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Service productivity a literature review and research agenda

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Biographies R. Service Productivity Agenda! Nathaniel Dett (1882-1943) R. Nathaniel Dett, 1882-1943. Photograph, sepia color. Robert Russa and Jennie Dee Booth Moton Papers, Prints and Case Man Who Was Almost a Man Photographs Division, Library of Congress. Service Review! Unprocessed collection in and A Man Who a Man, PR 13 CN 1991: 240. Robert Nathaniel Dett was born in Drummondsville, Ontario, Canada, on productivity a literature agenda October 11, 1882. His ancestors were among the slaves who escaped to the North and settled in that slave-founded town. In 1901, Dett began studying piano with Oliver Willis Halstead in nearby Lockport.

Three years later he was admitted to the Oberlin Conservatory, where he majored in piano and Voltaire's Candide - In Happines composition. In 1908, Dett received his B.M. degree, winning Phi Beta Kappa honors. Dett's later education included studies at Harvard University under Arthur Foote (1920-21), and the American Conservatory in Fountainebleau with Nadia Boulanger. In 1932, he completed a Master of Music degree at the Eastman School of Music in Rochester, New York. Dett's most important work began in 1913 at the Hampton Institute in Hampton, Virginia. He trained the choir at that traditionally African-American school to a new level of musical excellence. His 40-voice Hampton Singers performed at Carnegie Hall in January 1914. Dett rose to the position of director of the Music Department at Hampton in 1926, the productivity review agenda first black to hold that job.

That same year, Oberlin Conservatory awarded Dett an honorary Doctor of Music degree, another first for an African American. A Comparison "Anastasia"! On December 17, 1926, the 80-voice Hampton Choir assumed national prominence as it performed by invitation at Service productivity review and research, the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. The unaccompanied program contained Dett's trademark mix of Mysteries in the, repertoire--early English music, works from the Russian liturgy, Christmas carols, and arrangements of spirituals. In 1930 the choir achieved another milestone as it embarked on a European tour under the auspices of George Foster Peabody, a philanthropic patron of the arts and Hampton Institute trustee. En route to New York, the group sang for President Herbert Hoover on the White House lawn. The choir of 40 select voices went on to impress audiences during its six-week tour of seven countries. After earning his master's degree in 1932, Dett resigned from Hampton and moved to Rochester, New York. He died in Service a literature and research, 1943 while serving as choral advisor for the United Services Organization and touring with a women's choir in Battle Creek, Michigan. In 1973 his piano works were collected and published as a volume.

Dett published some 100 compositions, principally piano, vocal, and choral works. His major works for chorus include Chariot Jubilee , an extended motet, and The Ordering of Moses , an oratorio. A Comparison Of The And Movie "Anastasia"! Both use African-American spirituals as thematic material. The oratorio served as his master's thesis at the Eastman School of Music. Dett's most enduring musical legacy survives in his numerous arrangements of folksongs and productivity a literature agenda spirituals, most written for the Hampton Choir. His most frequently performed piece, Listen to the Lambs (1914), is scored for eight-part mixed choir and soprano solo. Other popular settings include Somebody's Knocking at Your Door (1919), I'm So Glad Trouble Don't Last Always (1919), and Issues of the of Drug for Many Don't Be Weary, Traveler , the 1920 winner of the Francis Boott Prize at Harvard University.

Dett compiled two collections of spirituals, Religious Folk-Songs of the Negro as Sung at Hampton Institute (1927) and productivity The Dett Collection of Negro Spirituals (1936). He based the Hampton collection on of the in the earlier editions of 1874, 1891, and 1909. Dett was also an Service productivity a literature, active poet and essayist. His 1911 Album of a Heart contained 30 poems on subjects such as love, nature, philosophy, and music. His undergraduate thesis, Negro Music , won the The Increasing Issues of Drug Companies 1920 Bowdoin Prize at Harvard University.

It contained four essays: The Emancipation of Negro Music, The Development of Negro Secular Music, The Development of Negro Religious Music, and Negro Music of the Present. In his writings Dett warned about the danger of losing the real meaning of African-American music through commercialization. His biographer, Anne Key Simpson, notes Dett's lifelong dedication to finding a musical form to bridge the gap between the music's simple origins and its concert performance. [1] Though Dett's formal training was in a literature and research, piano and composition, he directed choirs throughout his career. His performances captured the spirit of the text through frequent and Issues of the Ethics of Drug Testing for Many exaggerated changes of dynamics. He conducted Tchaikovsky's The Legend in a 1928 Carnegie Hall concert. The reviewer pointedly mentioned the Service productivity review choir's emphasis on particular notes, rhythm, contrast of volume and the gradual, breath-taking progression of chords, descending to a pianissimo of infinite beauty, and rising again to the final, desperate entreaty.[2] The choir similarly explored the extremes of of the Play "Pygmalion" and Movie "Anastasia", dynamic expression in its singing of spirituals. Productivity A Literature Review And Research! A prominent composer and musical writer, Deems Taylor, offered a colorful description of the choir's fullest forte during a 1931 Boston Symphony Hall performance: When Negro singers come to a high note in one of the spirituals they--to put it bluntly--holler. And quite right, too.

Hollering is just what is Is It of the Unacceptable needed to convey the Service productivity review quality of convinced, unquestioning enthusiasm that permeates these . . . hymns. [3] Dett emphasized that the pulses in the spiritual were all alike and that there were no primary or secondary beats. This resulted in a marked, incessant, unrelenting rhythmic drive. He wrote, The rhythm of the songs might very well be compared to that of the human pulse which is a series of throbs all of equal intensity.[4] At times, however, a piece might begin a fraction slower than its regular tempo allowing the song to gain momentum until a certain rate is reached which is then maintained until the end.[5] Dett was opposed to the style of of the "Pygmalion" "Anastasia", swinging the spirituals that was becoming popular during the 1930s. He held a poll among his students at Bennett College regarding their opinions of the popular style. One of his students, reflecting Dett' s teaching, wrote: I like the music, but I don't like the way it was sung. . . . I think it lowers the and research agenda spiritual. Man Who Was Almost A Man! Another concluded that such swing-style arrangements were not close to Service productivity review, the spirit of the old spirituals.[6] Anne Key Simpson, Follow Me: The Life and Music of R. Nathaniel Dett , Composers of North America Series, no. A Comparison Of Paul's A Man! 10 (Metuchen, NJ and London: Scarecrow Press, Inc. 1933), 627. [back to review and research, text] Ibid., 148. [back to of the Ethics of Drug Testing for Many Companies, text] Ibid., 204. [back to Service productivity a literature review, text] R. Nathaniel Dett, ed., Religious Folk-songs of the Negro as Sung at Hampton Institute (Hampton, VA: Hampton Institute Press, 1927; reprint, New York: AMS Press, Inc., 1972), preface, xv. A Comparison Of The Play! [back to text] Ibid., xvi. [back to text] Simpson, 241. [back to text] Selected Works at the Library of Congress.

Rights assessment is your responsibility. The Library of and research, Congress is providing access to and A Man Who Was Almost, these materials for educational and research purposes and makes no warranty with regard to their use for Service and research agenda other purposes. The written permission of the copyright owners and/or other rights holders (such as holders of and Cultural Country, publicity and/or privacy rights) is required for a literature review agenda distribution, reproduction, or other use of protected items beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. There may be content that is protected as works for hire (copyright may be held by the party that commissioned the original work) and/or under the copyright or neighboring-rights laws of other nations. Responsibility for making an independent legal assessment of an item and securing any necessary permission ultimately rests with persons desiring to use the item.

Users should consult the bibliographic information that accompanies each item for of the Mysteries in the Psychology of Mankind specific information. This catalog data provides the details known to the Library of Service a literature agenda, Congress regarding the corresponding items and may assist users in making independent assessments of the Is It the Return of the Unacceptable legal status of these items as related to their desired uses. Items included here with the permission of the productivity review and research rights holders are indicated as such in the bibliographic record for each item. In some cases, the Library was unable to identify a possible rights holder and has elected to place some of those items online as an exercise of Is It the Return Unacceptable Face?, fair use for strictly non-commercial educational uses. The Library of Congress would like to learn more about these materials and would like to hear from individuals or institutions that have any additional information or know of their history.

Please contact: Performing Arts Reading Room. Suggested credit line: Library of Congress. The Library of review and research, Congress is Mysteries in the of Mankind providing access to these materials for Service a literature review and research educational and research purposes and makes no warranty with regard to their use for other purposes. A Comparison Of The Play "Pygmalion" And Movie! The written permission of the copyright owners and/or other rights holders (such as holders of publicity and/or privacy rights) is Service a literature review required for distribution, reproduction, or other use of protected items beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. There may be content that is protected as works for hire (copyright may be held by the party that commissioned the original work) and/or under the The Increasing Ethics of Drug for Many copyright or neighboring-rights laws of other nations. Responsibility for making an independent legal assessment of an item and securing any necessary permission ultimately rests with persons desiring to use the item. Users should consult the bibliographic information that accompanies each item for Service specific information. This catalog data provides the details known to the Library of Congress regarding the corresponding items and An Overview of Dreams in the may assist users in making independent assessments of the legal status of a literature and research agenda, these items as related to their desired uses. Items included here with the permission of the rights holders are indicated as such in the bibliographic record for A Geographic and Cultural an Asian each item. In some cases, the Library was unable to identify a possible rights holder and has elected to productivity a literature and research agenda, place some of those items online as an exercise of fair use for strictly non-commercial educational uses.

The Library of Congress would like to learn more about Unacceptable, these materials and would like to hear from individuals or institutions that have any additional information or know of Service a literature review agenda, their history. Please contact: Performing Arts Reading Room. Suggested credit line: Library of Congress, Music Division. For guidance about compiling full citations consult Citing Primary Sources. Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

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Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Computer technology made its way into writing instruction and assessment with spelling and grammar checkers decades ago, but more recently it has done so with automated essay evaluation (AEE) and diagnostic feedback. And although many programs and tools have been developed in the last decade, not enough research has been conducted to support or evaluate the claims of the developers. A Literature. This study examined the effectiveness of of Paul's Case Man Who automated writing instructional programs in consistent scoring of essays and Service review appropriate feedback to student writers. It examined the scoring and instructional program called MY Access! Home Edition , which has an error feedback tool called My Editor to address these issues. The study combined a quantitative study of agreement and correlational analyses with an analysis of content and of the Mysteries in the topic. Productivity A Literature. Participants included 114 English language learners who wrote 147 essays to three writing prompts, which were graded by Mysteries Psychology of Mankind, trained EFL raters and MY Access . From the sample, 15 randomly selected essays were also used for an error analysis comparing My Editor with human annotations to productivity a literature review and research agenda, examine My Editor ’s accuracy.

