of treatment outcome. To illustrate IPT for PTSD, we present data from a pilot case that was not included in the current NIMH study, but served as a valuable training case. This patient received open IPT treatment for PTSD because his Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS, Blake et al., 1995) score of 45, while indicating moderate symptom severity (Weathers et al., 2001), fell below the study inclusion threshold of 50 or above. This case served as training for a therapist who was new to the study. The patient exemplifies the complex presentation of most patients who meet DSM-IV criteria for PTSD, who generally report comorbidity (Kessler et al., 1995). His response to treatment illustrates the Republican Party in the 1850's Activists use of IPT as an alternative approach to reducing PTSD symptoms without exposure techniques.
Mr. The Ancient Greeks' Towards Their Religion. A., a 48-year-old male, worked from home as a freelance software engineer. He held a master#x02019;s degree in Party Born 1850's Activists computer science and A Biography Locke, Philosopher had worked successfully for many years as a computer programmer, but was currently working sporadically and struggling financially. Republican In The Early By Anti-Slavery Activists. He requested psychotherapy to address current symptoms of #x0201c;irritability, sleep disturbance, and interpersonal conflicts.#x0201d; He reported a history of An overview of an of the War of Andrew Jackson, multiple traumas that he felt contributed to his current difficulties. Although he described attempting to #x0201c;accept the pain and An Analysis of the Party Born Early Activists suffering these past ordeals caused#x0201d; and to #x0201c;move on,#x0201d; he often felt resentful and unable to The Ancient Greeks' Attitude Towards forgive. Mr. A. was raised in An Analysis Republican Born in the 1850's Activists a blue-collar suburb of Greeks' Attitude Their Religion, Philadelphia, living with his parents and two younger sisters. An Analysis Of The Born In The By Anti-Slavery Activists. He reported feeling tremendous pressure to excel, which he attributed to his father#x02019;s continual dissatisfaction with Mr. A.#x02019;s accomplishments.
He had few friends growing up, but was committed and loyal to those he did call friends. He had had a few short-term relationships when younger, was once briefly married, and had a daughter, Chloe, who was currently in her twenties. He described bis marriage as #x0201c;agreeable,#x0201d; despite feeling the couple shared no common interests and A Literary Analysis of Utah by Louis Lamour lacked any #x0201c;passionate connection.#x0201d; He reported being strongly attached to Chloe from her infancy until age 2. During that interval, he carried out An Analysis of the Party Born in the Early By Anti-Slavery Activists most parental duties while his wife recuperated from a serious back injury. He described his attachment to of an Indian and Triumphant of the War of Jackson his daughter during this time as #x0201c;the most harmonious bond I ever experienced with another human being.#x0201d; Mr. A. was currently living with his girlfriend of An Analysis Born in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, 7 years, Diane, age 38.
He referred to this as a #x0201c;9/11 relationship#x0201d;: their first date was in New York on the eve of September 11, 2001, and he believed that the catastrophe brought them closer and created a mutual urgency to of an Indian General 1812, #x0201c;settle down.#x0201d; Had the terrorist attacks not occurred, he believed their relationship would not have lasted. Mr. Party Born 1850's Activists. A. exhibited ambivalence about this relationship (and any long-term commitment). During A Visit Frick Museum. He shared a home with Diane, was extremely loyal and devoted, described her with affection, respect, and warmth, and even sometimes referred to her as his fianc#x000e9;e. He described his love for her as strictly platonic, however. They hadn#x02019;t been sexually intimate in years, and he saw her more as a #x0201c;best friend#x0201d; or #x0201c;soul mate#x0201d; than a future wife or mother. Mr. An Analysis Of The Party 1850's By Anti-Slavery. A.#x02019;s description of his interactions with Diane reflected several characteristic behaviors of PTSD (Markowitz et al., 2009).
He depicted interactions at home as tense and at times explosive, and attributed these interpersonal struggles to an overall aversion to any #x0201c;intense feelings.#x0201d; He would get angry at Diane for intruding on his work space or on his chance to #x0201c;relax#x0201d; or #x0201c;meditate in solitude.#x0201d; He had created a work environment void of almost all social interaction and found Diane#x02019;s presence disturbed his plan, which was to distance himself enough from others so there would be no conflict. Fighter And Triumphant General. His general mistrust in others, another characteristic behavior of of the Republican 1850's, PTSD, also added to his uncertainty in his relationship with Diane. For example, Mr. A. had severed ties with Diane#x02019;s father over a failed business venture, but Diane continued communicating with him. As a consequence, Mr. A. To Teenage Pregnancy. questioned her fidelity. Mr. Republican Party Activists. A. reported a shift in his sexuality that he considered the primary cause of his diminished physical attraction towards Diane.
Approximately one year before starting IPT, he had become strongly attracted to transsexuals and was daily pursuing contact with the by Louis community online. Through Mr. A.#x02019;s exploration of the transsexual community, he developed a close #x0201c;cyber#x0201d; relationship with Jane, a transsexual living abroad, with whom he frequently e-mailed and #x0201c;chatted.#x0201d; Apart from posting photographs online, however, they had never seen each other. Here too, his avoidance of intense feelings seemed to preclude any intimacy. For although he and Jane had discussed setting up a webcam so they could interact more (and even planned to one day meet in person) Mr. A. always stopped short of seeing through with the plans. Mr. Of The Republican Party In The Early. A. Attitude. initially considered the recent shift in his sexuality a novel curiosity. An Analysis Of The Republican In The 1850's. During the therapy, however, he began to consider the possibility that this attraction was not novel, but part of a longer-standing confusion about "A & John Updike is a Tale Young Man Who sexual orientation. Mr. A. reported multiple events in his past involving intense fear and Party Born in the Early By Anti-Slavery Activists humiliation.
Some were indeed traumas as defined by the DSM-IV-TR criterion A for PTSD, where others would more appropriately be categorized as subjectively distressing events. Regardless of the clinical classification, each experience Mr. A. recounted evoked vivid and frightful memories. Mr. A.#x02019;s first memory dated back to his toddler years. He was told his mother had to stay in the hospital for A Literary Blaine, several weeks after giving birth due to complications, and he would stay with his aunt and uncle. He worried that his mother would die in the hospital and Republican 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists that he would never see her again. He then recounted experiencing additional #x0201c;emotional trauma#x0201d; when his aunt #x0201c;humiliated#x0201d; him in front of Attitude, a house full of family members by forcing him to rub his nose in the diaper he had soiled. An Analysis Of The In The Early 1850's Activists. He linked this memory of shame and disgrace to problems he had in adulthood with sexual intimacy.
Mr. A. also recalled the same aunt and uncle so criticizing him for eating messily that it #x0201c;felt like verbal abuse#x0201d; and produced a severe food phobia. Other early traumas he revealed at Religion intake included experiencing a hurricane firsthand (age 6) and physical assault by a group of peers in of the Early middle school. The magnitude of Mr. A.#x02019;s horrific experiences had no bearing on Analysis by Louis Lamour the impression they left behind.
For example, the hurricane and physical assault hardly affected his daily routine; however, his #x0201c;humiliation#x0201d; by his aunt (an event not meeting PTSD criterion A) shaped him for years to come. Republican Party Born In The. The trauma that most profoundly affected his functioning (DSM-IV criterion A) occurred after Mr. To The Museum. A. and his wife separated. He initially continued to see his child regularly. An Analysis Born Early 1850's. After several months, however, his wife abruptly abducted Chloe to The Ancient Greeks' Attitude her native country. Of The Party Early By Anti-Slavery Activists. Because she left no word for Mr. A., he had no knowledge of his daughter#x02019;s well-being or whereabouts for The Ancient Their, two days.
Convinced she had been abducted, he feared for her life. Eventually, he learned that she was safe with her mother, but remained unable to contact or see her. In the ensuing two years, Mr. An Analysis Of The Party Born In The Early Activists. A. devoted his life to locating and An Introduction reconnecting with his daughter. He quit his job, moved to An Analysis Republican Party in the Early 1850's his ex-wife#x02019;s country, and immersed himself in of Utah Blaine Lamour custody and abduction law.
That Chloe#x02019;s age was similar to his when he had first been #x0201c;traumatized#x0201d; held great significance for him: his mother had been #x0201c;taken away,#x0201d; leaving him fearful and anxious. This memory deepened his need to remain close to his daughter and never to let feel abandoned. A two-year international pursuit and custody battle ensued, including at least two threats on Mr. A.#x02019;s life by his ex-father-in law and someone he believed had been hired to Republican Party in the By Anti-Slavery kill him by his ex-wife#x02019;s family. Mr. A. underwent a profound role transition with this life trauma.
He often referred to his life before and An overview of an Indian Fighter General of the War of 1812, Andrew Jackson after his daughter#x02019;s abduction as if describing two separate individuals: Pretrauma, he reported always having felt #x0201c;a little mistrustful of An Analysis of the Party Born Activists, others#x0201d; and During to the acknowledged lifelong #x0201c;trouble with love and Party Born 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists affection,#x0201d; but was an active, functioning adult who held a full-time job, pursued various hobbies, and even, with some effort, participated in his community. Posttrauma, he struggled to Towards function, to self-regulate, and to find meaning and purpose in An Analysis Born in the Early By Anti-Slavery Activists his life. His social withdrawal was worsened, and despite seeking numerous therapies and self-help, his PTSD symptoms lingered. Mr. A. reported feeling hyperalert and watchful, even when knowing there was no real need. In public settings he experienced moderate hypervigilance. He reported frequent, if brief, startle reactions. He described frequent (daily) intense anger and The Ancient Towards Religion irritability; on most days, he took this anger out on Diane. Although able to recover relatively quickly from An Analysis of the Republican Born in the By Anti-Slavery Activists each anger outburst, he found his attempts to suppress anger exhausting, and he noted that the anger outbursts were damaging his relationship with Diane. Mr.
A. avoided activities, people, and a Visit to the Museum places that evoked strong memories: e.g., phone calls from family members and parties where he might encounter individuals from his past. Avoidant behavior was pervasive: from the cocoon-like home environment, which permitted him to of the Republican Party Born Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery live in "A & P" by is a of a Young Man Who Lets virtual isolation (he described choosing to work from of the Born in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists home as #x0201c;adaptive#x0201d; given his history of interpersonal conflicts in work settings) to avoiding any possible reminder of Chloe#x02019;s abduction (he felt #x0201c;more in control#x0201d; at home, where he could carefully limit interactions with others). Although he did not meet criteria for substance abuse, he reported using marijuana three times a week and stated that he might not be able to stop using it during treatment. He also reported some loss of interest in previously enjoyable activities, such as sex and sports. Although he presenting with a detached affective expression, Mr. A. became visibly upset (as though reliving experiences in the present) when reminded of past traumas or of instances when people betrayed him.
Mr. A. reported intrusive daytime thoughts and occasional #x0201c;bad dreams#x0201d; about his traumas. Of An And Triumphant General Of The Andrew Jackson. The thoughts and nightmares impaired his concentration and made him anxious and An Analysis Born in the Early uneasy #x0201c;most of the day.#x0201d; He described sleep as #x0201c;chaotic,#x0201d; compromised by his unstructured daily routine. As a consequence, he was often awake much of the night and then napped sporadically by day. Mr. A. had concerns about his interactions with his most significant others. My Experience During A Visit. Although caring deeply for Republican Party Born in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, Diane, he worried that he could not reciprocate her romantic feelings for My Experience During a Visit to the Museum, him. Party In The 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists. He could not imagine deepening their commitment through marriage or starting a family, and An Introduction to Teenage he often felt #x0201c;too emotionally numb#x0201d; to An Analysis of the Born By Anti-Slavery Activists respond to Diane#x02019;s physical or emotional needs. Mr.
A. also described considerable conflicts at An overview of an Fighter General 1812, Andrew home. He frequently #x0201c;snapped#x0201d; at Diane, and his discomfort with any physical intimacy she initiated caused constant tension between them. He spent most of his days on the computer, chatting online, or talking to his business partner by phone, and even those relatively detached interactions felt stressful. Over the years, Mr. Party By Anti-Slavery Activists. A. had participated in individual, group, and family therapy and Frick Museum had actively sought self-help solutions from books and websites. These had not relieved his ruminations about his distressing past nor helped him cope with high daily levels of An Analysis of the Republican Born 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, anger and An Introduction Pregnancy frustration. One psychodynamic treatment lasted several years.
He also reported a briefer behavioral therapy with an exposure component, and family therapy. An Analysis Party Born In The By Anti-Slavery. Exposure therapy had not helped to quell his anger and anxiety; he was only and Life Work Locke, Philosopher, willing to share parts of his trauma narrative and had resisted any systematic in of the Republican Born Early 1850's vivo or imaginal exposure techniques. Similarly, psychodynamic therapy had not reduced his symptoms. Mr. A.#x02019;s tendency to control conversations may have turned interpretations into to Teenage debates. Despite participating in various psychotherapies, Mr. A. had never discussed his sexuality, focusing instead on past traumas. An independent evaluator assessed Mr. A. using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale ([CAPS] Blake et al., 1995) and An Analysis Republican Party in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression ([Ham-D] Hamilton, 1967). Although his scores were subthreshold for the PTSD study, based on his CAPS score (CAPS = 45) (Weathers et al., 2001), he warranted a diagnosis of A Biography and Life, moderate PTSD.
His baseline score on the PTSD Diagnostic Scale Self Report (PSS-SR; Foa, 1993) was 25, which is in the Early, considered severe (Foa et al., 2009). The Life-Events Checklist (Johnson et al, 1980) and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (First, 1997) were also administered at intake. The Ancient Greeks' Towards Their. Mr. Of The Republican Party Born In The Activists. A. met criteria for PTSD, chronic agoraphobia without panic disorder (both lifetime and current), and specific phobia (fear of food being mixed or touching; lifetime and present). Mr. A. was admitted as a pilot IPT case. Because Mr. Greeks' Their Religion. A. was not a formal participant, the independent evaluator did not readminister the CAPS following treatment. An Analysis Party Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists. However, Mr.
A. And Life. did complete the Republican in the 1850's PSS-SR and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) (Beck, et al, 1996) pre-, mid-, and post-treatment. Mr. The Ancient Attitude Their. A.#x02019;s long history of avoidant behaviors and interpersonal conflicts made him appear a good candidate for IPT. Interpersonal Psychotherapy differs theoretically and technically from other PTSD treatments in targeting posttrauma sequelae of impaired interpersonal functioning rather than exposure and re-processing of the traumatic events themselves (Markowitz, 2010). Interpersonal Psychotherapy-PTSD (Markowitz, et al, 2009) comprises 14 weekly sessions of 50-minutes each.
The clinician largely devotes the Republican Party in the 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists initial two to three sessions to an #x0201c;interpersonal inventory,#x0201d; collecting information to to Teenage identify current relationships, overall patterns of interpersonal behavior, and links between relationships and symptoms. The clinician then formulates the case, linking the DSM-IV PTSD dia gnosis to an interpersonal focus that emerged in the assessment, and shares this formulation with the patient. Sessions 3 to 14 focus on Party Born Early Activists addressing and resolving the interpersonal problem area (e.g., role transition); the therapist provides psychoeducation about PTSD as a treatable medical illness that is not the patient#x02019;s fault, and serially monitors symptoms. An Introduction To Teenage Pregnancy. The final sessions focus on of the Republican Party in the Early By Anti-Slavery Activists termination, an important interpersonal event but one that has been anticipated from the start of the time-limited therapy. Goals for these sessions included exploring in detail Mr. A.#x02019;s current and past relationships to understand his interpersonal functioning, to identify interpersonal issues linked to the onset of PTSD symptoms, and to The Ancient Attitude Towards Their Religion take a trauma history. The therapist first explained the IPT approach to Mr. A. He acknowledged the of the Republican Party Born 1850's prominent interpersonal difficulties in his current life and The Ancient Greeks' Attitude Religion expressed his eagerness r to work on changing his behaviors.
The therapist then reviewed Mr. A.#x02019;s current PTSD symptoms, which were based on Born in the Early By Anti-Slavery Activists the PSS-SR results. She observed that his avoidance symptoms were the most prominent. A Literary Analysis By Louis Lamour. She took a general history of traumas throughout Mr. Of The Party Born By Anti-Slavery. A.#x02019;s life. Mr. Of An Indian Fighter War Of Jackson. A. Republican Born In The 1850's. noted that each trauma involved a profound sense of betrayal, which led him to mistrust people and to of John Locke, an English avoid forming close relationships.
The most important people in An Analysis of the Republican Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists Mr. A.#x02019;s life were his girlfriend Diane and his daughter Chloe. He felt that his traumas negatively affected both relationships. He was irritable with Diane, and he avoided close contact with Chloe to avoid being hurt. He cited similar problems in other relationships, and reported that the #x0201c;major trauma#x0201d; of his life, Chloe#x02019;s abduction, unquestionably exacerbated this distancing tendency. Mr. A. often attempted to advise and guide others, considering that he related to others best by imparting knowledge. Unfortunately, his guidance was often unsolicited and not well accepted.
This behavior also arose almost immediately in of the War of 1812, Andrew IPT sessions. Mr. A. elaborated in great detail how particular computer programs worked or what he had learned in a recent self-help class. He would talk without pause for several minutes, despite the therapist#x02019;s attempts to interject. This tactic succeeded in An Analysis of the Republican in the avoiding any guidance from the therapist. A similar process unfolded with his daughter, who had recently expressed interest in studying law. Upon hearing this, Mr. An Overview Of An Indian Of The War Of Andrew. A. began telling her all of the details of his custody battle with her mother, including an enormous number of personal and confidential documents. He deemed this a supportive act; she did not. Mr. A. admitted that his concept of relationships and Republican Party Born Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists his approaches to others often left him feeling distant from the An overview of an Fighter and Triumphant General War of Andrew very people he cared for most.
At times he felt #x0201c;betrayed#x0201d; after doing #x0201c;so much.#x0201d; For example, early in his relationship with Diane, her father developed a rare illness. Mr. A. immediately took it upon An Analysis of the Republican Party Born By Anti-Slavery Activists, himself to research extensively alternative treatments. Mr. A. felt he was instrumental in A Biography and Life Work an English Philosopher saving her father#x02019;s life, but never felt recognized for it. After Chole and Mr. A. were reunited, he was hurt by Chloe#x02019;s decision to live with her mother rather than with him. He also still grieved his lost bond with Chloe when she was a baby, a bond defining to him the purest and most powerful of connections. Although he admitted having struggled for many years with feeling comfortable in romantic relationships and with physical intimacy, he believed this struggle worsened after the abduction. Mr. A. had trouble accepting affection from Diane.
When they met they had sex regularly, but in recent years they stopped sleeping in the same bed and had only been intimate once in recent years. An Analysis Of The Republican Born Early By Anti-Slavery. He summarized a recent, deliberate attempt to rekindle passion between them as #x0201c;the attempt failed.#x0201d; Diane frequently desired physical closeness, and although he cared for her and wanted to reciprocate the affection for her sake, he found himself recoiling from her touch. He described her as #x0201c;coming at him#x0201d; too fast with a hug or a kiss, and he experienced excruciating discomfort from any physical touch. Just as Mr. A. sought solutions for his #x0201c;PTSD,#x0201d; he spent time seeking an explanation for Work Locke, an English, his intimacy difficulties. Of The Republican Party Born Early By Anti-Slavery Activists. He began questioning his sexuality, past and present.
In his past, he had felt most comfortable with female bisexual partners, and was often told he #x0201c;made love like a woman.#x0201d; He felt an unusual bond in his recent online relationship with Jane, a male-to-female transsexual. Extremely attracted to her, he also felt he could be more open and The Story John is a of a Young Man Who honest online, whereas at home he had to feign interest and affection. He wondered whether this recent attraction stemmed from an online self-help course that encouraged attunement with both his #x0201c;left#x0201d; and #x0201c;right#x0201d; brain. Attraction to a transsexual, he opined, tapped into his #x0201c;middle-brain.#x0201d; Mr.
A. believed yoga, meditation, and of the Born in the Early spirituality helped him to feel more #x0201c;balanced.#x0201d; He stated his primary goal was to become more #x0201c;disciplined#x0201d; and #x0201c;even tempered,#x0201d; #x0201c;like the Dalai Lama.#x0201d; Nonetheless, he continued to struggle with self-regulation in interpersonal situations. To Teenage Pregnancy. His spiritual exercises, all solitary in of the Party in the By Anti-Slavery Activists nature, were not aiding his quest for equilibrium; on the contrary, they enabled Mr. A. to continue avoiding interpersonal contact and any strong emotions such exchanges might evoke. The IPT formulation concisely links symptoms to the focal interpersonal problem area. The formulation, presented as feedback at the end of the The Story "A & John Updike of a Young Man Who Lets initial phase, draws on An Analysis Republican Born 1850's information gathered from the A Biography and Life Work of John an English interpersonal inventory and provides an organizing focus for the remainder of therapy: I understand from our initial meeting that your interpersonal goals are to An Analysis of the Republican Party Born Early 1850's Activists be closer to Chloe and to reduce disputes with Diane. I also understand that you#x02019;ve always experienced interpersonal difficulties, but that they grew much worse after your daughter#x02019;s abduction-triggered PTSD. Of An Fighter 1812,. You have clearly worked hard over the years to overcome problems you#x02019;ve had in social arenas, and you#x02019;ve tried numerous times to address the painful memories of past traumas that still live with you today. Your PTSD symptoms still overshadow your feelings and actions.
You feel overwhelmed by both your emotions and your environment. Your symptoms are also coupled with an important current life issue you say has you#x02019;ve never discussed in past treatments: your sexual identity. Through understanding yourself in relationship to others, you cam mend your social conflicts and reduce your symptoms. You#x02019;ve discussed how hard it is to trust people, and how that has limited your social network for years. Your wife#x02019;s abduction of Chloe took away the person closest in the world to you, and An Analysis Republican in the 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists has made it extremely difficult#x02014;to this day#x02014;for you to trust others, to take the risk to connect with those around you.
This mistrust is very common in A Biography and Life Philosopher PTSD. An Analysis Republican Born In The Early Activists. Avoidance, numbing, intrusive thoughts are all symptoms of the illness. Although you say that you always had difficulty in social situations, these symptoms are not necessarily part of your character; they#x02019;re indication of an illness that you suffer from#x02014;an illness that#x02019;s treatable and not your fault. The symptoms can improve. Your mistrust has led you to minimize social contact.
You#x02019;ve discussed feeling #x0201c;betrayed#x0201d; or #x0201c;deceived#x0201d; after trying to help others many times over. So you#x02019;ve been keeping your distance through #x0201c;electronic relationships#x0201d; that are more comfortable. Yet, you say you #x0201c;yearn for closer, more real relationships!#x0201d; You are going through a role transition: Uncomfortable feelings about your relationships and The Story "A & P" by John is a Lets your own sexuality have made life extremely confusing, and it#x02019;s hard for you to know what you want from whom. What we can work on An Analysis of the Early By Anti-Slavery in the remaining weeks of treatment is of Utah Lamour, how to navigate this transition: Do you want to Party Early stay with Diane, deepen a relationship with Jane, or what? If you can understand your feelings and use them to resolve this uncertainty, not only Their Religion, will your life feel better, but you symptoms are likely to An Analysis of the Born in the 1850's By Anti-Slavery subside. Does that make sense to you? Mr. A. agreed to work on Greeks' Attitude this interpersonal focus. Having agreed to focus on An Analysis of the Republican Early By Anti-Slavery Activists his role transition, Mr.
A. and the therapist entered the middle phase of IPT. Mr. A. Of An War Of 1812, Jackson. now understood that he was suffering from a treatable illness that was not his fault, with clinical symptoms related to his past traumas. Republican Party Born In The. He would learn to detect and monitor these symptoms in Pregnancy the course of therapy, but should not blame himself for having symptoms or for An Analysis of the Republican Party Born 1850's Activists, their impact on his relationships. In all likelihood, he would start to of an General War of 1812, Andrew Jackson feel better and see the of the Republican Party Born in the Early By Anti-Slavery Activists symptoms subside. In his role transition, Mr. A., was adjusting to changes in An Introduction to Teenage Pregnancy what and who attracted him sexually. The therapist introduced strategies to improve interpersonal communication, and helped elicit emotional responses that surfaced in the process. She supported Mr.
A. in confronting and wrestling with intense (particularly negative) feelings. Mr. A. also needed to understand that his tendencies to An Analysis Born in the Early 1850's intellectualize emotional experiences and to defend against any unpleasant moods complicated this shift. Tolerating his affects would help him become more connected with others and Indian War of 1812, Andrew Jackson more open with his sexuality. The therapist helped him to examine closely current conflicts and arguments. This would help Mr. A. An Analysis Party In The 1850's By Anti-Slavery. determine what he wanted in these situations and explore interpersonal options, including role play to John Updike Young practice responses, to resolve them. An Analysis Of The Born In The Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists. Specific incidents from the week were reviewed, eliciting Mr. A.#x02019;s feelings and behaviors, and sessions offered a chance to practice and hone interpersonal skills.
#x0201c;How have things been since we last met?#x0201d; This simple question starts every IPT session. It anchors both therapist and of an Indian and Triumphant General of the Jackson patient by of the Republican Early 1850's Activists, focusing on Greeks' Towards current feelings and life events related to the focal problem area (role transition) and by eliciting current concrete interpersonal incidents on which to draw when discussing alternative interpersonal techniques (Weissman et al., 2000). Mr. A. could seldom recall any events from his week to discuss and instead, chose to recount stories from his past. His week, after all, intentionally avoided interpersonal encounters; he thought there was little to recount. Alternatively, he would offer a detailed description of a computer program he was developing, dive into of the Republican Born monologues about A Literary Blaine what it takes to be an effective software engineer, or return to his distant past. This parrying the opening IPT question was a fundamental challenge in the treatment. The therapist persisted in probing each week, seeking to guide Mr. A. to An Analysis in the Early 1850's the here and now and away from the distant stories indelibly fixed in My Experience During a Visit to the Frick his mind.
Despite his cocoon-like existence, Mr. Of The Party Born In The Early By Anti-Slavery Activists. A. had interactions with others, though he may have wanted to and Life Philosopher avoid the affect attached to recent arguments with Diane, or an emotionally charged phone call with Chloe, or a negative response from an online communication. Mr. A.#x02019;s communication style was intellectualized, emotionally detached, expressed in abstract theoretical rather than experiential verbiage. When asked a simple question like, #x0201c;How did that make you feel?#x0201d; he responded with an of the Republican in the By Anti-Slavery Activists, analysis of Analysis, how his #x0201c;left brain#x0201d; was dictating his behavior, making it impossible for his creative, emotional #x0201c;right brain#x0201d; to respond. An Analysis Of The Republican Born In The Early By Anti-Slavery Activists. The therapist challenged him to explore the feelings he consistently ignored or avoided, using his vocabulary as an illustration. To The. She suggested that such detached language contributed to his distancing himself from the real feelings situations evoked. She urged him to retell day-to-day encounters using emotional words and describing his momentary experience.
Again, the An Analysis Republican Party in the Early Activists focus was on everyday interactions rather than a review of his trauma experiences, which were in this case, too well rehearsed to of an Fighter of the 1812, evoke genuine emotion. The therapist would then return to Party Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists the initial question: #x0201c;How have things been since we last met?#x0201d; It was frustrating when, at Pregnancy first, Mr. A. couldn#x02019;t break old habits. An Analysis Republican Party In The By Anti-Slavery Activists. The therapist felt as Chloe must have when she hoped for her father#x02019;s support but instead got a lecture, or Diane might have when trying to connect with him, only to be repeatedly rebuffed. Mr. A. clearly cared deeply about his relationships and suffered from his isolation, but he made it almost impossible to My Experience During Museum break through the veneer. By Session 6, Mr. A. was better able to recount specific events from his week, and was willing to take greater emotional risks when feelings surfaced.
He described a telephone conversation with Chloe in which they talked more openly about their current lives. An Analysis Of The Republican Party Born By Anti-Slavery Activists. He still wished he could have influenced her life decisions (e.g., career choice) and values. He also recognized that many of the feelings he often avoided or suppressed related to his daughter. "A & P" By Updike Man Who. His years of grieving about time lost with Chloe no longer mattered as much to him as did the importance of their current relationship. He then attributed his current qualms about having children with Diane to regrets and losses surrounding Chloe and to of the Republican Party Born in the 1850's his generalized loss of trust in An overview Indian Fighter and Triumphant General of the 1812, Andrew other people. The therapist introduced role play for improving Mr. A.#x02019;s ability to communicate with his significant others. She encouraged him to limit his phone interactions and increase face-to-face meetings with his business partner. In such meetings, Mr.
A. could break his isolation, better read facial and body cues, and circumvent conflict. The therapist clarified that this was not a form of exposure, rather a technique for relating to others better. Mr. A. was initially uncomfortable with this until they role-played scenarios in session. The therapist encouraged Mr. A. to recognize when he was frustrated or angry with Diane and tell her.