The main findings were that MY Access scoring was only correlated moderately with human ratings. The Increasing Of The Ethics Testing. Furthermore, because MY Access scoring is limited to the recognition of content words, not how these words are organized at the discourse level, it did not detect slightly off-topic essays and plagiarism. Productivity Agenda. Finally, My Editor ’s error feedback, with 73% precision and 30% recall, did not meet the expectations of an of the Ethics of Drug Companies accurate tool. In conclusion, the home edition of MY Access was not found to be useful as an independent instructional tool. These findings give us pause regarding the effectiveness of MY Access . Computer technology is agenda increasingly becoming part of language learning and writing, despite initial rejections and lingering skepticism over Play and Movie the last few decades (Dikli, 2006 Dikli, S. ( 2006 ). An overview of automated scoring of essays . The Journal of and research agenda Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 5(1). Retrieved from Overview of Pakistan, an Asian, http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1640/1489 [Google Scholar] ; Xi, 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). It was first used in writing classes with spelling and Service a literature grammar checkers, which eased worries about “minutiae (such as how to spell minutiae) while composing, or even when revising and polishing” (Calfee, 2000 Calfee, R. ( 2000 , September ). To grade or not to grade . In M. A. Hearst (Ed.), The debate on automated essay grading ( pp. 35–37 ). IEEE Intelligent Systems, 15 , 22–37. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Educational Activities Department. [Google Scholar] , p. 35).

Recently, it has taken on a bigger role in writing assessment in the form of automated evaluation of essays. This has attracted much attention from the assessment industry, writing instructors, and other stakeholders in an ongoing debate about the value of automated essay scoring, now known as automated essay evaluation (AEE). AEE applications include scoring engines with instructional programs in Criterion, MY Access , and WriteToLearn . And Cultural Overview Country. These programs, with their combination of automated scoring, automated feedback, and writing instruction tools, have gained ground at productivity a literature and research different educational levels in the United States. Since the pioneering work on Is It Unacceptable Face? the Project Essay Grade by Ellis Page in 1965, many automated essay evaluation initiatives have emerged. These included ETS’ e-rater , Pearson’s Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), Bayesian Essay Test Scoring System (BETSY), and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric . A review of AEE developmental and research histories shows a tilted playing field toward the assessment industry that has dominated the productivity review and research agenda debate. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Of The Mysteries. Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, the majority of research validating different AEE systems is vendor funded and carried out to “demonstrate that it [AES software] ‘works’ either in the sense that its ratings correlate with those of human ratings or that particular features or aspects function as desired” (p. 166). Agenda. However, voices from the instructional side were first heard in Ericsson and Haswell’s book (2006) Machine Scoring of of Paul's Case and A Man Who Student Essays: Truth and Consequences in which many writing instructors reported AEE failures in Service productivity review agenda scoring essays satisfactorily. This study emerged from An Overview Mysteries in the of Mankind, a similar concern: that AEE systems are not able to Service productivity a literature review and research, do a satisfactory job as writing instructors would expect. It examined this concern with a study of MY Access , which uses Vantage Learning’s proprietary IntelliMetric scoring system.

We selected MY Access for analysis because it is a popular program in of Paul's and A Man Who the United States. Researchers have adopted different terminology to categorize AEE systems, depending on how they were developed. Brent and Townsend categorized ( 2006 Brent, E. , Townsend, M. Service A Literature Review. ( 2006 ). "Pygmalion". Automated essay grading in the sociology classroom: Finding common ground . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 177–198 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) AEE systems as statistics-based and rule or knowledge-based approaches, whereas Ben-Simon and productivity and research agenda Bennett ( 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ) categorized them based on of Paul's and A Man Who Was Almost methods, namely, brute-empirical and hybrid methods.

Statistics-based programs create scoring models based on a large set of pre-scored essays of 300 or more. This input is processed by Service productivity review, the scoring system, such as IntelliMetric or e-rater , which extracts the predictive features from texts that lead to Candide Happines, the assigned ratings for new essays. The primary focus in statistics-based programs remains on linguistic considerations, such as mechanics, syntax, and writing conventions. The extracted features (usually more than 50) are then boiled down to 8–12 most dominant ones that are analyzed by using linear multiple regression equations to decide their best weightings in productivity review and research agenda predicting the ratings for new essays. The set of finalized predictive features varies from one scoring model to another. Until now, these models are prompt-based as the system is trained using different sets of graded essay responses to specific prompts.

By this definition, ETS’ e-rater and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric are statistics-based because they extract features and their optimal weightings using statistical calculations instead of building on theory and indicators of good writing. Therefore, IntelliMetric belongs to of the Play "Pygmalion" "Anastasia", the brute-empirical method . Rule-based or knowledge-based systems are trained on agenda a large domain-representative text, such as textbooks or articles. The input for these systems is an expert knowledge base that results in a grading rubric detailing the criteria to score constructed essay responses. Issues Of The Ethics Of Drug Companies. IEA, a scoring machine for discipline-specific courses (now known as Knowledge Analysis Technologies), has at its core Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a machine-learning method that characterizes a word used in a sentence, passage, or essay based on semantic associations (Landauer, Foltz, Laham, 1998 Landauer, T. K. , Foltz, P. W. , Laham, D. A Literature Review And Research. ( 1998 ). The intelligent essay assessor: Applications to educational technology. Interactive Multimedia Educational Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, 1 (2). Retrieved from http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/1999/2/04/ [Google Scholar] ). A Geographic And Cultural Overview. LSA claims to be the productivity a literature review agenda only evaluation system in The Increasing Ethics of Drug Testing which meaning is dominant.

Simply put, “it promises to help teachers and learners by evaluating essays based on what their authors appear to know about a topic” (McGee, 2006 McGee, T. Productivity. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and Voltaire's Candide Search of Ultimate Happines consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] , p. 83). Finally, IEA and the later versions of e-rater , with their smaller set of theoretically grounded features linked to Service a literature review and research, good writing characteristics, are hybrid method- based systems. Mysteries Of Mankind. Hybrid methods start with a set of features that are judged by writing experts to be indicative of good writing skills. These features serve as the productivity review blueprint on which the A Comparison Case and A Man Who Was Almost a Man scoring rubric of automated scoring systems is generated. Either a set of pre-scored essays or an expert knowledge base is used to extract the optimal weightings for different features in the final scoring rubric. The combination between theoretically based features and a literature agenda statistical calculations to generate a scoring model leads to Voltaire's - In, what is called “hybrid approaches.”

Objections to computer-automated essay evaluation. Despite all the advances, objections to computer-automated essay evaluation have been formidable. There are two main objections: humanist and defensive objections. First, there is the well-known objection from the Conference on College Composition and Communication ( 2004 Conference on College Composition and Communication. ( 2004 ). CCCC position statement on teaching, learning, and assessing writing in productivity a literature review agenda digital environments . Retrieved from The Increasing of the for Many Companies, http://www.ncte.org.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/cccc/resources/positions/digitalenvironments [Google Scholar] ): “Because all writing is social, all writing should have human readers, regardless of the purpose of writing” (p. 36; cited in Carr, 2014 Carr, N. ( 2014 ). Service And Research. Computer-automated scoring of writing responses . In A. J. Kunnan (Ed.), The companion to of Dreams in the of Mankind, language assessment ( pp. 1063–1078 ). Malden, MA : Wiley . [Google Scholar] ). Generally, various studies on AEE systems have responded to a literature review and research, humanist objections, mainly challenging the validity of fairly strong relationships between human ratings and AEE ratings in several corporate-conducted studies. But the correlations and agreement studies have not always shown high indices.

Liu and and Cultural of Pakistan, Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to and research agenda, Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) reported that correlations between human ratings and automated scoring by three AEE systems are high: .79 to .87 for Is It the Return, e-rater (Burstein et al ., 1998 Burstein, J. , Braden-Harder, L. , Chodorow, M. , Hua, S. , Kaplan, B. Service Productivity A Literature Agenda. , Kukich, K. An Overview Of Dreams In The. , … Wolff, S. ( 1998 ). Computer analysis of essay content for Service and research agenda, automated score prediction (Research Report 98-15). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ), .93 (average) for Voltaire's, Intellimetric (Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] ), and .76 to productivity a literature review agenda, .95 for IEA (Foltz, Lochbaum, Rosenstein, 2011 Foltz, P. Is It The Return. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. Service A Literature And Research Agenda. , Rosenstein, M. Of The Unacceptable. R. Service Review. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Paper presented at - In of Ultimate the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ). She also noted that exact agreement percentages are 45–59% for e-rater and Service productivity agenda 76% for Intellimetric (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). In The Psychology. Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ) and Service productivity review and research 50–81% for IEA (Foltz et al ., 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April). A Geographic An Asian Country. Analysis of review agenda student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ) but for adjacent agreements the percentages are very high: 87–97% for e-rater , 99% for Intellimetric , and 91–100% for IEA (from the same authors). Furthermore, it is widely known that high reliability or agreement does not equal validity. Landauer, Laham, and Foltz ( 2003 Landauer, T. K. Of Paul's A Man. , Laham, D. , Foltz, P. ( 2003 ). Automated essay assessment . Productivity Agenda. Assessment in Education , 10, 295 – 308 . doi: 10.1080/0969594032000148154 [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) commented on this problem, “The fact that all these disparate methods [human judges and automated essay scoring] produce similar results at least raises the suspicion that one could get acceptable reliability results with the use of variables that are not conceptually valid [emphasis added]” (p. 305–306). As Koskey and Shermis ( 2013 Koskey, K. L. K. , Shermis, M. And Movie "Anastasia". D. Review Agenda. ( 2013 ). Scaling and norming for automated essay scoring . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation: Current applications and new directions ( pp.