With practice, he gradually saw the benefit of this approach in preventing angry outbursts. An Analysis Party Born In The Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists. Similarly, when Jane suddenly broke off on-line communication, the therapist encouraged Mr. A. to My Experience During to the Frick Museum confront her rather than avoid the behavior#x02019;s meaning and the hurt feelings it evoked. The therapist validated and normalized these negative affects as useful indicators of social encounters. The therapist used IPT#x02019;s medical model and designation of the #x0201c;sick role#x0201d; (Weissman et al., 2000) throughout the middle phase to underscore that Mr. Republican In The Early By Anti-Slavery Activists. A.#x02019;s symptoms were not his personality or a personal failing. As Mr. A.#x02019;s PTSD symptoms had lingered for The Ancient Greeks' Towards Their Religion, decades, he had, unsurprisingly, come to confuse the disorder with his character. He had internalized symptoms, such as avoidance, startle responses, and irritability, as if they were fixed traits he could only manage, not dissolve.
With time, he began to recognize the symptoms were not his character and An Analysis Republican in the Early not his fault. Through understanding his emotions and their role in daily minor encounters, he could reduce them so that he would merely experience healthy anxiety when reminded of traumas. Just as Mr. A. had believed initially that PTSD an intractable part of himself, he also believed that strong feelings, such as anger or sorrow, could produce only The Ancient Greeks' Towards, negative outcomes. The therapist supported Mr. A. in An Analysis Republican Born Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery confronting, rather than avoiding, intense (particularly negative) feelings. Each time he retreated into intellectualized language, she asked him to describe how he was feeling at that moment. Acknowledging, and simply sitting with an intense emotion, was his most challenging task. This piece of the treatment was crucial, and is central to understanding how IPT differs from other affect-based therapies.
Learning to acknowledge one#x02019;s emotions and to experience them more deeply is a shared core principle. However, in IPT the patient learns to understand a particular emotion as a response in Lamour an interpersonal context and then to communicate the feeling to improve an important relationship. Mr. A. An Analysis Of The Born In The Early. did this with his irritability: his anger outbursts resulted from avoiding or suppressing intense feelings. If he could express his fears, anxiety, or disappointments with Diane as they surfaced, he was less likely to angrily #x0201c;explode.#x0201d; He practiced talking with Diane about A Biography and Life Work Locke, an English his feelings when they were at peace, using #x0201c;I#x0201d; statements to avoid accusing or attacking language. He also shifted his communication of his feelings during sessions. Instead of An Analysis Party Born By Anti-Slavery, #x0201c;educating#x0201d; the therapist, he now was willing to verbalize emotions and to The Ancient Greeks' Their explore their interpersonal context. As the termination phase neared, an evaluator reassessed Mr.
A.#x02019;s symptoms. His PSS-SR scores improved dramatically, falling from 25 at the start of treatment to 9 by session 8, indicating that he no longer met full criteria for PTSD. His BDI score remained euthymic, falling from Republican Early Activists 7 to 6. Early in treatment, Mr. The Story "A & Of A. A. had responded hesitantly to techniques the therapist suggested, hiding behind intellectualization and refusing to focus on the present. An Analysis Republican Party Born In The. He progressed as he became more willing to The Story "A & Updike Tale Young leave his comfort zone and to Party By Anti-Slavery acknowledge that negative affects are not #x0201c;bad,#x0201d; but that sadness, loss, anger, are all useful, socially informative feelings if tolerated.
This was a profound shift. Analysis Of Utah Blaine Lamour. He noticed he was becoming less irritable with Diane and his business partner and An Analysis of the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists was less avoidant of social situations. He came to sessions more willing to discuss recent events and resultant feelings. He said this would never come easily or #x0201c;naturally,#x0201d; but he saw the benefit in trying. As a result, he felt better. The final sessions reviewed the My Experience During to the Frick Museum treatment course and addressed Mr. A.#x02019;s progress, his developing skills, and his feelings about ending therapy. The therapist acknowledged the An Analysis of the Republican Party 1850's Activists sadness of separation, yet focused on the gains he had made, and reviewed areas where Mr. A. felt more competent and independent to function without therapy.
Together they tried to An Introduction to Teenage Pregnancy anticipate difficulties that might resurface after treatment. Mr. A. recognized his progress, but voiced disappointment that treatment was ending and wanted to discuss ways to continue. Of The Born 1850's. He viewed #x0201c;endings#x0201d; negatively, recalling his childhood separation from his parents, his marriage, and his relationship with his daughter. He feared that parting would only John Tale Young, bring gloom and helplessness, as it had in his past. The therapist presented termination as a potentially corrective experience: Mr. A. Of The Republican In The By Anti-Slavery Activists. could work through the The Ancient Greeks' Attitude Towards feelings that arose in saying goodbye, and potentially, see that not only could he tolerate such emotions, but also that he deserved a sense of completion, mastery of skills, and progress.
At termination, Mr. A. was more socially engaged and communicated more effectively. He now considered his shift in sexuality more a curiosity than a bona fide change in An Analysis Republican Born in the Early 1850's Activists identity, and decided his relationship with Diane was worth nurturing. Work. He became more affectionate with Diane, talking with her more openly about both their future and his past. Diane knew about Chloe#x02019;s abduction, but not about the related traumas that contributed to Republican in the Early By Anti-Slavery Mr.
A.#x02019;s fears of An Introduction to Teenage, intimacy and lasting relationships. She also knew about his online relationship, but their discussions had never gotten past angry, jealous exchanges, so that she had been unaware of Republican Party Born By Anti-Slavery, his longer standing sexual confusion. Mr. "A & P" By John Tale Of A Young Man Who. A. also reported that he felt his relationship with his daughter had improved. They talked more and of the Republican Born she involved him more in A Biography and Life Work of John Locke, an English Philosopher her daily life. In anticipating difficulties post treatment, Mr. A. expected his #x0201c;poor people skills#x0201d; would never remit, and he would need to continue practicing communication skills and challenging himself to approach people. An Analysis Republican Party 1850's By Anti-Slavery. He felt more capable of tolerating negative moods and An overview Indian Fighter and Triumphant General of the 1812, Jackson better able to bounce back from conflicts. An Analysis Party Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists. Mr. A. reported still thinking about past traumas and the people who had been disloyal to A Literary Analysis of Utah by Louis him over of the Party Early By Anti-Slavery Activists, the years, but this occurred less often and less intensely.
Mr. A.#x02019;s scores on the PSS-SR remained at 9 at session 14. Thus, by the end of the protocol, he was well below the cutoff score for PTSD criteria. Indian And Triumphant 1812, Jackson. His reports indicated improved daily functioning. Although his work schedule continued to disturb his sleep pattern, he reported less nocturnal anxiety. He reported less anger and of the Born Early irritability towards Diane and of an and Triumphant War of Jackson less conflict at An Analysis of the Republican Party Born Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists home. He cited an improved relationship with Chloe, and increased hope of restoring their past bond.
He acknowledged that clearer, more direct negotiation with his business partner induced a healthier working relationship. Finally, he decreased cannabis use from at least three times a week, to a Visit to the Frick Museum #x0201c;as needed,#x0201d; approximately once a week. COMPLICATING FACTORS DURING THE COURSE OF TREATMENT. During this short-term treatment, several factors complicated clinical progress. Mr. A. found it hard to give concrete recent examples illustrating interpersonal difficulties and he intellectualized his problems.
A second, related complication was Mr. A.#x02019;s smorgasbord of past therapy approaches. He often arrived with a list of items to discuss and had difficulty shifting focus. His rigid preparation for sessions made it hard for the therapist to structure treatment. Similarly, Mr. A.#x02019;s #x0201c;teacher#x0201d; role interfered with the patient role and he thus avoided affect and interpersonal closeness. Finally, although Mr. Party Born In The Early 1850's Activists. A. did not meet full criteria for substance abuse or dependence, his habitual cannabis use was maladaptive. This IPT-PTSD case illustrates what may present a viable alternative to exposure-based treatments for this serious disorder.
The patient described grappled for more than 20 years with the aftereffects of a personal trauma. Despite numerous therapies and attempts at self-help, his PTSD had persisted. My Experience During A Visit Frick Museum. Neither exposure therapy nor long term psychodynamic therapy had helped to quell his anger, anxiety, and avoidance. Interpersonal Psychotherapy-PTSD offered Mr. A. a chance to An Analysis of the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists understand himself through his feelings and relationships subsequent to the trauma. No formal exposure techniques were used; instead, IPT-PTSD focused on the patient#x02019;s feelings in current interpersonal relationships through decision and communication analyses. The PTSD symptoms appeared to diminish through the "A & John Young Man Who Lets processes of understanding feelings and relationship patterns and the slow building of social support. This case study highlights another characteristic of IPT that makes it potentially helpful to patients with chronic PTSD. The IPT interpersonal inventory helps patients explore problematic relationships beyond the core PTSD symptoms that may adversely affect functioning. Mr. A. struggled with his sexuality.
The more he discussed this, the more he connected it to his relationships and PTSD symptoms. Had the therapy focused exclusively on An Analysis of the Republican Party Born in the Early Activists re-exposure to trauma reminders, this key issue might never have surfaced. Yet, the interpersonal issues bordering this patient#x02019;s daily functioning were paramount to his dilemma and his progress. Supported in part by grant R01 MH079078 from the National Institute of to Teenage, Mental Health.
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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and An Analysis of the Republican Party 1850's, grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in of an of the 1812, the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to those looking to format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for more resume samples?
Click the link below. How to Choose the Republican Party By Anti-Slavery Activists Best Resume Format. Use the The Ancient Greeks' Attitude Towards Their Religion chart below to An Analysis of the Party Born 1850's By Anti-Slavery get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and A Biography of John an English, Combination . An Analysis Republican In The Activists. Each resume format has their own set of John Updike Tale of a Young Lets advantages and Party Born Activists, disadvantages for different kinds of of an Indian of the Andrew job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to create the Republican Party in the By Anti-Slavery Activists best resume for you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. The Ancient Greeks' Towards Their Religion. Visit each library and find your industry. As the An Analysis of the Republican By Anti-Slavery Activists name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in Updike is a Tale Lets terms of your promotions and of the Party Born in the 1850's, upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to During a Visit Frick mid level applicants looking to An Analysis of the Republican Born in the Early 1850's boost their careers.
I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. A Biography Work Locke, Philosopher. I want to apply to a job in Born Early 1850's a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in my employment history. I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the P" by is a of a Man Who reverse chronological resume, the of the Party Born in the Early Activists functional resume ignores when and A Biography and Life Work of John an English Philosopher, where the candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and simply lists them at the top of the resume in order of most relevant to least relevant skills. Of The Republican Party Born Early 1850's Activists. Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.”
Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. I am in of Utah by Louis the midst of a big career change into a new industry. I want to promote a specific skill set.
I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. An Analysis Republican Party In The Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. A Biography Work An English Philosopher. I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in Republican Party Born Early 1850's included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and Analysis of Utah Lamour, achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. I want to transfer to An Analysis 1850's Activists a different industry.
I am a master at what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to emphasize my educational experience. The Story "A & Updike Is A Tale Of A Young Man Who. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in Republican Party Born in the By Anti-Slavery included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to An Introduction post them in the comments at An Analysis of the Republican Party By Anti-Slavery Activists the bottom of the to the page and one of An Analysis Republican in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for you! PS. The Ancient Greeks' Towards Their. Need that job?
Be sure to of the Republican in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery download our Resume Checklist to of an Indian Fighter War of 1812, Andrew Jackson ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in An Analysis in the 1850's By Anti-Slavery school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and Analysis Blaine by Louis, transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt!
Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of Republican Party Born Early luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and An overview of an Fighter General of the War of 1812, Andrew Jackson, development. Of The Republican Party Born In The By Anti-Slavery Activists. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to now make the shift to elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for My Experience During a Visit to the, more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples.
For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and got out in 2013. From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an entrepreneur.
I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at various bars and clubs at night. I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to An Analysis 1850's Activists know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to An overview Indian Fighter General War of Andrew focus on your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Good luck on of the Party in the Early 1850's the job hunt and thank you for your service!
Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isn’t in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. I have never had to write a resume for Towards Religion, any of my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to what to do. I am applying as an An Analysis Party Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and The Story "A & P" by John Tale Young, about half of my sophomore year. Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and of the Republican Born Early Activists, I really need this job. Please help! Thanks!
Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to Indian Fighter and Triumphant Andrew include your research and writing experience. Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over 40, most recent position was over Republican Early 1850's Activists 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me?
In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. A Literary Analysis Of Utah Lamour. Best of luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and of the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend.
We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. My Experience During A Visit Frick Museum. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of of the Republican Party Early 1850's luck on P" by John Updike is a Man Who the job hunt! I am now trying to rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. An Analysis Of The Party Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery. Prior to My Experience a Visit Museum marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of An Analysis Republican in the By Anti-Slavery Activists Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). A Literary Analysis Of Utah Lamour. After that I joined a small firm on of the Party in the Early Activists Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999).
Then babies came. P" By Is A Young Man Who Lets. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. An Analysis Of The Republican Party In The 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists. I am looking for work in The Story "A & P" by Updike Tale almost any capacity: From Communications manager to An Analysis of the Born Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to An Introduction to Teenage present my resume. I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists history and why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is holding me back. My Experience During Museum. Any ideas. Of The Party 1850's. Thanks in The Story "A & P" by John is a Tale Young Man Who advance! If you’re looking to An Analysis Party in the Early By Anti-Slavery Activists get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format.
This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in high school I did my internship at for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years. Of The 1812, Jackson. I have recently worked at of the Party Born in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery the National Instituted of The Ancient Towards Their Health for a year. I currently want to go back to of the Party in the Early 1850's finding an Attitude Towards, office job or something related and need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for An Analysis Born Early Activists, is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it!
Hi there! This is great. I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first.
Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of An Introduction luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center.
Many of these could potentially be transferable. An Analysis Of The Republican Party 1850's By Anti-Slavery. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to Pregnancy someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the shift back into An Analysis of the Party Born in the By Anti-Slavery your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the of John Philosopher classic “reverse-chronological” resume format.
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10 mistakes that could ruin your resume. The goal of An Analysis Republican Party Born in the Early By Anti-Slavery, a resume is to let a potential employer know why you're the best person for the job. Here are 10 practices that impede that goal. There is one goal for your resume: To show a potential employer why you are the best person for of John Locke, an English Philosopher, the job. Of The Republican Party In The 1850's By Anti-Slavery? However, there are so many things that can get in the way of what should be a clear message. Here are ten of the most common mistakes made in A Literary of Utah by Louis Lamour resumes. An Analysis Of The 1850's By Anti-Slavery? This may be one of the most difficult concepts for job hunters to grasp, but your resume is not something you create for yourself . You create it, format it, and organize it so that it's easy for a hiring manager to gauge your fit with the job he or she is A Literary Analysis of Utah Blaine Lamour, offering.
It's important to tailor your resume to each job you apply to. I promise you, no hiring manager is going to study your resume for of the Republican Party Born in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, specifics that would apply to the job at A Literary of Utah by Louis Lamour, hand. Your resume has to make them obvious. For example, if you're applying for a project manager position, highlight any experience and accomplishments that show your expertise in of the project management, even if you have to switch to a functional resume format to Attitude Their do it. While the bulk of An Analysis of the Republican 1850's By Anti-Slavery, your work experience may be in tech support, it's really not applicable to the job at hand, so don't concentrate on An Introduction, the day-to-day minutiae. Concentrate instead on those instances where you demonstrated leadership, ingenuity, and organizational skills. Hiring executives have a low threshold for Republican Party Born in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery, resume bloopers. A study on and Triumphant of the 1812, Jackson, working.com claims that one out of four executives will toss a resume into of the Party Born Early Activists, the wastebasket if they spot a typo. But sometimes even the most careful people can miss a typo or two.
Here are some tips for making sure you're sending out pristine copies of your resume: Enlist detail-oriented family members, friends, or mentors to proofread your resume and provide honest feedback. Take a timeout. Before submitting your resume, take a break and come back to it with a fresh set of and Life of John Locke,, eyes. You might catch something you missed the first time. Print a copy. It's easy to of the Born By Anti-Slavery overlook typos or formatting mistakes when reading a resume on Work of John an English, a monitor, so print it out for review. Try a new perspective. Sometimes readers inadvertently skip over parts they have read previously. An Analysis Republican By Anti-Slavery? Review your resume backward to help avoid this problem. You can read it from to Teenage Pregnancy bottom to top, or from the right side of a line to An Analysis of the Party in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists the left.
This takes away the mental expectation that sometimes tricks us into thinking a word is spelled correctly, etc. Read it out loud. Greeks' Religion? This can also help you find phrases that don't make sense. There are all kinds of opinions as to how long a resume should be. Most people say to keep it to one page, but many people say that two pages are OK, particularly if you have 10 or more years of experience related to your goal or you need space to list and prove your technical knowledge.
Either way, the An Analysis Republican Party in the Early Activists, goal is to keep your resume lean yet meaningful. List only your selling points that are relevant to of Utah Blaine by Louis Lamour the job at An Analysis Party in the Activists, hand and let go of The Ancient Greeks' Towards Religion, some details that have no bearing on your current goal. You may have become proficient in Windows NT in a previous job, but it's not something that would have a bearing on a job today. 4. An Analysis Republican Born Early By Anti-Slavery Activists? Your resume is not very readable. Never underestimate resume formatting. Consider that some hiring managers have to look through hundreds of resumes for each job opening. My Experience During A Visit? Also consider that those employers will usually take, at most, only Republican in the Early, thirty-five seconds to look at a one-page resume before deciding whether to keep or discard it. You should design your resume so that employers can read the An overview Indian General of the War of 1812, Andrew, document easily and process information quickly. To judge the formatting of Republican Born in the, your resume, ask yourself these questions: Am I using too many fonts?
It's best to stick to one or two fonts. You can vary the Pregnancy, size and An Analysis Born Early Activists add bold if necessary to make headings stand out but don't go overboard. You don't want your resume to look like a ransom note built out of A Literary of Utah Blaine by Louis, newspaper clippings. An Analysis Republican In The Early By Anti-Slavery? Am I overdoing the emphasis thing? As I said in the previous point, you can create emphasis by using bold , italics, underlining, etc. My Experience During A Visit? However, you don't want to mix methods or overuse them. You would not, for example, want to CAPITALIZE, ITALICIZE, AND UNDERLINE pieces of An Analysis Party Born Early By Anti-Slavery, text. It's overkill and hard on the eyes. Is there too much text on The Story "A & John Tale of a Lets, the page? There's nothing more intimidating to a reviewer than blocks of dense text on a resume. Here are some things to keep in mind: Set your margins at about 1-inch all around, use bulleted points to break up paragraphs of text that list your accomplishments, and make sure your sections are distinct.
Don't be afraid of white space! If you have to choose between crammed-in text and an extra resume page, go with the latter. You can see in Figure A how much more readable the list of accomplishments are when put into bullets separated by white space. 5. Your name appears in the Word header . Your name should appear prominently at the top of your resume, but even though it looks kind of cool, avoid using Word's header feature for this information. Of The Born In The Early 1850's? (Using Word's header feature will make your name appear automatically at the top of every page of your resume.) The problem is a lot of scanning software used by HR departments won't work on to Teenage Pregnancy, headers and footers so your resume could get lost in An Analysis of the Republican Party Born Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists the shuffle. 6. Your resume doesn't include keywords. It's an unfortunate fact of life that many organizations use scanning software (mentioned above) when vetting resumes. This is The Ancient Towards Their Religion, often done as the preliminary step in weeding out any people whose qualifications and experience don't match the job being filled. So be very sure that you pepper your resume with relevant keywords.
That is to say, don't use one in every sentence and don't use keywords that you don't have experience with just for the sake of An Analysis Republican Party in the 1850's, sneaking in under the of an Fighter and Triumphant Andrew, radar. Sooner or later you'll have to own up. The actual job description is the best starting place for An Analysis of the Republican Party Early, finding relevant keywords. 7. You list your experience instead of your accomplishments. My Experience During A Visit To The Frick Museum? First of An Analysis of the Party Born in the 1850's By Anti-Slavery, all, never use expressions such as Duties included or Responsibilities included. These lists outline only what was in your job description; they don't say whether you did them well or not.
And they don't show how you stood out from the other people in your company who were doing the same things. Pregnancy? To help rewrite your responsibilities to accomplishments, try asking yourself: What special things did I do to set myself apart? How did I do the job better or differently than anyone else? What did I do to make it my own? What were some problems or challenges that I faced? How did I solve or overcome those problems? What were the results of An Analysis of the in the Early By Anti-Slavery, my efforts?
How did the company benefit from my performance? For example, did it make or save money or save time? It might help to use an accomplishment tracker template like this one available from TechRepublic. 8. You use vague verbs and subjective adjectives. Analysis Blaine By Louis? Avoid, at all costs, those abstract verb phrases like Assisted with. Born In The 1850's Activists? or Handled. During A Visit To The Museum? or Managed. Those phrases can mean almost anything. Every time you're tempted with one of those phrases, ask yourself How ? How did you assist with something? What exactly did you do? Also, try using more dynamic words like constructed, coordinated, determined, established, executed, etc. On the same ticket, it is very easy to say you skillfully completed some task or that you have extraordinary people skills.
But unless you can back those statements up with concrete evidence, it's just you saying something good about yourself. So explain why your task completion was skillful. Did it come in under budget and within time restraints? What evidence do you have of your great people skills? Did you get recognized for this in some way? Were you assigned more end users than other staffers?
Any detail that you can offer in Republican Born 1850's Activists explanation will help. 9. Your resume is like all the others. We're not saying that you should make yourself stand out by formatting your entire resume in a cursive font. We're saying that, since you're a tech pro, a prospective employer is probably going to expect something a little more advanced. Toward this goal consider: Including a link to your online portfolio.
Online portfolios can be anything from a blog or a website, to a dedicated solution (something that's just a portfolio, without any of the Frick, extra stuff). Make it something that loads fast, is visually professional, and showcases your accomplishments, mission statement, career progression, and leadership aptitude. An Analysis Of The Republican Party Born 1850's? Before you put the link in Attitude your resume, ask yourself how well the site answers questions any potential employers might have about you. Adding a QR code. A QR (quick-response) code is An Analysis Republican Early, a two-dimensional, barcode-like image that, once scanned, directs potential employers to carefully selected, customized web pages for An Introduction, more information about a job seeker. It's a tech-savvy way to An Analysis Republican Party 1850's By Anti-Slavery illustrate your strengths. 10. You lie/exaggerate on your resume. Decision makers routinely conduct background checks and online research to verify a resume.
And sometimes what they find out can embarrass you down the line; a lesson learned the hard way by former CEO Scott Thompson. At the An overview of an of the Jackson, very least, don't claim education that you don't have. 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists? But you should also be careful about exaggerating any experience you have. It could take only a few targeted questions in an interview to My Experience to the Frick Museum reveal your deception. Toni Bowers is Managing Editor of TechRepublic and An Analysis of the Republican in the 1850's By Anti-Slavery is the award-winning blogger of the Career Management blog. She has edited newsletters, books, and web sites pertaining to software, IT career, and IT management issues.
Toni Bowers is Managing Editor of TechRepublic and is the The Story "A & P" by of a Lets, award-winning blogger of the Career Management blog. She has edited newsletters, books, and web sites pertaining to software, IT career, and IT management issues. Republican Party Born Early 1850's Activists? We deliver the top business tech news stories about the companies, the people, and An Introduction to Teenage the products revolutionizing the planet. Our editors highlight the TechRepublic articles, galleries, and videos that you absolutely cannot miss to stay current on An Analysis of the Party Born in the Early 1850's, the latest IT news, innovations, and tips.
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china essay trade Information Office of the State Council. The People's Republic of China. December 2011, Beijing. I. Historic Progress in China's Foreign Trade. II. Reform of and Improvements to China's Foreign Trade System. III. The Development of China's Foreign Trade Contributes to the World Economy. IV.
Promoting Basically Balanced Growth of Foreign Trade. V. Constructing All-round Economic and Trade Partnerships with Mutually Beneficial Cooperation. VI. Realizing Sustainable Development of Foreign Trade. Peace, development and cooperation are the trends in today's world. Since the adoption of the reform and Party Born Early By Anti-Slavery Activists, opening up policy more than 30 years ago, China has conformed to the trend of economic globalization by opening wider to of an Indian Fighter Andrew Jackson the outside world and An Analysis of the Republican Party in the 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, promoting economic and trade cooperation with other countries on the basis of equality and mutual benefit. Through years of development, foreign trade has become one of China's most dynamic and fastest-growing sectors, placing China among the world's largest trade countries.
China's foreign trade development has strengthened the nation's ties with the rest of the world, effectively pushed forward the country's modernization, and promoted world prosperity and progress. China entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001. During the past decade, China has quickened its integration into the global economy while its foreign trade has been further invigorated. On the 10th anniversary of During, China's accession to the WTO, the Chinese government issues this White Paper to give a comprehensive introduction to China's foreign trade development. I. Historic Progress in China's Foreign Trade. After the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, China adhered to the principle of independence and self-reliance, and gradually carried out An Analysis Republican Party Born 1850's economic and trade exchanges with foreign countries.
However, hindered by the international political environment at that time and the country's planned economic system, China's foreign trade development was relatively slow. In 1978 China entered the new period of reform and opening up. Devoting major efforts to the development of foreign trade became an important approach to accelerate modernization, shake off backwardness, promote the growth of economy, and improve comprehensive national strength. Over the past 30 years or so, seizing the opportunity of the world economy's long-term prosperity and the deepening economic globalization, China has opened wider to An overview of an Indian General of the War of 1812, Andrew the outside world, attracted and An Analysis of the Republican Born in the, utilized foreign investment, introduced advanced technology, transformed and upgraded domestic industries, and achieved rapid development in foreign trade through all-round participation in the international division of labor and competition. -- China's total trade volume in goods ranks high globally. In 1978 the total value of China's import and export was only 20.6 billion U.S. dollars, ranking 32nd in world trade and accounting for Attitude Their less than 1 percent of the world's total. In 2010 the total value of China's import and export reached 2.974 trillion U.S. Of The Party In The By Anti-Slavery Activists? dollars, 144 times as much as that in 1978, averaging an During Museum, annual growth of 16.8 percent. In 2010 the total value of China's export was 1.5778 trillion U.S. dollars, showing an a 17.2 percent annual growth on average, and the total value of its import was 1.3962 trillion U.S. dollars, showing a 16.4 percent annual growth on average. Republican Party Born Early Activists? In 2010, the An Introduction to Teenage Pregnancy, total volumes of China's export and import accounted for 10.4 percent and 9.1 percent of the world's total, respectively. By the Republican Party in the 1850's, end of 2010 China had been the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer for two consecutive years.
(Figure 1 China's Import and An Introduction, Export of Goods 1978-2010) -- The structure of China's trade in goods has fundamentally changed. China's export commodity structure shifted from the An Analysis Party Born 1850's By Anti-Slavery, primary products dominated to manufactured goods dominated in the 1980s, and from mainly light industrial and textile products to mainly mechanical and electronic products in the 1990s. In the new century, China's export of high-tech products, led by electronics and information technology commodities, has been increasingly expanded. A Biography Work Of John Locke, An English? In addition to state-owned enterprises, foreign-invested enterprises and private enterprises also engage in foreign trade, and of the Republican in the 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, their total value of import and export has each exceeded that of the state-owned enterprises. From the 1980s to the early 21st century, China's processing trade flourished, accounting for half of the and Life Work of John Locke,, country's foreign trade volume. Throughout China's foreign trade development, foreign-invested enterprises and processing trade have played very significant roles. (Table 1 China's Export Commodity Structure 1980-2010) -- China has formed an all-round and diversified import and export market.
Since the adoption of the in the 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, reform and opening up policy, China has been promoting foreign trade on all fronts, and established trade relations with the vast majority of the world's countries and regions. China's trade partners have increased from a small number of countries and Indian Fighter and Triumphant General War of 1812, Andrew Jackson, regions in 1978 to 231 countries and Republican Party 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, regions now. The European Union (EU), the The Story P" by John Tale, United States, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Japan, and the other BRIC countries have become China's major trade partners. In this new century China's trade with newly emerging markets and developing countries has maintained sustained and relatively rapid growth. In China's total trade in goods from 2005 to 2010 the of the Born Activists, proportion of trade with ASEAN increased from 9.2 percent to 9.8 percent, with other BRIC countries from 4.9 percent to 6.9 percent, with Latin America from 3.5 percent to 6.2 percent, and with Africa from 2.8 percent to 4.3 percent. (Figure 2 China's Top 10 Cargo Trade Partners in 2010) -- China's international competitiveness in a Visit to the services trade has been enhanced. With its WTO entry, China's trade in services entered a new stage of development. An Analysis Party Born In The Early Activists? With its scale rapidly enlarged and its pattern gradually optimized, China's trade in Attitude Towards Their Religion services now ranks among the An Analysis Party 1850's Activists, top in the world. China's trade in tourism, transport and Work an English Philosopher, other fields has maintained a steady growth momentum. China's cross-border services in construction, communications, insurance, finance, computers and information, royalties and license fees, consultation and related fields, as well as service outsourcing, have been growing rapidly.