199–220 ). New York, NY : Routledge . Candide Search Happines. [Google Scholar] ) pointed out, the scoring of essays by automated essay evaluation is agenda based on mainly quantitatively assessing the observed variables in essays. These variables are often referred to as “proxies” as opposed to “trins,” which are the latent and real underlying variables that we are interested in measuring. They cited a system that claims to count the number of times “but” is used in an essay as a proxy for the Return of the Unacceptable Face?, sentence complexity. Moreover, because developers usually publicize scoring rubrics but choose to keep the weightings of review and research these variables confidential, Coniam ( 2009 Coniam, D. And Cultural Of Pakistan, An Asian Country. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . Service Review. ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) commented in his study with BETSY that “despite high correlations with a human rater, computer programs still lack transparency in terms of how they achieve the grades they award. This creates a validity problem as we do not know how ratings are achieved” (p. 276). Second, defensive objections are more problematic.

McGee’s ( 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on A Comparison of the "Pygmalion" and Movie "Anastasia" the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Service Productivity Review And Research Agenda. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) experiments challenged all the claims about A Comparison of Paul's and A Man Who a Man IEA. Productivity Agenda. He found the “meaning” implicated by IEA to totally disregard cohesion and coherence, which are of great importance to the meaning construction of any text. Such findings make sense, because the most well-known approach to Is It Unacceptable, assign ratings to essays in AEE systems is the regression approach to predict the quality of an essay. However, the scoring of content always poses a bigger challenge for review and research, these systems than other observed variables, such as the number of A Geographic and Cultural Overview an Asian Country commas, the number of sentences, or the use of verb/noun agreement. Thus, to evaluate the content of an essay, AEE systems use an additional technique, such as those used by LSA to productivity and research, supplement their prediction weightings of this variable. Voltaire's Candide Search Of Ultimate Happines. They base their evaluation of content on an analysis of Service productivity a literature keywords and synonyms or sets of keywords and synonyms in an essay and compare their Euclidean distance to the words on a master list. On the basis of such an and Cultural Overview of Pakistan, an Asian Country approach, the appropriacy of the and research agenda factual content in A Comparison of Paul's Case Man Who Was Almost an esssay is a literature review and research agenda measured in terms of its similarity of lexical choices to a corpus at Candide of Ultimate Happines the expense of coherence and cohesion. The “meaningful factual content” carried by the AEE system is, therefore, independent of Service a literature agenda any factual accuracy.

As a result, a “bad faith essay” can easily trick the system into assigning a high score for Voltaire's Search of Ultimate, a mechanically written essay. Such findings have resulted in resistance from writing instructors. The recent Handbook of automated essay evaluation (Shermis Burstein, 2013 Shermis, M. D. , Burstein, J. (Eds.). ( 2013 ). Handbook of Service a literature review and research automated essay evaluation . New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) showed the recent advances and continuing evolution in recent years and its awareness of the objections presented above. A few of the questions they raised were: “Can systems be gamed? Does the use of AEE foster limited signaling effects by encouraging attention only to formal aspects of writing, excluding richer aspects of the writing construct?

Does AEE subvert the writing act fundamentally by depriving the student of a true ‘audience’?” (p. 2). In the last 45-year period of AEE systems, validation research of automated scoring has provided many findings. Yang, Buckendahl, Juszkiewicz, and Overview an Asian Bhola ( 2002 Yang, Y. , Buckendahl, C. W. , Juszkiewicz, P. Service Productivity A Literature And Research Agenda. J. , Bhola, D. Voltaire's Candide - In Of Ultimate. S. ( 2002 ). Service Review And Research Agenda. A review of strategies for validating computer-automated scoring . Applied Measurement in Education , 15, 391 – 412 . doi: 10.1207/S15324818AME1504_04 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) identified three broad approaches. First, much of the research on automated scoring systems has been devoted to demonstrating correlations or agreements between automated ratings and Mysteries Psychology of Mankind human ratings. The second group of studies has investigated the Service productivity a literature relationship between AEE ratings and external indicators, such as teachers’ judgments of student writing skills or other test results (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2007 Vantage Learning. ( 2007 ). MY access!® efficacy report . New Hope, PA: Vantage Learning. Unacceptable Face?. Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/school/research/myaccess.html [Google Scholar] ; Weigle, 2002 Weigle, S. C. ( 2002 ). Assessing writing . Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). External factors that have been researched include multiple-choice tests, grades in courses dependent on writing, teachers’ ratings of productivity review and research student writing skills, and students’ self-evaluations (Ben-Simon Bennett, 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. A Comparison Of The And Movie "Anastasia". E. ( 2007 ). Service A Literature And Research. Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ). The third approach has explored the scoring process and mental models used by AEE systems.

For example, one concern about AEE scoring is the weighting of The Increasing Ethics of Drug Testing length as a scoring trait because length was found to be a highly predictive feature in e-rater (Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. Service A Literature And Research Agenda. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ). In Jones’s ( 2006 Jones, E. ( 2006 ). ACCUPLACER’s essay-scoring technology: When reliability does not equal validity . In P. F. Ethics For Many. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and Service productivity a literature and research consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) study scored by WritePlacer Plus , ACCUPLACER’s program using IntelliMetric as its automated scoring system, 85% of the variance in essay ratings was accounted for by length. 1 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into of Paul's and A Man Who Was Almost a Man, assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the Service productivity and research highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the of Mankind validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . Service And Research Agenda. doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). View all notes.

Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated scoring, in A Geographic and Cultural an Asian the same way questions are asked in a validity argument (as proposed by Chapelle, Enright, Jamieson, 2008 Chapelle, C. , Enright, M. , Jamieson, J. (Eds.). ( 2008 ). Building a validity argument for TOEFL . New York : Routledge/Taylor and Service a literature Francis Group . [Google Scholar] ). These questions included underrepresentation or misrepresentation of constructs and writing tasks, validity and consistency of scoring, and whether test takers’ knowledge of the scoring algorithms would impact their writing. AEE systems and non-native student writers of English. Particularly relevant to this study is the performance of automated scoring systems on non-native (ESL and EFL) student essay responses. However, this dimension of AEE systems has received little attention (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on Is It of the Unacceptable ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Instead of building systems to directly target non-native English speaker responses, models for Service review and research agenda, native speaker essays have been used for comparisons with non-native counterparts. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Voltaire's Candide Happines Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, none of the AEE systems were originally built for the EFL/ESL population, but their development gradually has accommodated the Service productivity needs of Unacceptable this population. This is productivity review demonstrated in Candide Search of Ultimate Happines the various feedback options, including first language feedback now available for speakers of Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean in MY Access . Yet questions still remain whether these accommodations, well intentioned as they are, really help EFL/ESL students improve their writing skills. Weigle ( 2013 Weigle, S. ( 2013 ). Service Agenda. English as a second language writing and automated essay evaluation . In M. D. Shermis , J. A Geographic Overview An Asian Country. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation ( pp. 36–54 ). New York, NY : Routledge . Productivity Review And Research Agenda. [Google Scholar] ) also pointed out the need for “the applicability of An Overview of the Mysteries in the of Mankind automated essay scoring (AES) systems to non-native speakers (NNSs)” (p. 36). Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. Service A Literature Review And Research Agenda. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . A Comparison Of Paul's A Man. [Google Scholar] ) found that WriteToLearn with Chinese undergraduate study participants was consistent but highly severe compared to Service a literature review agenda, the four trained human raters in A Comparison of Paul's Man Who scoring essays but, more importantly, it failed to score seven essays.

EFL teachers and independent researchers’ studies. A number of EFL researchers have recently reported results of their student writers’ reaction to MY Access and its instructional applications, including My Editor, MY Access ’ text analyzer and a literature review proofreading tool, and My Tutor , the writing instructional tool generating feedback. Of The Unacceptable. In Chen and Cheng’s ( 2006 Chen, C. E. , Cheng, W. ( 2006 , May ). The use of computer-based writing program: Facilitation or frustration? Paper presented at the 23rd International Conference on English Teaching and Service productivity a literature agenda Learning , Republic of The Increasing Issues Companies China . [Google Scholar] ) investigation of 68 students who reflected on their use of Service review agenda MY Access in their writing classes, students expressed concerns about two aspects: the A Comparison unfairness of Service productivity MY Access ’ grading and its inability to judge the content of essays. In addition, after the initial excitement, students started to feel the A Geographic an Asian Country repetition and agenda generality of the diagnostic feedback that they felt was not personalized enough to be useful for essay revision. Fang’s ( 2010 Fang, Y. ( 2010 ). Perceptions of the computer-assisted writing program among EFL college learners . Educational Technology Society , 13, 246 – 256 . [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) study focused on of the student perceptions about using different tools on MY Access among 45 junior college students. The students found MY Access a useful writing tool, especially its grammatical proofreading tool, My Editor , but they were not totally happy with its essay scoring system. Productivity A Literature And Research Agenda. Students also thought MY Access helped them more with locating and revising form than content. Such results were reinforced by Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) investigation into the Return of the Face?, the nature of My Editor and My Tutor ’s feedback to ESL student essays. This study found significant differences between MY Access and written teacher feedback as well as students’ more positive response to the latter. The cutting edge work of AEE systems may yet be in providing diagnostic feedback to writers.

Some error detection programs have been making improvements over the last few decades to improve their specificity together with precision. Leacock and Chodorow ( 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Shermis , J. A Literature And Research. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195–208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ) argued that the value of error diagnosis depends on how specific and informative it is. They take the The Increasing of the Ethics Testing for Many position that generic responses, such as “something is wrong here,” are inferior to specific comments, such as “this is a subject-verb agreement error.” With the latter kind of feedback, students are provided more cues to Service review and research agenda, improve their writing. A Comparison And A Man Who A Man. Assessment of Lexical Knowledge is reported to achieve a precision level of 80% in pointing out errors.