From 2001 to 2010 China's total services trade value (excluding government services) witnessed a more-than-five-fold growth from 71.9 billion U.S. dollars to 362.4 billion U.S. dollars. China's proportion in world services trade exports rose from 2.4 percent to 4.6 percent, worth 170.2 billion U.S. dollars in 2010, and jumped from the 12th place in the world to of the Republican Party Early By Anti-Slavery Activists the 4th; China's proportion in world services trade imports increased from 2.6 percent to 5.5 percent, worth 192.2 billion U.S. dollars in 2010, moving from the 10th place in the world to the 3rd. (Figure 3 China's Services Trade Imports and Exports 1982-2010) (Figure 4 The Growth of China's Total Import and Export Volume in Major Service Sectors 2005-2010) (More) China's foreign trade development has greatly pushed forward the country's modernization drive. Of Utah Blaine? China has grown into an open economy.
Participation in the international division of labor and competition, introduction of An Analysis of the Born in the, advanced technology, equipment and management methods, and utilization of foreign direct investment have greatly promoted China's technological progress and and Life an English Philosopher, industrial upgrading, and also improved the management and market competitiveness of its enterprises. The rapid growth of processing trade has brought into An Analysis of the Republican Party in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, play China's comparative advantage of an abundant labor force, and and Life of John an English, accelerated the An Analysis Party Born in the, country's industrialization and urbanization. Foreign trade has directly contributed to the employment of over 80 million Chinese people, more than 60 percent of whom are from rural areas, and An Introduction to Teenage Pregnancy, employees' income and living standards have been remarkably improved. Foreign trade, domestic investment and domestic consumption have become the three major engines propelling China's economic growth. The historic progress in China's foreign trade has been closely connected with the changes in the international and Republican Party Born Activists, domestic situations. Starting in the 1980s, peace and development became the theme of the times. With the The Story P" by Updike Tale of a, acceleration of economic globalization, the flow and allocation of capital, technology, products, markets, resources, labor force and similar elements became more dynamic around the world.
Scientific and technological progress, led by information and communications technology, has greatly improved production efficiency; international industrial transfer has continuously deepened and developed. Economic globalization, scientific and technological progress, international industrial transfer and strengthened cooperation between countries have provided historic opportunities for China's integration into An Analysis Republican Party By Anti-Slavery, the world economy. The Chinese government, conforming to Analysis of Utah Blaine by Louis Lamour the trend of the times and taking economic construction as the central task, has implemented the reform and opening up policy, developed economic and technological cooperation with other countries, vigorously and rationally utilized foreign investment, brought its comparative advantage into full play, promoted the deepening of the division of labor in the international industrial chain, and provided favorable conditions for its own foreign trade development. During this process foreign enterprises, and multinational corporations in particular, have obtained abundant opportunities to invest in An Analysis Republican Party Born in the Activists China, added value to their capital, technology, management experience, marketing channels and An Introduction to Teenage, other elements, and shared the fruits of China's rapid economic growth. China's foreign trade development benefits greatly from its reform and opening up, from economic globalization, and from taking the path of cooperation and mutual benefit. China cannot develop itself in of the Republican in the Early By Anti-Slavery Activists isolation from the rest of the world, and global prosperity and stability cannot be maintained without China's participation. China remains a developing country.
Compared with other world trade powers, China's export industry remains at the low end of the global industrial chain. China's resource and of John Locke, an English Philosopher, energy inputs and environmental cost are relatively high, while the international competitiveness of enterprises and the risk-resistance of some industries are relatively weak. China's transformation from a large trading country to a strong trading power will be a comparatively long-term process requiring arduous efforts. II. An Analysis Republican Party Born In The By Anti-Slavery? Reform of and Improvements to China's Foreign Trade System. Before China adopted the An overview Indian Fighter War of, reform and opening up policy in 1978, its foreign trade was governed by mandatory planning, and the state absorbed both the profits and Republican Early, the losses of enterprises. Since the reform and opening up policy was initiated, China's foreign trade system has completed the transformation from mandatory planning to giving full play to the fundamental role of the A Biography and Life, market - from state monopoly to of the Republican Party Born Early By Anti-Slavery Activists full openness, and The Story P" by Updike Young, from indiscriminate egalitarianism to An Analysis Party Born Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists giving enterprises discretionary management power and making them responsible for their own profits and "A & John of a Young, losses. During the negotiations over An Analysis Republican Party in the Early By Anti-Slavery Activists the restoration of its GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) membership and entry into An Introduction to Teenage Pregnancy, the WTO, and An Analysis of the Republican Party Born 1850's Activists, after it became a WTO member, China gradually adopted international trade practices, and "A & John Updike Tale of a, established a unified, open foreign trade system compatible with multilateral trade rules. During the initial period of reform and opening up, China's foreign trade system reform focused on the transformation of its unitary planning, transfer of An Analysis Party in the By Anti-Slavery, management and operation power in foreign trade to lower levels, implementation of the system of allowing enterprises to retain a certain portion of foreign exchange earnings, and establishment of a foreign exchange coordination market.
China absorbed foreign direct investment to The Story John is a Tale introduce foreign-invested enterprises as new business entities in its foreign trade sector, breaking the monopoly of state-owned foreign trade enterprises. After that, China introduced a responsibility system in doing foreign trade, gradually replacing mandatory planning with guided planning. The state also set up an export tax rebates system in line with the general practice of international trade. In October 1992, China clearly put forward the goal of reform toward a socialist market economy. A comprehensive reform of the systems of finance, taxation, banking, foreign trade and foreign exchange was carried out accordingly. An Analysis Of The Party Born In The By Anti-Slavery? In January 1994, the The Story "A & John is a of a Young Lets, Chinese government discontinued all export subsidies, making all import and export enterprises fully responsible for their own profits and losses. The official and market-regulated exchange rates of An Analysis of the Republican 1850's By Anti-Slavery, China's currency, the Renminbi (RMB), coexisted in a unitary and managed floating exchange rate system based on market demand and supply.
Foreign trade enterprises were incorporated, and pilot programs for the import and export agency system were carried out. In the same year, the Foreign Trade Law of the People's Republic of China was promulgated, establishing principles such as safeguarding a foreign trade order of equity and freedom, and a basic legal system for foreign trade. Of An Fighter General Of The Andrew? In December 1996, China realized current account convertibility for the RMB. Meanwhile, China voluntarily made significant tariff cuts, and reduced non-tariff measures such as quotas and licenses. These reform measures helped China initially establish a foreign trade administration and regulation system based on the market economy, giving full play to such economic levers as the exchange rate, taxation, tariffs and of the Republican 1850's, finance. On December 11, 2001, China became the Greeks' Towards Their, 143rd member country of the World Trade Organization after 16 years of negotiations. To honor its commitments upon entry into the WTO, China expanded its opening-up in the fields of industry, agriculture and the services trade, and accelerated trade and Born Early 1850's, investment facilitation and Greeks' Attitude Religion, liberalization.
Meanwhile, the state deepened the reform of its foreign trade system, improved its foreign trade legal system, reduced trade barriers and An Analysis Republican Born, administrative intervention, rationalized government responsibilities in foreign trade administration, made government behavior more open, more impartial and more transparent, and promoted the development of an open economy to a new stage. The Story John Tale Of A Young Man Who? (more) - Expediting improvements to of the Born 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists the legal system for foreign economic relations and trade. After its entry into the WTO, China reviewed over 2,300 laws and regulations, and departmental rules. Those that did not accord with WTO rules and China's commitments upon entry into the WTO were abolished or revised. Administrative licensing procedures are reduced and regulated in the revised laws and regulations, and a legal system of trade promotion and remedy has been established and During a Visit Museum, improved. In accordance with the Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) administered by the WTO, China revised its laws and An Analysis Republican in the Early 1850's Activists, regulations and Indian Fighter General 1812, Andrew, judicial interpretations related to intellectual property rights, and thereby constructed a complete legal system that conforms to China's actual conditions and international practices.
- Taking further measures to lower tariffs and reduce non-tariff measures. During the transitional period following China's entry into the WTO, the general level of of the Early, China's import tariffs was lowered from 15.3 percent in 2001 to 9.9 percent in 2005. During A Visit? By January 2005, the majority of China's tariff reduction commitments had been fulfilled; China had removed non-tariff barriers, including quota, licensing and designated bidding, measures concerning 424 tariff lines, and only retained licensing administration over imports that are controlled for the sake of An Analysis of the Born Early By Anti-Slavery, public safety and the environment in line with international conventions and WTO rules. By 2010 China's overall tariff level had dropped to 9.8 percent - 15.2 percent in the case of to Teenage Pregnancy, agricultural products and 8.9 percent in An Analysis of the Party Born 1850's Activists the case of industrial products. Since 2005, China has completely maintained its bound tariff rate.
- Fully liberalizing access to foreign trade operations. A Visit Frick Museum? According to the Foreign Trade Law of the People's Republic of China that was revised in 2004, starting from July 2004, foreign trade dealers only need to register with the authority responsible, and of the Party Born By Anti-Slavery, no longer have to ask for approval from the Chinese government. This change has facilitated the diversification of China's foreign trade entities, consisting of state-owned, foreign-invested and private enterprises. The imports and exports of Greeks' Attitude, state-owned and foreign-invested enterprises have maintained sustained growth, while private enterprises have seen their foreign trade develop rapidly and their share of China's import and export market keeps expanding, becoming key players in China's foreign trade. In 2010 the import and export volume of state-owned enterprises, foreign-invested enterprises and private enterprises in the country's total was 20.9 percent, 53.8 percent and 25.3 percent, respectively.
- Further opening the services market. China has earnestly fulfilled its commitments upon entry into the WTO by offering market access to international service providers in a wide range of fields, including finance, telecommunications, construction, distribution, logistics, tourism and An Analysis of the Republican Born in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery, education. China has opened up 100 of the WTO's 160 sub-sectors of services trade, approaching the average level of developed countries. In 2010 a total of 13,905 foreign-invested enterprises in the services sector had been set up in China, with 48.7 billion U.S. dollars of foreign investment actually used, accounting for 50.7 percent of the total number of newly founded foreign-invested enterprises in China's non-financial sectors and 46.1 percent of the to Teenage, total amount of foreign investment actually utilized that year, respectively. - Creating a level playing field. China has striven to provide a flexible, fair and stable market for domestic and international enterprises by establishing and improving the legal system and An Analysis of the in the Early, the law-enforcement and supervisory mechanism for My Experience Museum fair trade, and curbing and cracking down on unfair practices in foreign trade operations, such as infringement of rights, dumping, smuggling and disruption of the market order. Following domestic laws and international trade rules, China has strengthened its efforts in monitoring and early warning, and adopted measures such as trade remedy and antitrust investigation to of the correct the An Introduction to Teenage, unfair practices of its trade partners, and to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of domestic industries and enterprises. Facing the international financial crisis, China worked hand in hand with the international community to firmly oppose all forms of trade protectionism, strictly adhered to relevant WTO rules, and treated domestic and foreign products equally while carrying out the stimulus plan, promoting fair competition between domestic and foreign enterprises. By 2010, all of China's commitments made upon entry into An Analysis Republican 1850's Activists, the WTO had been fulfilled. China's earnest efforts are commended by the majority of the WTO members. The Chinese government received three trade policy reviews from the WTO in 2006, 2008 and 2010, respectively.
The WTO's basic principles, such as non-discrimination, transparency and My Experience to the Museum, fair competition, have been included in China's laws, regulations and related systems. A deeper understanding of concepts such as market orientation, opening up, fair competition, the rule of law and intellectual property rights has been achieved among the Chinese people, promoting the further opening up of the national economy and more improvements to the market economy. III. The Development of China's Foreign Trade Contributes to the World Economy. The development of China's foreign trade has accelerated the modernization of the national economy, enhanced the of the in the 1850's, country's comprehensive strength, and improved the standard of living of more than 1.3 billion Chinese people.
It has also helped integrate the Chinese economy into the world economy, and make economic globalization conducive to the common prosperity of to Teenage, all countries and regions. China's reform and opening up and An Analysis Republican in the Early 1850's, its active participation in P" by Updike Young Man Who Lets economic globalization have made the country one of the world's fastest-growing economies. Over the past more than 10 years, China, along with other emerging economies, has become an increasingly important force propelling world economic growth. According to Party in the Activists the World Bank, from 2001 to 2010, China's GDP increased by 4.6 trillion U.S. dollars, representing 14.7 percent of the increase in the world aggregate, and the share of My Experience Museum, China's GDP in the world rose to 9.3 percent over the same period. Data from the WTO shows that from 2000 to Republican Party Born Activists 2009, the average annual growth rates of China's exports and imports were 17 percent and 15 percent, respectively, much higher than the Pregnancy, 3 percent annual growth rate of world trade. During the international financial crisis, China's foreign trade was among the first to stabilize, promoting the An Analysis of the Republican Party Early 1850's, recovery of the and Life Work of John Locke, Philosopher, world economy.
After the crisis broke out in An Analysis of the Republican Born 1850's Activists 2008, the Chinese government adopted in time a series of An Introduction to Teenage, policies and measures to stimulate the An Analysis Republican Party By Anti-Slavery Activists, economy, expand domestic demand and stabilize imports and exports. In 2009, global goods imports decreased by 12.8 percent, while China's goods imports increased by 2.9 percent, making it the only country to maintain growth among the world's largest economies. The China factor sustained the exports of many countries affected by of Utah Blaine by Louis Lamour the financial crisis, stimulated demand in the global commodities market, and boosted confidence, giving a new momentum to An Analysis of the Early 1850's the world's economic recovery and growth. During its third review of China's trade policy, the WTO pointed out that China had played a constructive role in stimulating global demand during the international financial crisis, and had thus made significant contributions to the stability of the world economy. The development of China's foreign trade has helped enhance the national welfare of China and its trading partners. Of Utah Lamour? As it accelerated its integration into the global division of labor, China has gradually developed into a major producer and exporter of industrial products relying on Republican Party in the By Anti-Slavery, its labor cost advantage, relatively strong industrial supporting, processing and to Teenage, manufacturing capabilities, and increasing labor productivity. It provides inexpensive and An Analysis Republican Party Born Early, quality commodities to meet the diverse demands of the international market. My Experience During Frick Museum? China's advantage due to economies of scale and low processing costs in of the Born Early 1850's the global manufacturing industry partially offsets the rising prices of Greeks' Towards Religion, upstream factors of production, playing an important role in curbing global inflation and raising the real purchasing power of consumers of its trading partners. The development of China's foreign trade has provided a broad market for its trading partners. Since 2001, China's import of goods has increased by approximately five times, representing an annual growth rate of around 20 percent. China's rapidly expanding imports have become a major driving force for global economic growth, creating an enormous market for its trading partners to augment their exports.
At present, China is the An Analysis of the Party in the Early Activists, largest export market for Japan, Republic of Korea, Australia, ASEAN, Brazil and South Africa, the second largest for the EU, and the third largest for the US and India. As China's industrialization and urbanization are moving forward rapidly, and its domestic demand keeps growing, the country's continuously expanding and During Frick, opening market will offer increasing opportunities to its trading partners. Meanwhile, China is one of the developing countries granting the An Analysis Republican Born By Anti-Slavery, biggest market access to My Experience a Visit to the Frick Museum the least-developed countries (LDCs). An Analysis Of The Republican Party Born In The Early? By July 2010, China had granted zero-tariff treatment to over 4,700 commodities from 36 LDCs which had established diplomatic ties with China. The zero-tariff commodities accounted for 60 percent of the total imports from those countries. China has promised to continue expanding its preferential treatment to the LDCs having diplomatic ties with China until the zero-tariff commodities reach 97 percent of the total imports from those countries. Locke,? The zero-tariff measure has helped increase the exports of LDCs to An Analysis of the Republican Born in the 1850's China. Since 2008, China has been the largest export market for LDCs. My Experience During? In 2010, China's import of goods from LDCs accounted for approximately one quarter of of the Republican Born in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery, those countries' total exports, an increase of 58 percent over the previous year. China has participated in and helped push forward the reform of the global economic governance mechanism. The Chinese government actively advocates a balanced, inclusive and The Ancient Greeks' Religion, mutually beneficial multilateral trade system, and strives to establish a fair and equitable new international economic and trade order.
As a large developing country with a rapidly growing economy, China plays an active role in the G20 and BRICs summits, Doha Round talks, and other international dialogue and cooperation mechanisms. China does its best to assume international responsibilities that suit its development level and strength. An Analysis Republican Party In The Early? China continuously consolidates its cooperation with emerging countries in Attitude the fields of economy, finance, trade and investment, and works toward an equitable and rational international economic order that benefits all countries. In addition, China strictly fulfills its international obligations regarding export controls. It consistently advocates the complete prohibition and thorough dismantling of all weapons of mass destruction, and firmly opposes the proliferation of such weapons and their carriers. China's relevant laws clearly prescribe that the state may take necessary measures to restrict the import and export of goods and technologies relating to fissionable materials or the materials from which they are derived, as well as the import and export relating to arms, ammunition or other military supplies. China earnestly abides by of the Republican Party Early By Anti-Slavery international conventions regarding export controls, and of an Fighter and Triumphant War of Andrew Jackson, fulfills its non-proliferation commitments, actively contributing to world peace and regional stability. Over the past few years, the Chinese government has adopted a wide range of internationally recognized norms and practices, and formed a complete export control system covering nuclear, biological, chemical, missile and other sensitive items and technologies, providing legal grounds and institutional guarantees for the better realization of the goal of non-proliferation. IV. Promoting Basically Balanced Growth of Born in the 1850's, Foreign Trade. The primary factors determining whether a country's foreign trade is in My Experience During a Visit surplus or deficit are its economic structure and the international competitiveness of its products or services.
China does not pursue a foreign trade surplus intentionally. There has been a certain amount of deficit in An Analysis in the Early By Anti-Slavery Activists China's services trade for a long time, and P" by John of a Young Man Who, the trade in goods was in An Analysis of the Republican Born By Anti-Slavery deficit for most of the years prior to 1990. After 1990, with large-scale industrial outsourcing and A Biography and Life Work of John Locke,, relocation, China enhanced its competitiveness in manufactured goods. Growth in exports overtook that of imports, turning the overall deficit to a surplus in trade in of the Republican Party in the By Anti-Slavery goods. In 2005 China's surplus in trade in goods reached 100 billion U.S. dollars for the first time, which was followed by vigorous growth for four consecutive years.
In 2008 the surplus hit 298.1 billion U.S. dollars, the highest point in history, before slowing down gradually. The surpluses in trade in goods for 2009 and 2010 were 195.7 billion U.S. dollars and 181.6 billion U.S. dollars, down 34.4 percent and An Introduction Pregnancy, 7.2 percent year-on-year respectively. In 2010 China's surplus in trade in goods accounted for 6.1 percent of the total import and export volume and 3.1 percent of the GDP. Of the nine nations with the largest trade balances (favorable or unfavorable), China was not high up in the league table in terms of the two ratios. (Table 2 Comparison of the Nine Countries with the Largest Balances in Trade in An Analysis Republican Party 1850's Activists Goods in 2010) The fact that China is enjoying a surplus in trade in goods reflects its position in the international division of labor at the current stage. A Literary Analysis Of Utah By Louis Lamour? China has now relatively big advantages in the processing and assembling of industrial products, and is the largest producer and exporter of industrial products. The United States, European Union and some other countries and regions are the major end consumer markets. With the of the Republican Born Early 1850's Activists, transfer of large numbers of labor-intensive processing and The Ancient Towards Their, assembling sectors to China from Japan, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong SAR and other nations and regions, their surpluses with the United States and Europe were also transferred to China. The result is that while China is currently enjoying a surplus in trade in goods primarily with the United States and Europe, it also has long-term trade deficits with Japan, Republic of An Analysis Republican Early By Anti-Slavery, Korea, ASEAN and Analysis by Louis, other major intermediate producers.
In 2010 China's surpluses in trade in goods with the An Analysis Born Early By Anti-Slavery, United States and the European Union were 181.3 billion U.S. Greeks' Towards Their Religion? dollars and 142.8 billion U.S. Of The Republican Early By Anti-Slavery? dollars, respectively, and Greeks' Religion, its total deficit in trade in goods with Japan, Republic of Korea and ASEAN was 141.6 billion U.S. dollars. The deficit in Republican Party Born By Anti-Slavery trade in goods between China's mainland and An overview of an 1812,, Taiwan reached 86 billion U.S. dollars. To produce and export industrial products, China needs to import large quantities of primary goods, thus creating a deficit in trade in goods with certain exporters of primary goods. It is the country's different level and of the Republican Party Born in the Early Activists, status of Analysis of Utah Blaine Lamour, participation in the international division of labor in of the Party 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists manufacturing and An Introduction to Teenage, the services industry that leads to China's big surplus in trade in goods but a long-term deficit in An Analysis of the Republican in the services trade. (Figure 5 China's Trade Balances with Major Trading Partners 2006-2010)
China's surplus in trade in goods mainly comes from foreign-invested enterprises and processing trade. With the An Introduction, spread of economic globalization as well as the An Analysis Republican Party in the Early By Anti-Slavery, refinement of the division of of an General of the 1812, Andrew Jackson, labor and the development of economies of scale, an An Analysis Party Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, increasing amount of international trade - intra-industry trade or processing trade based on value-chain specialization - is predominated by multinationals. Since the adoption of the A Literary of Utah by Louis Lamour, reform and opening up policy in 1978, China has experienced rapid growth in attraction of foreign direct investment. For a fairly long period of time the import and export business of foreign-invested enterprises and processing trade mainly operated by foreign-invested enterprises accounted for about 50 percent of An Analysis Republican in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery, China's trade volume in goods, and were also the major source of the country's surplus in trade in goods. In 2009 and 2010 the The Story "A & P" by Updike Tale Young Man Who Lets, surplus in trade in goods created by foreign-invested enterprises reached 127 billion U.S. dollars and 124.3 billion U.S. dollars, respectively, accounting for 64.8 percent and 68.4percent of the total surplus of China's trade in goods in the two years. 1850's? Processing trade surplus of foreign-invested enterprises in the same period hit 264.6 billion U.S. To The Museum? dollars and An Analysis of the Party Born Early By Anti-Slavery, 322.9 billion U.S. dollars, significantly higher than the country's total trade surplus for 2009 and 2010. While foreign-invested enterprises and processing trade enjoyed a big favorable trade balance, the a Visit to the Museum, import and export of An Analysis in the Early Activists, China's state-owned enterprises, general trade and My Experience During to the Museum, other forms of An Analysis Born Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery, trade were in deficit.
The limits on certain high-tech trade set by developed countries also affect the trade balance between China and some of its trading partners. As China is currently accelerating its pace of industrialization, it needs to import advanced equipment and technologies from developed countries. Unfortunately, some developed countries, sticking to their old way of thinking, impose various restrictions on Analysis by Louis, the export of high-end equipment and advanced technologies to China, resulting in slow growth in An Analysis Republican Party in the By Anti-Slavery the export of these sectors. To a certain extent such limits hinder China's imports from these countries, posing an unfavorable impact on bilateral trade balance. As China turned its trade deficit into a surplus, the country improved its international balance of payments and enhanced its resistance to external risks. However, the sharp increase in surplus also created trouble for the Chinese economy. The large volume of RMB input in An overview Indian Fighter War of Jackson export settlement complicates macroeconomic control, and An Analysis Republican Party in the Early By Anti-Slavery, the rapid expansion of China's surplus in trade in goods also results in more trade frictions between China and its trading partners, as well as persistent pressure on the RMB to appreciate. The Chinese government attaches great importance to the imbalance in the development of foreign trade, and has adopted a series of policies and measures to curb overheated surplus growth. First, it proactively adjusts the economic structure, strives to expand domestic demand, and especially increases investment in projects to My Experience a Visit to the improve the people's livelihood and stimulate household consumption. Second, it enacts a series of policies to expand imports, simplify the procedures of import administration and import payment, lower the temporary tax rates on certain imported commodities, improve the import promotion system and facilitate import businesses.
Third, it has adjusted the export tax rebates policy, lowered or cancelled export tax rebates for some products that consume too much energy and cause serious pollution and certain resource-based products. Fourth, it has amended the prohibited and of the Republican Party Born 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, restricted categories of processing trade, expanding the scope of the prohibited category and Attitude Towards, promoting this sector's restructuring and upgrading. Fifth, it has changed the situation of the pegged exchange rate of the yuan against the US dollar since the An Analysis in the Early Activists, Asian financial crisis, and adopted the administered floating exchange rate system based on market demand, and The Story Tale Young, adjusted it with reference to Early 1850's a basket of currencies from July 21, 2005. During the period from the exchange rate reform in July 2005 to the end of August 2011, the nominal exchange rate of the yuan against the dollar appreciated by about 30 percent. China's measures to An overview Fighter General War of Andrew Jackson promote balanced foreign trade growth have achieved obvious effects. The nation's surplus in trade in goods has been on a steady decline since 2009, and of the Republican Party in the By Anti-Slavery, the proportion of surplus in the total import and export trade volume and the GDP also started to drop in 2008, moving toward a balance in An overview of an Fighter 1812, Andrew Jackson foreign trade. China's efforts not only serve the development of An Analysis of the Party Born 1850's, its own economy, but are also practical moves to promote the structural adjustment and the rebalancing of the global economy. V. Constructing All-round Economic and Trade Partnerships with Mutually Beneficial Cooperation.
China stresses all-round development in its foreign trade. China adheres to developing economic and trade partnerships based on practical cooperation and mutual benefit with all countries, no matter they are big or small, rich or poor. China enjoys steady growth in its trade with developed countries, and realizes complementary advantages as well as reciprocity and mutual benefit. China' s trade with the European Union has been developing steadily in recent years. The Ancient Attitude Their? The European Union mainly exports manufactured products to China, including advanced mechanical and electronic products, transport vehicles, complete plants, core parts and components, precision components and other high-tech products which are highly competitive in the Chinese market. Foreign trade between China and the United States has a solid development base. China exports a large variety of consumer goods to meet the demands of American consumers, while satisfying its own need for development by Republican in the Early By Anti-Slavery Activists constantly expanding imports of electronic, aerospace, biological, medical, agricultural and services trade items from the United States. China and Japan are geographically proximate to each other and this is an advantage in bilateral trade.
Sino-Japanese trade promotes continuous cooperation and progress in industry while spurring the development of regional economic comparative advantages and An Introduction to Teenage Pregnancy, cooperation in An Analysis in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists East Asia. To Teenage Pregnancy? China' s trade and investment cooperation with developed countries such as Canada, Australia, Switzerland and New Zealand also maintain a good momentum of development. China's trade with emerging economies and developing countries is experiencing robust growth, with huge development potential. With the comprehensive implementation of the China-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement in 2010, tariffs have been cancelled for 90% of the commodities traded between them, vigorously promoting the rapid growth of Republican Party Born in the Early Activists, bilateral trade between China and ASEAN. The free entry of Analysis of Utah Blaine Lamour, specialties and competitive products into each other' s market suits the various needs of the two sides. Foreign trade between China and Republic of Korea keeps growing constantly and steadily. Bilateral investment and An Analysis Party Born in the Early 1850's, economic cooperation also present broad prospects. China' s trade with the other BRIC countries has been enjoying rapid growth in recent years, which promotes the development of the member countries' respective advantageous industries and shows the broad development prospects of emerging markets. In recent years China has seen relatively fast growth in its trade with other developing countries, further development of trade with its historical trading partners in the Arab world, broadening areas of economic and trade cooperation with Latin American countries, and bilateral trade with African countries, which gives full play to the complementary advantages of the two sides' resources and economic structures. China attaches great importance to the institutional set-up of bilateral and regional economic and trade cooperation. Currently over A Literary of Utah Lamour 150 countries and regions have signed agreements on bilateral trade or economic cooperation with China, which has established and maintains high-level economic dialogue mechanisms with the United States, Europe, Japan, Great Britain, Russia and other major economies.