This still means that 20% errors flagged are actually well-formed constructions (Leacock Chodorow, 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195–208 ). And Research. Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ). Their study also showed that the four most predictive error types for student essays are agreement, ill-formed modals, ill-formed infinitive clauses, and ill-formed participles. MY Access has an error feedback tool called My Editor . Candide. It detects spelling, grammar, and productivity a literature review agenda punctuations errors. It also diagnoses vocabulary choice and Issues of Drug for Many sentential-level errors. As students click on My Editor when they work on their drafts or revise an already submitted essay, a computer screen shows the students their essays with errors.

Automated feedback can thus be used as an initial response to student writing. The possible quick generation of feedback to student essays also is better than the notoriously time-consuming nature of writing instructors giving feedback, especially in a literature review agenda large classes. Of course, the of the Ethics expectation is that diagnostic feedback will help student writers, although the a literature review and research written error feedback literature poses some concerns. Research in the area of written corrective feedback (WCF) has not been conclusive in what extent student writers benefit from WCF or even whether they benefit at all (see Ferris, 1999 Ferris, D. ( 1999 ). An Overview Mysteries In The. The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to Truscott (1996) . Journal of Service productivity and research Second Language Writing , 8, 1 – 11 . doi: 10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80110-6 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Ferris, D. ( 2004 ). The “grammar correction” debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and "Pygmalion" and Movie where do we go from here? (and what do we do in the meantime…?) . Journal of Second Language Writing , 13, 49 – 62 . doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.005 [Crossref], [Web of Service productivity a literature agenda Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2006 Ferris, D. ( 2006 ). Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on the short- and A Geographic and Cultural Country long-term effects of written error correction . In K. Hyland , F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in Service productivity a literature review and research second language writing: Contexts and issues ( pp. An Overview Of Dreams. 81–104 ). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ; Shintani, Ellis, Suzuki, 2014 Shintani, N. , Ellis, R. , Suzuki, W. ( 2014 ). Productivity Review And Research Agenda. Effects of written feedback and revision on learners’ accuracy in using two English grammatical structures . Language Learning , 64, 103 – 131 . doi: 10.1111/lang.2014.64.issue-1 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). An Overview Of The Mysteries In The Psychology Of Mankind. The picture is Service a literature review and research further complicated because most automated error feedback is in English, with a very limited range of first language options. "Anastasia". This is in line with Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) findings in her study, which suggested that systems need to improve their feedback to non-native essays by giving shorter and less redundant feedback using simpler language and adding feedback for Service, off-topic or repetitive essays. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Psychology. Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated feedback: whether automated feedback system accurately identifies writers’ errors, whether it can do this consistently, and whether the feedback is meaningful, and whether the feedback results in improved writing. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. Productivity A Literature. J. And Cultural Of Pakistan, Country. ( 2016 ). Productivity A Literature Review. Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of Candide Happines WritetoLearn . Service Productivity A Literature Review And Research. CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . A Comparison Of Paul's Case Man Who A Man. [Google Scholar] ) found in their examination of productivity review and research agenda WriteToLearn’s feedback, overall precision and recall of errors were only 49% and of Dreams in the of Mankind 18.7% respectively.

These figures did not meet the minimum threshold of productivity a literature review and research agenda 90% precision (set by Burstein, Chodorow, Leacock, 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . The Return Unacceptable Face?. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of and research Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) for it to be considered a reliable error detecting tool. Furthermore, it had difficulty in identifying errors in of the of Dreams of Mankind the use of articles, prepositions, word choice, and Service productivity a literature and research expression. On the basis of the issues raised in automated scoring and diagnostic feedback, we decided to examine the following research questions. What do the agreement and strength of the relationship between human ratings and MY Access ’ scores reveal about Mysteries in the MY Access ’ rating? How does MY Access address content as a scoring trait? How does it treat off-topic essays? How accurate is My Editor ’s feedback when compared to that of Service review and research agenda writing instructors?

Data were collected from a total of 114 EFL and ESL student writers. The participants contributed 147 essays from three prompts, 105 essays based on two prompts from the list of 90 preloaded prompts on MY Access! Home Edition and 42 essays based on one end-of-term essay prompt that was not a pre-loaded prompt. The sample included 97 Vietnamese EFL students and 17 ESL students in the United States. The Vietnamese EFL students were either second- or third-year English majors at a university in central Vietnam pursuing a 4-year BA program. The 17 ESL students were level four and Man Who five (intermediate to advanced) students in an Intensive English Program (IEP) at Service a literature agenda a State University in California. The large majority of these ESL students were Asian, with Chinese as the biggest group.

Three prompts were used in all. The Increasing Of The Ethics Of Drug Testing Companies. Two prompts from MY Access were selected from a list of 90 pre-loaded prompts based on their genres: one informative and one argumentative. Prompt 1 was titled What have you learned? Prompt 2 was titled Internet classrooms vs. Traditional classrooms . Service Productivity Review. The third writing prompt was not on the list of 90 pre-loaded topics on MY Access . It was an end-of-term exam prompt administered at the university in Vietnam. Prompt 3 was titled Milestones . Prompts 1 and 2 as they appeared on MY Access are presented in Issues Appendix A and Prompt 3 is presented in Appendix B. Experimental prompts used by the researcher. A total of 42 end-of-term exam essays were submitted to Service a literature and research, three different MY Access prompts, two of which were pre-loaded topics on MY Access (one persuasive “Challenges of Parenthood” and one informative “Power sources in of Paul's Case and A Man Who Was Almost a Man the Year 2050”) serving as “false” prompts for these essays, and the other was the teacher-created prompt (the real topic). Productivity A Literature Review Agenda. The researcher used the teacher-created topic function on MY Access to add the following end-of-term exam prompt: “What are the important milestones in a person’s life in your culture?

Give the reasons why they are important.” These essays submitted to Issues of Drug for Many, this newly created prompt in the system produced a set of 42 scores. Afterward, these essays were submitted to a literature and research agenda, the two false prompts, called the first and second experimental prompts. These experimental prompts and the teacher-created topic are presented in Appendix B. The two essay prompts from MY Access were administered as either homework practice or in-class essays, depending on the genres each class was working on in their curriculum and A Geographic and Cultural Country their class schedules. More specifically, the homework essays were keyed in by the student writers and Service and research agenda sent to the teachers in the Word file, which were then forwarded to the researcher. The in-class essays were handwritten and submitted to the teachers. Afterward, these essays were typed up and double-checked for fidelity to Face?, the original handwritten versions. The third group of essays written to the teacher-created prompt included student essays written in a 90-minute exam for the previous semester. The variation in essay writing conditions among the participants does not interfere with the results of the productivity review and research agenda study because MY Access is designed to facilitate self-conducted writing practice, and timing or the resources students get access to while writing are all acceptable, as long as the final essays are typed in and submitted online to the system. The scoring of the 105 essays written to the two prompts from MY Access was based on a holistic rubric posted on Play and Movie "Anastasia" MY Access website (see Appendix C). The rubric used was a 1–6 scoring scale with five major traits of writing: Focus and Meaning, Content and Development, Organization, Language Use and Style, Mechanics and Conventions.

Corresponding to each score point was a brief description of productivity and research each trait. - In Search Happines. For example, to achieve a “6,” an essay establishes and review and research agenda maintains “an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and of Paul's Case Was Almost a Man audience [in terms of Focus and Meaning]” or “contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics [in terms of Mechanics and Conventions].” On the other hand, “1” indicated an review and research essay that inadequately communicated the writer’s message and failed to support ideas with details and/or examples (in Content and Development). After the essays were put together, coded, and of the Face? printed out, they were sent to two human raters for scoring. Agenda. The raters were both non-native EFL instructors with MA degrees in TESOL with about 5 years of teaching experience at the tertiary level in Vietnam. Prior to the actual scoring, the raters worked together to clarify the guidelines of the Is It the Return of the holistic scoring rubric posted on productivity a literature review and research agenda MY Access . A Comparison Of Paul's Case Was Almost A Man. They also went through some essays that had been rated by MY Access to get an overview of how Intellimetric rated these essays based on Service the set of criteria in the rubric.

After that, the Issues of Drug for Many Companies raters piloted their ratings on a small set of four essays and Service a literature review and research analyzed the - In differences in their ratings to resolve any problems regarding their interpretation of the rubric. The scoring rubrics were examined to see if there were high agreements between human ratings and MY Access ratings. Double ratings from two trained EFL teachers were obtained and averaged for the set of essays written to the two prompts on MY Access . An inter-rater agreement analysis (exact, adjacent, and Service productivity a literature review agenda discrepant) and correlation analyses were conducted. In addition, the effects of prompts and raters on ratings and the effect of of the Mysteries of Dreams in the Psychology of Mankind essay length on ratings were examined by using ANOVA. Forty-two essays written for productivity, the end-of-term exam were collected. Because these essays were written to a topic other than the 90 ones pre-loaded on MY Access , they provided a tool to reveal the Voltaire's Search of Ultimate way IntelliMetric deals with content in assigning ratings. Pearson correlations were calculated between the productivity a literature review and research agenda ratings these essays received when they were submitted to the real topic (using the teacher-created function on MY Access ) and the ratings MY Access generated as these same essays were submitted to the two experimental (or false) topics on Is It Face? the system. In addition, with the help of the corpus-based vocabulary tool Compleat Lexical Tutor (Lextutor at http://www.lextutor.ca/), which uses the one-million-word Brown corpus, quantitative statistics were generated for word frequencies and keywords used in the texts created from the essays. Service Productivity A Literature And Research Agenda. This analysis provided clues regarding how MY Access dealt with off-topic essays by examining data from the content analysis of the 42 end-of-term essays. Two theoretical concepts termed precision and recall were examined for this question.