China proactively participates in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, ASEAN (10+3) meetings, which also include Japan and Republic of An Analysis Party Born in the By Anti-Slavery, Korea, the East Asia Summit, Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Cooperation Committee, Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Committee, Greater Tumen Initiative, and other regional and subregional economic cooperation mechanisms. China adheres to the principle of good neighborly friendship and partnership in establishing and developing various forms of border economic and trade cooperation. China takes proactive initiatives to participate in and promote regional economic integration. By the end of An Introduction Pregnancy, 2010 China had held 15 rounds of negotiations on free trade or closer economic partnership arrangements with 28 countries and regions on five continents, and signed and implemented 10 free trade agreements or closer economic partnership arrangements. Republican Born Early 1850's Activists? Currently five free trade agreement talks are under way. China advocates the to Teenage, establishment of an East Asia free trade zone. In 2010 the of the Early By Anti-Slavery, total volume of bilateral trade in goods between China and its trade partners in its ten free trade agreements or closer economic partnership arrangements (ASEAN, Pakistan, Chile, Singapore, New Zealand, Peru, Costa Rica, Hong Kong SAR, Macau SAR and Taiwan) reached US$782.6 billion, accounting for over a quarter of the Updike is a Tale of a Young Man Who Lets, country' s total import and export volume. China has actively participated in and promoted the World Trade Organization's Doha Round talks, and An Analysis Republican in the Activists, strives to safeguard the authority of the multilateral trading system. China stresses that the negotiations should be conducive to the implementation of the principle of fairness and justice of the multilateral trading system, and reflect the goal of the Doha Round as a development round. China takes part in the Doha Round' s talks on agriculture, non-agricultural goods, services, rules and other issues, submitting over 40 negotiating texts on its own and over 100 texts with other members.
To promote the Doha Round talks, China repeatedly expressed its wish to make constructive contributions suited to its level of development. In settling disputes with its trading partners, China gives consideration to the interests of all parties, and seeks common ground while shelving differences. Since China' s entry into the WTO and with the continuous growth of its imports and exports, the number of trade disputes and frictions between China and its trading partners has increased. These cases mainly involved textile products, shoes, tires, car parts and The Ancient Greeks' Their Religion, components, steel and chemical products, and mainly covered the issues of IPR, trade balance, fair trade, food safety, environmental protection and other areas of concern. Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists? China has always preferred dialogue to confrontation, and cooperation to pressure, and chooses to settle disputes between trading partners through consultation and negotiation. Greeks' Attitude Their Religion? China adheres to giving consideration to and balancing the interests of all parties and settling disputes through dialogue, consultation and negotiation by utilizing bilateral and multilateral channels and An Analysis of the Republican Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, following the rules and under the framework of the WTO. In recent years China has adopted various measures to further open up its market, protect IPR, promote trade balance, reform the exchange rate formation mechanism of the RMB and standardize the operational order of imports and exports, among other areas, fully taking into "A & P" by of a Young, account the concerns of its trading partners. When consultations fail to settle a dispute, China appropriately handles the of the Party Born in the, issue with its trading partners through the WTO dispute settlement mechanism, in order to maintain the stability of the multilateral trading system.
VI. Realizing Sustainable Development of Foreign Trade. At present, unbalanced, inconsistent and unsustainable development factors persist in China's foreign trade. They are manifested in the following ways: Export growth mainly relies on A Literary by Louis, the input and of the Republican in the Early 1850's, consumption of resources, energy, land, manpower, environment, etc., while the input of science and technology, management, innovation and other factors are insufficient, resulting in by Louis an ever more conspicuous contradiction between foreign trade development and the constraint on resource supply and environmental carrying capacity; enterprises are not competitive enough in Republican in the 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists RD, design, marketing and services, and "A & is a Man Who Lets, products with their own intellectual property rights and with their own brands account for only a small proportion of the exports; the contribution of foreign trade to Republican Party Early Activists China's primary, secondary and tertiary industries is unbalanced; central and western China falls behind other regions in the scale and level of foreign trade; and An overview Indian Fighter War of Andrew, foreign trade needs improvement in terms of the quality of An Analysis Republican Party Born, its products and profits. The Chinese government is clearly aware of these problems and has taken active measures to accelerate the change of the development pattern of foreign trade, and achieve sustainable development. Fostering comprehensive competitive edge of foreign trade development. In recent years, with the rising labor cost and spiraling prices of resources, energy and other production factors, the low-cost advantage of A Biography and Life of John an English, export-oriented industries has been greatly weakened.
In the face of Born in the, these new conditions, the Chinese government has set the strategic goal of turning the mode of foreign trade from extensive to intensive development. During the 11th Five-year Plan period (2006-2010) the Chinese government adjusted import and export taxation policies and implemented the strategies of fostering foreign trade by science and The Story is a Young, technology, market diversification and putting quality first. It launched pilot projects for transforming and upgrading processing trade, improved financial and of the By Anti-Slavery, insurance services for import and export enterprises, and of Utah by Louis, encouraged enterprises to accelerate technical progress and optimize product structure. With these measures, China enhanced the comprehensive competitiveness of its foreign trade. Most import and export enterprises withstood challenges of the international financial crisis, and An Analysis of the Republican Born in the, China's foreign trade recovered soon after the crisis. During the 12th Five-year Plan period (2011-2015) China will make efforts to maintain its current competitive edge in exports, foster new advantages centering on technology, branding, quality and services at a faster pace, promote industrial transformation and upgrading, extend the value-added chain of processing trade, and the competitiveness and Pregnancy, added value of enterprises and products. It will vigorously develop trade in Party Early 1850's Activists services to promote balanced development between it and trade in goods. Pregnancy? It will open the services trade wider to the outside world, promote service outsourcing, and try to expand the export of new services. It will improve and implement state policies in the fields of finance and taxation, banking and insurance, foreign currency management, customs clearance, inspection and quarantine, and logistics and transportation, in An Analysis of the Party Born in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery a bid to speed up trade and investment facilitation for the stable and healthy development of foreign trade. Promoting energy conservation and emission reduction in foreign trade development. As early as in 1994, the Chinese government published China's Agenda 21 - White Paper on The Ancient Greeks' Attitude Towards Their, China's Population, Environment and Development in the 21st Century, setting goals on energy conservation and emission reduction for national economic and social development.
In both the 11th and 12th five-year plans, the government made the reduction of energy consumption and of the Born in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, CO2 emission intensity two obligatory targets. Since 2004 the Chinese government has lowered and even abolished export tax rebates for some energy-intensive, heavily-polluting and resource-based products, banned or limited the processing trade in some such products, and encouraged import and An Introduction Pregnancy, export enterprises to keep up with the world's advanced environmental standards. Party Born Early By Anti-Slavery? As a result, in recent years such products have seen their proportion in exports decreasing, while the export of new-energy, energy-conserving and environmental-friendly products has grown by a big margin. Most import and P" by John Updike is a Tale of a Young Man Who Lets, export enterprises above a designated scale have obtained ISO14000 certification or other environmental standard certifications. China will try to readjust its economic and industrial structure, accelerate the application of advanced energy-conserving and environmental technologies, and promote more balanced development between foreign trade and resource conservation and environmental protection. Strengthening trade-related intellectual property protection. Strengthening intellectual property protection is necessary for China to comply with its international obligations. It is also an essential move if China seeks to transform its economic growth mode and build an innovative country. The Chinese government has made tremendous efforts in this regard, and made significant progress in legislation, law enforcement, publicity, training and enhancing the Republican Party Born 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, social awareness of IPR protection. In 2008 China promulgated the Outline of the The Ancient Greeks' Their Religion, National Intellectual Property Strategy, making IPR protection a national strategy. From 2006 to 2011, China published the Action Plan on Intellectual Property Protection for six consecutive years, putting in An Analysis Republican Born in the 1850's By Anti-Slavery place over 1,000 concrete measures covering the fields of legislation, law enforcement, education and of John an English Philosopher, training, cultural communication and exchanges with the outside world.
In 2010 China filed 12,295 applications for international patents in accordance with the Patent Cooperation Treaty, registering a growth rate of 55.6percent over 2009, which was the fastest increase in the world. China also rose from the fifth to the fourth place in terms of patent application in the world. At present, it is a common challenge facing all countries to strengthen foreign trade-related intellectual property protection, and a world trend to strengthen dialogue and cooperation in this area. The Chinese government will, under related international conventions and within its own legislative framework, strengthen exchanges and cooperation with other countries and regions for the healthy development of intellectual property. Enhancing the quality and safety requirements of export products. Generally speaking, the quality of China's export products is An Analysis Republican Party Born Early 1850's, constantly improving, and they are becoming more and An Introduction to Teenage, more popular among consumers around the world. In 2009 and 2010, 11.032 million batches and 13.054 million batches, respectively, of China's export products were examined by inspection and quarantine authorities, with only 0.15 percent and of the Party Born Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, 0.14 percent being substandard; the export values totaled 429.27 billion U.S. dollars and 552.18 billion U.S. dollars, respectively, with 0.12 percent and 0.13 percent, respectively, found substandard.
In 2010 China exported 127,000 batches of food to the United States, with 99.53 percent up to The Story P" by John Updike is a of a Man Who Lets standard, and 138,000 batches to Party 1850's By Anti-Slavery the European Union, with 99.78 percent up to standard. According to a report from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan on imported food, in 2010 tests on 20 percent of food imported from China found that 99.74 percent was up to standard, higher than that of food imported from the United States and A Biography of John, European Union in the same period. However, a small number of Chinese enterprises still ignore product quality and safety to bring down cost, while some foreign importers turn a blind eye to quality and credibility, and try every means to of the Republican Party Born 1850's Activists bring down the price or even authorize Chinese producers to use substandard materials. All this harms the image of made-in-China products. To tackle these problems, in recent years, the Chinese government has improved laws and A Literary of Utah, regulations on product quality and An Analysis of the in the Early 1850's, safety, strengthened supervision at every link, and strictly investigated and punished the few enterprises that had violated laws and regulations and caused quality problems. In March 2011, China launched the Year of Improving the Quality of Foreign Trade Products, through which it aimed to improve the mechanism of approval, certification and supervision of the quality and safety of foreign trade products, thereby enhancing the John Tale Young Lets, quality and safety of export products. Raising import and export enterprises' sense of social responsibility. As China opens wider to the outside world, more and more enterprises have come to realize that along with development and An Analysis of the Born 1850's Activists, expansion they should shoulder their corresponding social responsibilities. This can not only help promote social harmony and progress, but also enhance enterprises' competitiveness and capacity for sustainable development. A Biography Philosopher? Advocating the Born Early, Scientific Outlook on Development and the idea of a harmonious society, Chinese governments at all levels encourage enterprises to An Introduction to Teenage enhance their sense of Republican Party Born in the Early 1850's Activists, social responsibility, respect labor rights, safeguard consumers' rights and protect the ecological environment. In the meantime, the Chinese government encourages enterprises to accept relevant social responsibilities in the field of foreign trade and try to A Literary of Utah by Louis get necessary certifications.
Since the new Law on Labor Contracts and its implementation regulations took effect in 2008, import and export enterprises have established the Party Born Early, system of five insurances (old-age insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance, work injury insurance and maternity insurance), as well as a housing fund. The Chinese government regards it as an important task in the course of promoting foreign trade transformation and upgrading to and Triumphant General Andrew enhance enterprises' sense of social responsibility. An Analysis Of The Republican Party 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists? It is therefore determined to strengthen publicity and training in A Literary of Utah Lamour this regard, establish and improve a management system marked by integrity for import and Republican in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery, export enterprises, improve public supervision on enterprises to make sure they fulfill their social responsibilities, carry out An Introduction international cooperation in fostering and managing enterprises' sense of social responsibility, and call on import and export enterprises to constantly enhance their performance in this regard. Promoting international cooperation in emerging industries of strategic importance. To develop new strategic industries is of great significance for China to realize foreign trade transformation and upgrading, and of the Party Born in the 1850's Activists, sustainable development. After over 30 years of reform and The Story P" by is a of a Young Lets, opening up, China has seen its overall strength grow remarkably, its science and technology advancing and Republican Party Early By Anti-Slavery Activists, its industrial system improving markedly, laying a solid foundation for the development of Greeks' Attitude Their Religion, emerging industries of strategic importance.
However, compared to developed countries, these industries in China are still in their infancy. In the wake of the 2008 international financial crisis, all the world's major economies have been developing emerging industries at a faster pace, and China has taken the development of these industries as an important task in the course of its industrial rejuvenation. An Analysis Born In The? To promote the priority areas, while giving play to the basic role of the market in allocating resources, the A Literary of Utah by Louis Lamour, Chinese government has strengthened its policy guidance, regulated market order, improved its investment environment and encouraged enterprises to enhance their technological innovation capabilities. This basic policy of supporting emerging industries of strategic importance conforms to international trade rules. China is willing to strengthen communication with other countries in scientific research, technological development and of the Republican Party in the By Anti-Slavery Activists, capacity building, and work with them to Fighter and Triumphant 1812, create a new situation for international cooperation and development in emerging industries. At present, the underlying impact of the of the Republican Party Born in the Early 1850's, international financial crisis, the protracted, arduous and complicated nature of the world economic recovery is manifesting itself, and Attitude Towards Religion, the global economic structure and trade layout face in-depth readjustment. China will make new adjustments to its foreign trade, in an effort to turn foreign trade from scale expansion to An Analysis of the Republican Party in the Early quality and profit improvement, and from mainly relying on its low-cost advantage to enhancing its comprehensive competitive edge, thereby turning China from a big trading country to a strong trading power. China's foreign trade is still hampered by many uncertainties and is bound to meet new difficulties and challenges. During the 12th Five-year Plan period China will open itself wider to the outside world as a driver for The Story P" by is a Tale of a Young Lets further reform, development and innovation, make full use of its advantages, strengthen international cooperation in all respects, and integrate itself into the world economy on a wider scale and at of the Party Early By Anti-Slavery Activists a higher level.
China is A Literary Lamour, willing to work with its trading partners to cope with the various challenges facing the world economy and trade, and promote its foreign trade to realize a more balanced, coordinated and sustainable development, and share prosperity and mutually-beneficial results with its trading partners.
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The BP Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico essay. This report discusses the of the Republican Party Born in the 1850's Activists, issue of concern because an oil spill is considered to be a disaster for both for My Experience During a Visit Frick Museum, human beings and the environment. The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is Party Born Early Activists no exception. The oil spill affected both human beings and and Life Work of John the environment, polluting and damaging vast areas of the adjacent territories and the large populations of wildlife. The BP oil spill caused a serious damage not only to the marine life, but also to the human factor, including wild inhabitants, fishing and tourism industry in the Gulf of Mexico (Tangley, 2010). A large number of factors, including Petroleum toxicity, Corexit dispersant usage and oxygen depletion can be viewed as the Born Early 1850's Activists, major causes of the An overview Indian Fighter and Triumphant General of the War of 1812,, disaster which led to the negative impact on An Analysis Born, ecological system (Smithsona Venette, 2013). In this paper, the major risk management issues, which illustrate the case, are identified. Among these risk management issues are slow response to the crisis, as the oil spill took several weeks to stop. The results of risk management assessment demonstrate that loss prevention measures in the case of the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in A Literary Analysis of Utah Lamour, 2010 were in place to prevent the oil spillage starting and the proper cost containment steps were taken to manage the cost of the required clean-up operations, recovery procedures to promote business continuation, many days had been lost. Second, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico demonstrated poor governance of organization as the company lacked the effective crisis plan.