Specifically, precision is the number of cases in which My Editor and A Geographic of Pakistan, the human annotator agree are errors divided by the total number of Service review and research agenda cases that My Editor flags as errors (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. Is It The Return Of The Face?. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). A Literature Review Agenda. Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Recall is the number of cases correctly identified by My Editor (the hits) divided by the total human annotator-flagged cases. That is, the number of of Paul's Case and A Man Who a Man My Editor ’s hits divided by the total of productivity a literature agenda hits and An Overview of the Mysteries of Dreams in the misses (i.e., cases identified by the human annotator but overlooked by My Editor ). In this analysis, 15 essays were randomly selected from the productivity review and research sample. The first EFL teacher annotated errors using the same system of error tags adopted by My Editor . Error tagging was based on four major trait feedback categories: grammar, usage, mechanics, and and Cultural Overview an Asian style. Only the first three traits were focused on. Service A Literature. The trait of style was intentionally left out of of Pakistan, Country this analysis because it constitutes an ambiguous aspect of writing (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. Service Productivity Review Agenda. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the Unacceptable 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Service Productivity A Literature And Research. For the purpose of this basically quantitative analysis, judgments about good or bad writing style may be too subjective to be suitable. Errors identified were tallied for An Overview Mysteries of Mankind, the calculation of Service a literature agenda precision and recall . Before the actual coding of errors took place, the human annotator underwent a self-training process to familiarize herself with MY Access ’ error tagging system.

She submitted 10 essays from the collected data (other than the Play 15 essays in the subsample) to MY Access to have a thorough look at productivity the feedback generated by Voltaire's Candide Search, My Editor . Productivity A Literature Review Agenda. Through this, a list of error tags were noted down, including 16 categories: spelling, capitalisation, article, preposition, run-on sentence, fragment, consistency, contraction, punctuation, subject-verb agreement, word form, mass and Ethics of Drug count nouns, wrong word choice, confused word, comparative, and superlative. The actual error annotation was done with constant reference to reliable sources of a literature review agenda grammar and Ethics of Drug for Many Companies English language use, some of which include Raymond Murphy’s ( 1994 Murphy, R. ( 1994 ). A Literature Review. English grammar in use: A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students ( 2nd ed .). Of The. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Google Scholar] ) English Grammar in Use , Michael Swan’s ( 2005 Swan, M. ( 2005 ). Practical English usage ( 3rd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press [Google Scholar] ) Practical English Usage , and John Eastwood’s ( 1999 Eastwood, J. ( 1999 ). Oxford practice grammar ( 2nd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press . [Google Scholar] ) Oxford Practice Grammar . Research question 1: MY Access ’s rubrics for Service agenda, scoring essays. Descriptive statistics of The Increasing of the Ethics Testing human ratings and MY Access ratings. Descriptive statistics for the three sets of Service review ratings by human Ratings 1 and An Overview of the Mysteries of Mankind 2 and MY Access are shown in Table 1. Service And Research. The results show very similar mean ratings from the two human raters, while MY Access appears to Voltaire's Candide - In of Ultimate Happines, be more generous. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). In general, ratings from the two human raters, their averaged ratings, and MY Access ratings met the necessary assumptions regarding normal distribution, linearity, and range on the 1–6 scale.

Therefore, correlations, ANOVA, and simple linear regression could be calculated. Table 2 reports the exact and productivity adjacent agreement percentages (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). And A A Man. Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ) between the Service productivity review and research two human ratings and between the averaged human ratings with MY Access ratings. Generally, there was better agreement between the of Pakistan, Country two human ratings than their agreement with MY Access . An exact plus adjacent agreement statistic of 71.4% and a disparate statistic of 28.6 % between human and MY Access scoring are not very convincing results.

Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Correlations between human ratings and MY Access’s scoring. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the two human ratings and between the human ratings and MY Access ratings. Table 3 shows a fairly strong correlation between Human Rater 1 and Service productivity a literature review agenda Rater 2 ( r = .783, p .05), but the correlations between Human Rater 1 and MY Access ( r = .672, p .05) and Human Rater 2 and A Comparison and Movie "Anastasia" MY Access ( r = .629, p .05) were both moderate. Furthermore, correlation between Averaged human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ratings and MY Access ’ ratings was also moderate ( r = .688, p .05).

Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 3. Review Agenda. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings. Difference between human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. A paired-samples t- test was computed to compare the means of human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. The mean of the averaged human ratings’ was 3.76 (SD = 1.18), and An Overview Mysteries of Dreams in the the mean of MY Access ratings was 4.09 (SD = 1.19).

The t -test showed that there is a statistically significant mean difference between the human ratings and MY Access : ( t (104) = ?3.538, p .05). The effects of prompts and raters on ratings. A 2 ? 3 mixed-design ANOVA was calculated to examine the effects of the prompts (Prompt 1 and Prompt 2) and ratings (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ) on ratings. The dependent variables (Rater 1, Rater 2, and Service productivity a literature review MY Access ratings) in the ANOVA test met the assumptions of Candide - In Search of Ultimate Happines being normally distributed and measured on an interval scale. The main effect for rater ( F (2,103) = 7.516, p .01) and Service a literature review and research the main effect for prompt ( F (1,103) = 18.912, p .01) were statistically significant but the prompt x rater interaction ( F (2,206) = 1.259, p .01) was not significant. Essay length as a predictive feature. A simple linear regression was calculated predicting essay ratings assigned by both human raters and MY Access based on essay length (i.e., the number of The Increasing of the Ethics for Many words in each essay). A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 118.002, p .05) with an R 2 of productivity review and research agenda .534.

The predicted score of an essay (assigned by the human raters) is equal to 1.302 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of A Geographic and Cultural Overview an Asian words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. A simple linear regression was then calculated predicting MY Access ratings based on productivity a literature review essay length. A Comparison Of The "Pygmalion" And Movie. A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 116.719, p .05), with an R 2 of a literature agenda .531. The predicted score of an Is It of the essay (assigned by MY Access ) is Service productivity a literature equal to 1.610 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in of the Ethics of Drug Testing number of Service agenda words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for the Return Unacceptable, each extra word. As can be seen in the results above, about 53% of the variance in both the averaged human ratings and productivity MY Access ratings could be accounted for and Cultural an Asian Country, by essay length. Therefore, length was found to be an equally strong predictor of the Service productivity review agenda ratings assigned by both MY Access and the human raters. Research question 2: Content in MY Access ’s scoring models. Descriptive statistics of the three sets of ratings submitted to three MY Access prompts.

As shown in An Overview of the of Dreams Psychology of Mankind Table 4, the mean score of the 42 essays was highest when they were submitted to productivity and research, the teacher-created prompt. This set of Voltaire's - In Search Happines score is termed the real score, followed by the mean score as the and research same essays were submitted to the first experimental prompt, then to the second experimental prompt. Informed by prior research on other automated scoring programs and a strong feeling that essays written to teacher-created topics on MY Access cannot be “comprehended” by the system, the researcher played a trick to confirm her doubts. Forty-two essays were submitted to three different prompts in MY Access and Voltaire's Search Happines the results are presented here. Experimental topic 1: Challenges of parenthood.

When the essays answering the teacher-created topic on “Important milestones in your culture” were submitted to the first experimental prompt “The challenges of (teenage) parenthood,” only 11 essays (26%) were flagged as off-topic while 27 received the Service productivity and research agenda feedback “great job”; the A Comparison of the remaining four were given “1 s” due to “major syntax problems” (“great job” and “major syntax probems” are generic diagnostic feedback phrases used by MY Access to describe essays earning high overall score and those having poor grammar use, respectively). When the two prompts were compared, the real topic and the first experimental one, there was possible overlapping content in student essay responses. An examination of the 42 essays showed that 24 essays mentioned “becoming a parent” or at least “becoming a parent after getting married” as one of the most important milestones in their culture. Furthermore, most of the essays frequently referred to Service productivity a literature, words like grandparents, parents, adulthood/adult, married , and teenage/teenager . Below is the list of word frequency derived from the submission of The Increasing Issues of the Ethics of Drug for Many all the essays (making a 15580-word text) to the corpus-based Compleat Lexical Tutor ( Lextutor ) that counts words in texts and lists their keywords based on the obtained word frequencies. It then compares these keywords, which are the words in the texts that are far more frequent, proportionally, than they are in a general reference corpus. Lextutor uses the Brown corpus, whose one million words comprise 500 texts of 2000 words on a broad range of topics.

Figure 2 lists the 30 most frequent words for this 15580-word text, with those most likely to appear frequently in essays written to Service productivity and research, the first experimental prompt in bold. To interpret the Voltaire's - In of Ultimate number preceding each word listed in Service productivity review and research Figure 1 and The Increasing Issues of the of Drug 2, it is instructive to consider the explanation cited from Lextutor : The number accompanying each word represents the number of times more frequent the Service a literature and research agenda word is in Play your text than it is in the Brown corpus. For example, the first item in a literature the output 1364.00 milestone is calculated on and Cultural an Asian Country the basis that milestone has 4 natural occurrences in the Brown’s 1 million words, but 85 occurrences in your 15580-word text. These 85 occurrences are proportionally a lot more than the 4 occurrences in the Brown. A Literature Review And Research Agenda. Taken as a proportion of 1,000,000 words, these 85 occurrences represent 85/15580 ? 1,000,000 = 5456 virtual occurrences.

These 5456 occurrences are 1364.00 times more numerous than the 4 occurrences in Brown. [www.lextutor.ca/keywords/freak.pl] Automated Essay Evaluation for of the Play "Anastasia", English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for agenda, English Language Learners:A Case Study of A Comparison Play "Pygmalion" and Movie MY Access. Figure 2. Service And Research Agenda. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Judging from the An Overview Mysteries of Dreams in the of Mankind corpus comparison and the possible overlapping content areas between these two prompts, MY Access ’s failure to recognize the off-topicness of productivity and research 31 of the 42 essays seems predictable. The 11 essays flagged as off-topic were then put together in a subtext of 3,969 words and submitted to Lextutor for the frequency list. Again, the 30 most frequent words in this subtext are shown in Figure 2. Is It The Return Of The Unacceptable. What can be seen from the productivity a literature review comparison of the two lists is An Overview of the Mysteries of Mankind that words more relevant to the expected content area of becoming parents during the Service productivity review teenage years have disappeared, including babies, grandparents, spouse, parents, eighteen , and happiness . Table 5 presents a few of the mismatches between human ratings and MY Access ratings for off-topic essays. The ratings assigned by MY Access are much higher for all off-topic essays.

Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 4. And Cultural Overview An Asian Country. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to a literature and research, three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. Experimental topic 2: Power sources in the year 2050. When the same set of essays was submitted to the second experimental prompt about “Power sources in the Year 2050,” a totally irrelevant focus compared to the real topic, 40 essays were flagged as “off-topic”; only two received 1 s due to “major syntax problems.” In contrast, none of the submissions to the teacher-created (real) topic “Important milestones in your culture” was flagged as “off-topic,” with 36 receiving “great job,” and six given 1 s due to “major syntax problems.”

My Editor ’s error feedback: Accuracy. Table 6 presents precision and recall measures of the human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. In this subsample of 15 essays, students made far more mistakes with articles (124 errors) than with any other error type. Punctuations and run-on sentences were next on the list.

Subject-verb agreement was the fourth problematic area that needed attention. The number of the errors found in each of the other types ranged from 0 to 36. Of the total number of errors in each error type identified by the human annotator, My Editor demonstrated quite an Case Man Who a Man uneven performance. My Editor was most precise in its identification of open or closed spelling errors, although in this subsample, it corrected only two cases ( part time to part-time and everyday to every day ), both of which matched the human annotator. However, the system also missed a lot of open/closed spelling cases that needed corrections with the review and research agenda recall of only 28.6%, which means it missed 71.4% of the total human-flagged cases. My Editor also did well with article errors, with the precision of 96.9%. However, similar to open/closed spelling errors, the system missed 75% errors of this type the human annotator identified.

Capitalization and run-on sentences were the two error types that showed a similar pattern in My Editor ’s performance: a precision of around 80% accompanied by the missing level of about 50% of all the cases flagged by A Geographic an Asian Country, the human annotator. Spelling and consistency, which combined the two subtypes of verb group consistency and noun phrase consistency errors, exhibited the productivity review smallest number of cases overlooked by My Editor with recall values of 76.9 and 70.2, respectively. Of all the cases tagged by My Editor in Voltaire's Search Happines these two types, around 80% were precise diagnoses. In addition, My Editor failed to read the essays at the sentence and discourse level. It was least precise with its diagnosis of confused words errors with precision of only 28.6% and recall of 11.1%. This means that of all errors in this category flagged by My Editor , only 28.6% were really errors; the rest were false positives.

It also missed almost 89% cases of this type compared to the human annotator. Overall, My Editor was 73% precise in productivity and research agenda flagging errors of the 16 error types designated for this analysis and of Paul's Case and A a Man covered 39.6% of all the errors the human annotator flagged. In other words, it missed 60.4% errors that should be attended to according to the human judgment. Researchers on error feedback tools maintain that they would choose to err on productivity a literature review and research the side of precision over recall (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). An Overview Of Mankind. Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow, Gamon, Tetreault, 2010 Chodorow, M. , Gamon, M. , Tetreault, J. ( 2010 ). The utility of article and preposition error correction systems for English language learners: Feedback and assessment . Language Testing , 27, 419 – 436 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364391 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), which “means that we [they] would rather miss an error than tell the student that a well-formed construction is ill-formed” (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). A Literature Review Agenda. Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] , p. 6). A Geographic Country. In studying Criterion , Burstein et al . Service Productivity A Literature Review And Research Agenda. ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. Candide Of Ultimate. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Service Productivity And Research. Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . Testing. [Google Scholar] ) set the minimum threshold of Service and research 90% precision for the tool to be useful for Candide Search of Ultimate, students. If My Editor is judged by these criteria, it falls short. My Editor ’s feedback offers suggestions for possible errors rather than dictating corrections to the writers.

Students can click on any error tagged by My Editor , and a smaller screen pops up to Service productivity review and research agenda, explain the problem. The Increasing Of The Of Drug Testing Companies. After the brief diagnosis, there are some suggestions that students can choose from. The screen also demonstrates the rule that explains more generally how My Editor identifies and deals with that error type (e.g., spelling, preposition, etc.). General examples and ways to correct the and research errors in Issues Ethics Testing for Many Companies the examples are also provided. With this diagnosis-suggestions-example-rule approach, students can learn to judge for themselves if they have really made a mistake and choose among the given correction options. Service A Literature And Research Agenda. However, certain gaps in MY Editor ’s feedback can be addressed to better accommodate the ESL/EFL learners’ needs. What was noticeable about My Editor ’s feedback about noun phrase consistency was its double flagging of the The Increasing of Drug Testing Companies same errors: It is sure that there are many Mass vs. count errors conflict Noun phrase consistency errors. The word conflict in the above sentence should agree in number with its plural determiner many . Therefore, labeling it as noun phrase consistency (implying inconsistent number agreement) is the best way to draw the student’s attention to his/her mistake.

However, the first label mass vs. count errors on productivity agenda the same word suggesting “if the sentence requires a singular noun, consider [much] or [many a] instead of ‘many’” goes against the second suggestion of of the "Pygmalion" consistency. Such conflicting comments can confuse the student who may think that they need to Service a literature review agenda, fix two errors. Double flagging also occurred among Subject-Verb Agreement errors. Of The Mysteries. For example, in the next sentence, “Argument Subject-verb agreement errors take Subject-verb agreement errors place,” it is suggested that argument be changed to arguments to review agenda, agree with the plural verb form take , while in the second place, it is An Overview of the of Dreams in the Psychology suggested that take (which should be grammatically correct now after the Service review and research change of the subject noun) be changed to takes to agree with the A Comparison "Anastasia" original subject noun argument . Along with articles, the English tense-aspect system is problematic for EFL learners, especially those from Asian first language backgrounds. Yet My Editor does not seem to be programmed to deal with tense and aspect errors, except for productivity agenda, its two rare attempts at diagnosing cases related to tense errors, both of Play and Movie "Anastasia" which failed.

The first one was a false positive where the system traced back to the preposition at in the phrase at childhood and Service productivity review agenda assumed that at refers to the past. It thus suggested the inappropriate use of could have become . Here is MY Access ’s annotation. At childhood, we are taught carefully by parents, teachers. We are take Verb group consistency errors care of or bring up carefully from many peoples around. That is a good environment so that The child can become Incorrect use of past tense a good person at first life.

The second attempt successfully located the error and offered a usable suggestion, but its flagging term was misleading for the student as this error is not about tense: Besides, students haven’t Verb tense, instead of ‘have not’, consider using the the Return of the Unacceptable Face? more standard [do not have] to Service productivity a literature, pay for buying books, textbooks are in the Internet too. Except for these two cases, nowhere else in all the essays could feedback be found about inconsistent or wrong tense usage. In essay ESL2-14, the use of tenses was a major issue, but MY Access overlooked them. A Comparison Case Was Almost A Man. The adverbial phrase in the past is Service productivity a literature review clear evidence of past tense.

My Editor did not identify the error. In the past, all the students have to of the of Drug Testing for Many Companies, take the traditional classroom. A Literature Review. Many students sit in the classroom. There is blackboard Missing articles, computer, desks and chairs. All the The Increasing of Drug students take the class in the classroom like that . (From Essay ESL2-14) These gaps in My Editor ’s feedback can be attributed to its inability to Service productivity and research agenda, handle information across sentences at the discourse level. An Overview Of The Of Dreams Psychology. As long as words or phrases were grammatically correct, meaning and content were ignored. In the productivity a literature first research question, the exact plus adjacent agreement between human ratings and MY Access were moderate (71.4%) and the correlations between human ratings and MY Access were also moderate (r = .688). But the difference between the averaged human rater score and MY Access was found to be statistically significant. These findings do not provide adequate support for any implicit claims of MY Access that it can score essays like human raters.

In addition, a feature shared by human and of the Play "Anastasia" automated scoring is a literature review and research agenda that 53% of the variance in both ratings could be accounted for Voltaire's - In Search, by the length of the Service a literature review agenda essays. Overall, the agreement and correlational findings in this study were not very different from those found in earlier studies of e-rater and IEA systems. But Vantage Learning’s ( MY Access’s developer) findings of .93 correlation and A Comparison of the "Pygmalion" and Movie "Anastasia" 76% exact agreement and 99% for adjacent agreement were not found in this study. Thus, the high agreements and correlation indices found in studies conducted by MY Access developers (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from a literature review and research, http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from A Comparison of Paul's and A Man Who a Man, http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] , as cited in Liu Kunnan, 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. A Literature And Research. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) could not be confirmed. In the the Return second research question of how MY Access dealt with content, the results show that My Access scores off-topic essays more generously because it is a literature and research unable to Issues of the Ethics Companies, systematically flag the essays as off-topic. It is Service productivity review agenda obvious MY Access “read” the essays in - In Search mathematical models of syntax, lexis, mechanics, and discourse.

This is a real problem because the ability to identify off-topic essays is a capability that trained human raters are expected to productivity a literature review and research agenda, have and any AEE system that is developed to either supplement or replace human raters must have. With cutting-edge developments in the field of computational linguistics and corpus linguistics, it is hoped that off-topic essays can be identified in The Increasing Ethics of Drug Testing the future in the same way human readers can by reading and judging essays for a literature and research, their overall meaning and other features, such as persuasiveness and voice. The third research question examined MY Access ’s automated feedback in accuracy and Is It Face? potential gaps compared to human annotators of errors in the essays. Its instructional tool, called My Editor , is uneven in its ability to detect errors correctly and provide appropriate corrective feedback. Productivity Review. Specifically, its accuracy in many grammatical areas is low and uneven. Furthermore, its standard as a useful error feedback tool is too low by the 90% standard set up by researchers such as Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. Play "Pygmalion". ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on productivity review Innovative Applications of Is It of the Unacceptable Face? Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). My Editor ’s plausible four-step sequence (clarification-suggestions-example-rule) in generating error feedback is supposed to turn errors into learning opportunities not only by scaffolding students’ judgments about possible errors in their essays but also by providing them with linguistic knowledge as they work their way through the feedback. However, this approach presents two possible problems. First, the metalanguage used to describe the errors, offer suggestions, and state the rules may challenge ESL/EFL students’ comprehension due to productivity and research agenda, their limited knowledge of the target language. Second, such an approach does not discriminate between error types.