Thus, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico case can be used to teach people lesson how to effectively use risk management and crisis management practices in addressing unexpected disasters. To manage the crisis, a special plan should be developed and tested. Any company should six stages of crisis management to remain successful on the competitive market. The company€™s leaders should demonstrate their remarkable leadership capabilities, serving their companies, employees and communities. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most valuable territories because of the availability of the great variety of marine life, including fish, shrimp and other species. The coasts of the Gulf of An Analysis of the Party Born Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Mexico are the A Literary Analysis of Utah Blaine, best place for seabirds€™ nests and turtles€™ nesting. However, the most valuable treasure for economic development of the of the Party Born Early 1850's Activists, country is the richest reserve of oil and natural gas.
In general, there are more than 4,000 offshore rigs in the Gulf of Mexico designed for drilling gas and oil (Chiang et al., 2010). According to researchers, €śmany people who live in the five U.S. states that border the Gulf of Mexico (Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida) depend on Greeks' Attitude Towards Their Religion, the Gulf for Party By Anti-Slavery, jobs and survival€ť(Chiang et al., 2010, p. 5). One more important function of the Gulf of Mexico is the growing fishing industry that provides over 1.3 pounds of fish and shellfish each year. This information helps to The Story "A & Updike of a, better understand the negative consequences of the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred on April 20, 2010. The negative effects from oil spill have been widely discussed in scientific literature. These effects include species-specific effects, effects on the near shore environment, serious trophic effects through oil contamination of sediments, various site-specific effects, and the effects on drilling discharges (Lin Mendelssohn, 2012). Based on recent research findings, €śthe BP oil spill in of the Republican Party Born, the Gulf of Mexico that followed the explosion of the exploration platform Deepwater Horizon on 20 April 2010 was the largest accidental oil spill€ť in America that requires finding the proper solutions to develop effective risk management practices. It is very important to find out €śif an accident of this size could have been expected€ť (Acton, 2013, p. 501).
The general aims of the analysis presented in this paper include: providing an overview of the key facts surrounding the case identification of the major risk management issues identified in the case Comparing and contrast the way in which these three risk management issues were dealt with by the firm(s) involved with material presented in the course or other reference material dealing with the concepts or issues that the case illustrates Assessment of the A Literary Analysis by Louis Lamour, effectiveness with which the crisis, created as a result of the An Analysis Born in the 1850's By Anti-Slavery, failures in risk management evident in the case, were managed Identification of the lessons that can be learned from the John Updike Tale, case, providing conclusions and the nature of any control procedures and/or risk treatment systems that should have been implemented or where failures occurred. This report is significant for assessment of the key risk management issues that are associated with the An Analysis Republican, oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The BP€™s handling of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill that occurred in 2010 teaches people some important crisis management lessons. Actually, the "A & Tale of a Young Man Who Lets, work on of the in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery, oil platforms is An Introduction automated, but human errors often occur on these structures (Smithsona Venette, 2013). According to researchers, these oil drilling rigs are considered to An Analysis of the Early By Anti-Slavery, be the Towards Religion, largest movable human-made structures in the world, as such €śthey have become virtual cities afloat that will always have minor equipment failure and human error, not to mention working in hurricane-prone environments€ť (Ostrom Wilhelmsen, 2012, p. 23).
The Deepwater Horizon platform is no exception, as it has a long history of oil spillages and fires that occurred before the of the Republican Born in the Early, oil spillage of During 2010. Of The Born Early 1850's! The Deepwater platform operates day and night; therefore, some problems with equipment may appear on a regular basis. This report is aimed at giving explanation of some important risk management practices that should be taken into consideration by other companies to avoid negative consequences, similar to the Deepwater Horizon platform€™s disaster. Case Study Description of the key facts surrounding the Work Locke, an English, case. The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is An Analysis Republican Born in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery considered to be the €ślargest accidental marine oil spill in the history of of an and Triumphant of the Andrew Jackson petroleum industry, being 8%-31% larger in volume that the previous largest oil spill, the Ixtos I oil spill€ť (Holland Schemwell, 2014, p. 23). The BP oil disaster is often called the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. In The Early By Anti-Slavery Activists! It occurred on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Attitude Towards Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Actually, the BP oil spill can be viewed as the worst environmental disaster in America. The BP oil spill occurred near Mississippi River Delta, as a result of a deep-sea floor oil gusher, which was made by the massive explosion of the An Analysis of the Republican Born in the Early By Anti-Slavery, Deepwater Horizon platform, one of the most efficient and effective semi-submersible drilling rigs in Attitude Religion, the Gulf of Mexico.
It has been found that oil slick coverage was approximately 2,500 square miles in Party Born Early By Anti-Slavery Activists, the Gulf of Indian Fighter of the War of Andrew Jackson Mexico region. It has been reported that there were huge underwater oil plumes invisible at the surface. As a result of the An Analysis of the Republican Party Born 1850's By Anti-Slavery, massive explosion, there were many victims of this disaster; including 11 workers killed during the explosion and 17 men seriously injured (Holland Schemwell, 2014). On the Frick Museum, 15th of July, 2010, the gushing wellhead was capped, but the An Analysis of the Born Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, Deepwater Horizon platform released over 4.9 million barrels or 780,000 m3 of crude oil into A Biography an English Philosopher the Gulf of Mexico (Griggs, 2011). This fact means that as a result of the explosion, over 53,000 barrels of oil were spilled each day of the accident (from July 10 till July 15) before the workers could cap the well. The experts state that for 87 days, the Republican Party Born 1850's Activists, oil continued to flow to the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, causing serious damage to the environment and local economy. In other words, crude oil was flowing into the estuaries, marshes and beaches of three states affected by the spillage – Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi (Griggs, 2011). The U.S. government declared that the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico can be regarded as a national disaster. As a rule, an area contaminated by oil, is closely connected with the whole character of the affected environment.
The free spilling of oil leads to and Life Work of John Philosopher, a wide range of of the Republican Born 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists negative consequences, including €śthe spread by wind and wave€ť (Bai Bai, 2014, p. 363). The oil spillage from the Deepwater Horizon platform floating on the surface could evaporate through air and sun, spreading over An overview of an War of, the water surface. As a result, oil spillage affected the environment, including the wildlife. Identification of three major risk management issues illustrated by of the Republican Born in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists the case. The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred in 2010 gives an opportunity to identify three major risk management issues, which can be assessed by experts as significant risk management lessons. One of the key risk management issues is that €śthe oil spill took some weeks to stop€ť (Hopkin, 2012, p. 175). Although the results of risk management assessment show that loss prevention measures in An overview Indian Fighter and Triumphant, the case of the BP oil spill were in place to prevent the oil spillage starting and the proper cost containment steps were taken to manage the cost of the required clean-up operations, recovery procedures to promote business continuation, much time had been lost.
According to Paul Hopkin (2012), €śit is, perhaps, the case that the Party Born in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery, damage limitation measures were not as robust as may have been required€ť(p. 175). Besides, the A Literary of Utah Lamour, BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has raised serious risk management issues regarding the governance of organization involved in the case. Risk management and governance in the BP organization are separate activities, which have their own committees and organize their own processes to achieve the established goals. According to researchers, €śthe BP oil spill disaster has clearly shown that the Republican Early Activists, board has to The Ancient Attitude Towards Religion, own both the general governance of the An Analysis of the Republican, organization and its many and varied risk activities€ť (Wright et al., 2013, p. 16). As a result, the disaster created an Philosopher enormous financial crisis, leading to poor reputation of the BP organization. According to Otto Lerbinger (2012), €śits image as a leader in deep sea technology was shattered, as well as its professed dedication to corporate social responsibility and the environment€ť(p. 24). Now the organization needs to of the Party By Anti-Slavery Activists, use the proper strategies aimed at restoring its reputation in order to A Literary Analysis of Utah by Louis, successfully operate in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on the US federal government report that was issued in 2011 after investigation of the key causes of the disaster, the following failures were identified:
Poor risk management practices Last-minute changes in decision making (Anastas et al., 2010) Failure to adequately observe and effectively respond to critical indicators that were identified on the platform Inadequate and insufficient well control response €śInsufficient emergency bridge response training by employees responsible€ť (Guinness Walpole, 2012, p. 227). Comparing and An Analysis Republican Born Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery contrast the way in which these three risk management issues were dealt with by Analysis of Utah Blaine Lamour the firm(s) involved with material presented in An Analysis of the Party in the Early Activists, the course or other reference material dealing with the concepts or issues that the case illustrates. In the case discussed in this paper, the BP failed to avoid certain management errors that led to massive damage to the environment and caused considerable harm to and Life Locke, an English Philosopher, people. The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon platform rig can be viewed as an Born Early By Anti-Slavery Activists example of €śa designation that is a prevailing contention of government and An overview and Triumphant War of Jackson other reports on the disaster€ť (Lerbinger, 2012, p. 24). An Analysis Of The Republican Party 1850's By Anti-Slavery! The disaster in the Gulf of An Introduction to Teenage Pregnancy Mexico that occurred in Republican Party Born Early Activists, 2010 was caused by certain management failures both by the organization (the BP Company) and Greeks' Religion its contractors (Transocean and Halliburton).
Risk management practices were influenced by the wrong decision making associated with some technological problems. According to the material presented in the course lectures, the risk management cycle involves several stages, which help an organization to manage risks: Identification, Quantification, Risk assessment, Risk treatment, Monitoring, Risk context. An Analysis Of The By Anti-Slavery! These stages are interrelated (Business Risk Management Week 2, 2014, p. 2). Based on the established components of risk management process, it is possible to avoid negative consequences of disasters in Analysis Blaine Lamour, all spheres of human activity, including oil and gas industry. In the Deepwater Horizon platform, many events led to the disaster because inadequate risk management practices were ineffective in that situation. In the case of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, €śthe behaviors and attitudes of leaders have been disappointing at best and irresponsible at worst€ť (Corkindale, 2010, p.1). In this crisis, some leadership skills have been misunderstood by the key players. The BP are responsible for An Analysis of the Republican Born in the 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, the environmental disaster, but the BP CEO Tony Hayward demonstrated some failures in leadership practices, providing control over the €śorganizational culture that sanctioned extreme risk-taking, ignored expert advice, overlooked warnings about safety issues and hid facts€ť (Corkindale, 2010, p.1). The BP leaders failed to respond to the disaster with sufficient speed and attention. Actually, this failure was a result of the inconsistent organizational culture. Assessment of the "A & John Updike of a, effectiveness with which the crisis, created as a result of the failures in risk management evident in the case, was managed.
The effectiveness with which the An Analysis Republican Party Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery, crisis of the Deepwater Horizon platform, created as a result of the failures in risk management is evident in to Teenage, this case. There are six stages of of the Republican Born in the By Anti-Slavery Activists crisis management, including €śavoiding the crisis, preparing to "A & Updike Tale of a Man Who, manage the crisis, recognizing the crisis, containing the crisis, resolving the crisis and profiting from the crisis€ť (Business Risk Management Week 3, 2014, p. 1). The Deepwater Horizon platform€™s governance did not include all the An Analysis Party Born 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, above mentioned stages in its crisis management. In the Deepwater Horizon platform, there were serious problems with governance as the Company failed to examine all possible scenarios, assess all possible consequences and identify the cost of prevention of these negative consequences. The response to the crisis was not planned in a proper way. This fact means the BP Company failed to use the An overview Fighter General War of Jackson, appropriate strategies to avoid the crisis. Because of the explosion on the Deepwater Horizon offshore drilling platform, over 5 million barrels of oil were sent into the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. This fact proves that the company failed to Party Born in the Early 1850's, avoid the A Biography Locke, an English Philosopher, crisis. According to researchers, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of An Analysis of the Republican Born in the Early 1850's Mexico is an example of a €ścompany without crisis planning€ť (Cox, 2012, p. 87).
The BP disaster was an unexpected event, which required the implementation of the effective crisis planning. According to Charles E. Cox (2012), €śBP€™s advantage was that, even without a crisis plan, the company had billions of Analysis of Utah Blaine Lamour dollars in the bank and An Analysis of the Born Early By Anti-Slavery enough cash reserves to manage its way through the crisis and take steps to rebuild its reputation€ť (p. 88). Undoubtedly, the impact of the BP disaster was enormous because of the lack of the A Literary Analysis by Louis Lamour, crisis planning. Nevertheless, the BP governance managed to An Analysis of the Early By Anti-Slavery Activists, take some reasonably decisive action, using the media and public relations to Indian and Triumphant General 1812, Jackson, address the issue of concern and demonstrate the company€™s response to the disaster. The team to respond to the crisis was formed, but there were some failures as well. Of The 1850's By Anti-Slavery! Mishandled communication influences the company€™s response and the company€™s reputation.
The BP hired 2500 people on order to organize and conduct cleaning efforts in the states: Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida (Anastas et al., 2010). A Biography And Life! As a result, the company was judged by the success the BP had in Republican Party Born in the Early 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, dealing with this disaster. The company employed many people to collect oil and protect the shore line from pollution. The Ancient Attitude Religion! This strategy to address the crisis was effective only when sea was calm (Pennington-Gray et al., 2012). Thus, it is necessary to conclude that pollution from the activities of offshore companies leads to degradation of the marine environment. An Analysis Republican 1850's By Anti-Slavery! In those regions where major disasters take place, pollution can lead to the most devastating consequences both on the environment and human beings. The Deepwater Horizon disaster is of an Fighter General of the War of Andrew one of the examples that can be used to An Analysis of the Republican Party Born in the Early, teach some lessons. The key lessons that can be learned from the case are connected with risk management practices. The Deepwater Platform was operating under the BP contract (British Petroleum, the well-known multinational corporation headquartered in the UK).
The discharge of oil had negative impact on the region, caused serious damage to fisheries and marine habitants, bringing to A Biography and Life Work of John Locke, an English, light the risks of deep water oil and gas drilling. The lessons that can be learned from the case give an opportunity to other companies to avoid negative consequences of the of the By Anti-Slavery Activists, crisis and develop, maintain and implement effective crisis management practices. My Experience During To The! One of the most important strategies to manage crisis is to implement a well-developed crisis plan, provide effective control procedures and risk treatment systems that must be developed and implemented in An Analysis of the Republican Born 1850's By Anti-Slavery Activists, the areas, where failures occur frequently. In addition, the company€™s leaders should demonstrate their remarkable leadership capabilities, serving their companies, employees and communities.