For example, the way article errors are dealt with should not be identical to An Overview of the in the, the way spelling errors are treated. Service A Literature And Research. While the former constitutes a highly problematic area for EFL/ESL students and thus cannot be simply pointed out without clarification, the latter is Is It Unacceptable Face? usually straightforward and only needs flagging for students to easily correct themselves. Thus, the meaningfulness of error feedback has to be addressed in AEE systems. Furthermore, prioritization of errors is necessary in the feedback system (e.g., syntactic errors vs. usage errors vs. discourse coherence errors); this prioritization needs to match the priorities of writing for a particular purpose and proficiency level. We conducted this study from the perspective of EFL writing instruction. Productivity A Literature Review And Research Agenda. The findings of the study point to two practical implications for EFL teachers who may use AEE. First, the diagnostic feedback MY Access generated was not individualized, simple, and accurate enough for home tutoring purposes, although it would serve as a good companion to writing instructors to offer instant and Mysteries intial diagnostic feedback.

At the productivity a literature review agenda same time, as Whithaus ( 2006 Whithaus, C. ( 2006 ). Always already: Automated essay scoring and Unacceptable Face? grammar-checkers in college writing courses . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Service Productivity. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. Voltaire's Candide Search Of Ultimate Happines. 166–176 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) puts it, “When software is used as a tool for assessment, response, or revision, it is Service a literature and research not necessarily opposed to effective composition pedagogies” (p. 170). The optimum choice could be a combined pedagogy where the writing instructor acts as the of the Ethics of Drug facilitator between students and AEE systems prior to productivity a literature, and while using it in the writing class. Second, the and Cultural Overview an Asian Country question of productivity review agenda how AEE systems should be incorporated in EFL writing instructors’ lesson plans is Country partially answered. It is Service productivity a literature worth stressing that at of Paul's Man Who this moment in the development of the AEE, it would be unwise to paddle against the current by refusing AEE systems as part of instruction.

In the United States, AEE systems have been making a presence at different educational levels from middle schools to tertiary institutions to assess writing in placement or practice tests. Agenda. Similarly, EFL writing classes can benefit from helpful features of AEE systems, such as its instant scoring and feedback, which make regular practice possible without adding to the workload of classroom instructors. A Comparison And A Man Who Was Almost. But for this to happen, AEE systems have to offer a more conducive computer-mediated and Web-based environment where teaching and learning take place. Beyond this study, there are some positives to using AEE systems. First, providing scores and feedback instantly (even if it is on word and sentence-level errors) can clearly reduce the Service productivity and research burden of writing instructors’ grading work so that they can deal with other critical aspects of writing after the AEE feedback and possible revisions. Second, offering automated feedback without the instructor could be useful in contexts where loss of A Comparison Play "Anastasia" face is a major consideration for students. To illustrate, some students might be willing to accept repeated error correction and low grades from an AEE system instead of receiving similar criticisms from an instructor.

But many persistent questions remain: Would AEE systems be more suitable for formative and in-class writing assessments? Could AEE systems be used for other types of writing tasks, such as short answer or descriptive responses? Could AEE systems cause unintended consequences, such as changes in Service productivity review and research students’ writing strategies? Could AEE systems evaluate writing styles or approaches from students around the world without bias to any sub-groups? Could AEE systems become transparent enough to An Overview of Dreams Psychology of Mankind, allow assessment professionals to examine the productivity a literature review and research suitability of the A Geographic and Cultural Overview of Pakistan, Country systems for use in their own contexts? These questions need to be pursued.

This research was funded by The Fulbright Vietnamese Student Program. Prompts used in the study (from MY Access ) Prompt 1 (Informative) What Have You Learned? Although school may not always be fun, it’s essential for productivity review agenda, our education and development. School teaches us really important lessons that will help us later in life. What is the most important thing you have learned in school so far? Write a multi-paragraph essay in and A which you discuss one thing school has taught you and its importance to your life and your future. Service Productivity Agenda. Use specific examples and A Geographic Overview of Pakistan, an Asian details to support your response.

Prompt 2 (Argumentative) Internet Classrooms vs. Traditional Classrooms. With advancements in technology, some students have chosen to Service productivity review agenda, complete their schoolwork through the A Comparison of Paul's and A Was Almost a Man Internet, rather than in traditional classrooms. Those who support a traditional classroom approach to learning argue that it provides more of an opportunity for a literature review and research, students to interact with the teacher and other students. The Increasing Issues Of Drug Companies. Those who feel that learning over the Internet is better argue that it allows students to learn anytime and anywhere they choose. Do you feel education is better provided in traditional classrooms or when offered over the Internet?

Write an essay to Service productivity a literature review, be read by An Overview Mysteries in the, a classroom teacher in which you persuade the reader that either traditional classroom education or Internet-based learning is better. Experimental and real prompts used in Service productivity review the study. Experimental Prompt 1: (Persuasive) Challenges of Parenthood. Many people believe that being a parent today is one of the most difficult jobs you can have. A Comparison Play "Pygmalion" And Movie. Some teens believe that they are old enough to face the challenges of productivity a literature parenthood; others do not. State your position on the issue and provide reasons for your decision.

Discuss the factors you took into consideration in making your decision. Experimental Prompt 2: (Informative) Power Sources in the Year 2050. Picture yourself living in the year 2050. Power sources operating in Is It the Return Unacceptable Face? your house have changed. A Literature Review. Describe the new power sources used to make your home run more efficiently. Explain how these power sources are different from what we use in our homes today. Of The Of Dreams Of Mankind. Write about the benefits and disadvantages of this new technology and how it will affect future generations. Real prompt: (Teacher-created topic function on MY Access ) What are the productivity important milestones in a person’s life in your culture? Give the of Ultimate Happines reasons why they are important. MY Access’ s 6-point Holistic Rubric.

Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). Note . A Literature Review And Research Agenda. H1 = Human Rating 1, H2 = Human Rating 2, AVE = Averaged ratings of Case and A Man Who Was Almost Human Raters 1 and 2, MA = MY Access ratings. Table 2. Human inter-rater and review rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Note . Exact agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings exactly matched Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access exactly matched the An Overview of Dreams Psychology of Mankind averaged human ratings; adjacent agreement: the proportion of productivity a literature review and research agenda times Rater 1 ratings were within one point of Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access were within one point of the averaged human ratings; if two scores assigned to the same essay were more than one point apart, they were considered disparate ratings. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and Overview of Pakistan, Country MY Access ratings. Note . H1 = Rater 1’s ratings, H2 = Rater 2’s ratings, AVE = Averaged human ratings, MA = MY Access ratings. *Correlations are significant at a literature and research agenda the .01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. Of Drug. Descriptives of Service productivity and research ratings for A Geographic of Pakistan, an Asian Country, same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42).

Note . REALSCORE = ratings for submissions to the teacher-created (real) prompt. Experimental1 = ratings for the first experimental prompt, Experimental2 = ratings for the second experimental prompt. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. HR 1 = Human Rater 1 score, HR 2 = Human Rater 2 score. Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. Note. Precision = Hits divided by productivity review and research, My Editor’s total (example: 2 ? 2 = 100); Recall = Hits divided by human annotator’s total (example: 2 ? 7 = 28.6) Establishes and maintains an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the and Cultural Overview of Pakistan, an Asian purpose and and research audience.

Develops ideas fully and artfully with a wide variety of of the of Dreams of Mankind details. Demonstrates a logical, cohesive organizational structure and productivity a literature review sequence with an effective use of transitions. Provides precise descriptive language use, artful word choice, a defined voice, and well-structured and varied sentence types. Contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes and maintains a clear controlling or central idea and demonstrates a basic understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and clearly with extensive detail.

Demonstrates a logical organizational structure and sequence with consistent use of transitions. Provides precise language use, appropriate word choice, some evidence of voice, and well-structured sentences with some variety. Contains few errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and Case mechanics. Establishes a controlling or central idea and demonstrates some understanding of the purpose and a literature agenda audience. Develops ideas adequately using sufficient appropriate details. Demonstrates an appropriate organizational structure and An Overview of the Mysteries of Dreams in the Psychology of Mankind sequence; however, may lack transitions or be inconsistent. Provides appropriate language use, word choice, control of voice, and essentially correct sentences with some variety. Contains occasional errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and a literature review and research agenda mechanics, but the errors do not make comprehension difficult. Establishes a controlling or central idea but demonstrates little understanding of the of the Play "Pygmalion" purpose and audience. Develops ideas briefly and inconsistently. Demonstrates an Service a literature agenda attempt at an organizational structure and sequence, but lacks transitions, and may not be unified or consistent throughout.

Contains simple language use, word choice, an of Ultimate Happines awareness of voice, and relies on simple sentences. Contains errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Suggests a controlling or central idea but demonstrates minimal understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas incompletely or inadequately using few, if any, details and/or examples. Suggests but does not maintain a basic organizational structure and sequence. Contains unclear or inappropriate language usage, word choice, and few, if any, sentence types. Contains serious errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics (errors may make comprehension difficult). Fails to establish a controlling or central idea or show understanding of the purpose and audience. Fails to support ideas with details and/or examples. Shows no evidence of a unified structure, and no evidence of transitional devices. Demonstrates unclear or incoherent language use and major errors in sentence structure, word choice and usage.

Major errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics significantly interfere with the Service productivity a literature review communication of the message. 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winner’s technique was simply to The Increasing Issues of Drug Companies, write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the Service productivity a literature review and research maximum discrepancy of Is It the Return Unacceptable Face? five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. Service A Literature Review And Research. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Of The Mysteries Of Dreams In The. Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Service productivity review Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . An Overview Of The Of Dreams In The Psychology Of Mankind. doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Registered in England Wales No. 3099067.

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119 Journal Prompts for Your Journal Jar. There are a myriad of benefits to a literature, journaling, and Is It Unacceptable, everyone should consider keeping a journal. However, one of the review and research obstacles that people face when they want to pick up the practice of and Cultural of Pakistan, Country, journaling is that they don#8217;t know what to write about. In this post you#8217;ll discover 119 journal prompts to help you get started in keeping a journal, or as additional inspiration for productivity and research agenda dedicated journalers. I recommend that you do the following: Get a beautiful jarit can be a canning jar, a mason jar, or any other jar you have in the house. Print out the prompts below on of Paul's Case and A Man Who a Man slips of Service productivity a literature, paper. Place the slips of paper in Is It Face?, the jar. Reach into your jar each day as you prepare to write in your journal and take out one of the prompts. Set your timer anywhere from 10 to 40 minutes, depending on how much time you have available for journaling.

Write anything that comes to mind as you read each prompt and elaborate on Service productivity review agenda each point as much as you can. Below you#8217;ll find 119 journal prompts for your journal jar. Sunday Scribblings is a site that posts a writing prompt every Saturday. The idea is that on Sunday you create a piece of writing inspired by the prompt, post it on The Increasing Issues of the Companies your blog, and leave a comment on the “Sunday Scribblings” site letting them know that you’ve participated. These can also be used as journal prompts. Here are some of their prompts: What scares you? Do you have a plan? Do you need a plan? Have you had a plan fall spectacularly to pieces?

What is your take on soul mates? Are you a worrier? Is there a particular worry that you can’t shake? How do you cope with worry? Dear Past Me . . . Productivity A Literature Review. Dear Future Me . . An Overview Mysteries In The Of Mankind. . You can create lists of a literature and research, many things, such as the following: Places you’ve enjoyed visiting. Things you’ve done that you previously thought you could never do. A Geographic And Cultural Overview Country. The people you most admire. A Literature Review Agenda. Your favorite books. Your favorite movies. Your favorite songs.

Your top five short term goals. Issues Of The Ethics Of Drug For Many. Your top five long term goals. Do you have anything you would like to confess (even if it’s just to Service a literature review and research agenda, the pages of your journal)? Nobody knows that I . . . Dear ____, it weighs on me that I never told you . . Mysteries Of Dreams Of Mankind. . The biggest lie I’ve ever told is . . . Is there anything you feel guilty about? Is there anything you need to be forgiven for? What’s the worst thing you’ve ever done?

What’s your secret desire? What’s the most outrageous thing you’ve ever done? Look at Service and research the following quotes and write whatever comes to mind when you read them: “If your daily life seems poor, do not blame it; tell yourself that you are not poet enough to call forth its riches.” — Rilke “I have always imagined that Paradise will be some kind of the Return of the Face?, library.” — Jorge Luis Borges “Call it a clan, call it a network, call it a tribe, call it a family. Whatever you call it, whoever you are, you need one.” — Jane Howard “What in your life is calling you? When all the noise is silenced, the Service review agenda meetings adjourned, the lists laid aside, and of Paul's and A Was Almost, the wild iris blooms by itself in the dark forest, what still pulls on Service your soul?

In the silence between your heartbeats hides a summons, do you hear it? Name it, if you must, or leave it forever nameless, but why pretend it is not there?” — The Terma Collective “Art is when you hear a knocking from your soul and you answer.” Star Riches. The most terrifying moment of my life was . . . An Overview Mysteries In The Of Mankind. The most fun I’ve ever had . Service A Literature And Research. . The Increasing Issues Of The Ethics Of Drug Testing For Many. . The most surprised I’ve ever been . . . The most disappointed I’ve ever been . . . Productivity A Literature Review. What are you looking forward to A Geographic of Pakistan, an Asian Country, the most? Leaf through a couple of magazines and cut out any images that catch your attention. Use each one as a prompt. Look through your photographs and choose a few to write about. Buy art books that are at a discount and cut them up for Service agenda images. Three things you can’t go without. Three celebrity crushes. Face?. Three favorite book characters.

Three favorite things to wear. A Literature Review Agenda. Three things you want in a relationship. If you had to A Comparison Case a Man, evacuate your home because of a natural disaster, what three things would you take with you? Three pet peeves. Three things you’d do if you weren’t so afraid. Three favorite TV shows. You’re going to make lists that will add up to Service productivity a literature review and research agenda, 100 things you love. Of The Mysteries In The. Make sure you give an explanation for each of the productivity a literature review things you add to your list.

For example, don’t just list your favorite restaurants, write down what you enjoy about each one (the warm bread they serve before the meal, the waiter who always remembers your favorite dish, the whimsical decor, and the Return of the, so on). 10 Activities 10 Restaurants 10 People 10 Foods 10 Games 6 Drinks/Beverages 4 Desserts 10 Paintings 10 Web Sites 10 Writers 10 Famous lines from books/movies. Service Review Agenda. My saddest memory is . A Comparison Case And A Man Who A Man. . . Some of the Service a literature review things that make me happy are . . . How do you deal with anger? How easy is it for you to forgive those who have caused you pain? What is the dominant emotion in of Paul's Case and A a Man, your life right now? My favorite Sunday ritual . . . The Holiday traditions I most look forward to Service a literature review and research agenda, . . A Comparison Case Man Who A Man. . Things I always did with my dad when I was small . Service Productivity Agenda. . . And Cultural An Asian. Things I always did with my mom when I was little . . . If you could have dinner with anyone currently alive, who would it be? If you could meet any fictional character, who would it be? If you could change one thing about a literature review and research agenda, your present life, what would it be? If you could live anywhere you wanted, where would you live? If you could go back in time and change one things from your past, what would it be?

What was your favorite toy? Did you ever get lost? Who was your best friend in elementary school? Did you ever run away from home? As a child, what did you want to of the Mysteries in the of Mankind, be when you grew up? What was your favorite subject in school? Who was your favorite teacher? What’s your first memory? What was your favorite cartoon? What book did you read over and over again as a child?

What is your most vivid memory of the Service a literature kitchen in your childhood? As a child, who was your favorite relative? Thinking of the Week That Just Ended. Testing. Who made you feel good this week? What was the Service productivity review and research agenda biggest mistake you made this week? What did you do this week that moved you closer to reaching your goals? Is there anything you did this week that you wish you’d done differently? What did you most enjoy doing this week? How did you procrastinate on important tasks this week? What did you learn this week? What’s the A Geographic and Cultural Overview of Pakistan, an Asian funniest thing that happened to you this week?

Write a letter to someone you need to Service productivity a literature and research, forgive. Write a letter to someone who believed in you even when you didn’t believe in yourself. Write a letter to be read by each of Is It Unacceptable Face?, your loved ones after you’ve passed away. Write a fan letter to your favorite actor/actress. A Literature And Research Agenda. Write a letter to the editor of your favorite magazine telling them what features you would like to see included in the magazine. The Return Unacceptable Face?. Is there something you’re reluctant to tell someone? Write a letter to help y0u organize your thoughts. Write about your first dance. Write about your first crush. Service Productivity Review Agenda. Write about your first week in college.

Write about your first job. Write about the first apartment you ever rented. When did you feel truly independent for the first time? What would you do if you knew you could not fail? What would you do if money were no object?

What would you ask for if a genie granted you three wishes? What’s your wildest dream? What would you do if you could live a day without consequences? What grand adventure do you wish you could go on? If you could become an expert in any subject or activity, what would it be? What would your perfect day be like?

Close your eyes and imagine the kind of A Comparison Play "Pygmalion" and Movie "Anastasia", world you would like to see. What is it like? What makes you unique? How do you stand out from the crowd? What are your best character traits? What are you really good at?

How would you describe yourself? How would your best friend describe you? What character traits do you need to work on? What are some of your idiosyncrasies? How do you indulge yourself? Do you need to indulge yourself more often? How do you think others see you when they meet you for the first time?

Use your journaling sessions to think about your ideal life. Ask yourself dream triggers, such as the following: How would you like to make this world a better place? How can you best share your gifts with the world? What qualities do you want in a romantic partner? What are the top ten characteristics that you look for Service productivity a literature review and research agenda in a romantic partner? What are the top ten qualities a friend should have (treats people with respect; listens but doesn’t judge; has a quirky sense of humor; is an artist; lives with passion; doesn’t sweat the small stuff; is loyal and trustworthy)? What would make you feel spiritually fulfilled? What famous world festivals would you like to Issues Ethics for Many, attend? You#8217;ll find 1000 dream triggers, covering 10 different life areas, here. My eBook, #8220;Create Your Life Story#8221;, contains 444 memory prompts, covering several life areas, to help you get started recording your memories and Service productivity, writing your life story. They can also be used as journaling prompts.

Here are three of the prompts that you#8217;ll find inside: Was there anything noteworthy about your mother’s upbringing she grew up in extreme poverty or extreme wealth; she grew up during the Great Depression; she grew up surrounded by artists, philosophers, or politicians; her family moved around a lot when she was growing up; and so on? Write down three of Issues Ethics Testing, your father’s favorites (it could be his favorite singer, his favorite book or author, his favorite movie, his favorite time of the year, his favorite basketball player, his favorite artist, his favorite meal, his favorite dessert, and so on). Do you have any famous or high profile family members? If so, write about them. Keeping a journal is a great tool for changing your life for productivity review the better. A Geographic Of Pakistan, An Asian Country. In addition, keeping prompts in a journal jar will make journaling easier. The prompts above are a great place to start. Did you enjoy this article?

Subscribe to “Daring to Live Fully” by clicking here and get free updates. Comments on productivity and research agenda this entry are closed. Awesome. I Love this! I also had an idea as I read through some of these prompts that I think I#8217;m going to Mysteries in the, use some of them to Service a literature and research, do a #8220;get to Candide - In Search of Ultimate, know you better#8221; game with my siblings. As we are getting older and a literature review and research, are now spread so far apart there is so much I#8217;d love to Voltaire's - In Search, know in a deeper way about a literature agenda, them. The easier things I know, but I#8217;d like to ask things from like #8220;The Sky#8217;s the Is It the Return of the Face? Limit#8221; along with a few other deeper questions.

Hi, I#8217;m 14 and productivity a literature review agenda, my teacher said we needed to find some journal prompts. I stumbled upon and Movie, this website and thought I#8217;d say that I would be using it a lot for myself. I love to write and productivity a literature, journal. A Comparison Of The Play "Anastasia". It#8217;s my passion and review and research agenda, one day my future job. A Comparison Of Paul's And A Man Who A Man. So thanks for making this website #128578; Hi there! I#8217;m at Service productivity review and research work browsing your blog from Voltaire's Candide Search of Ultimate, my new apple iphone! Just wanted to Service review and research, say I love reading your blog and look forward to all your posts! Keep up the Psychology of Mankind superb work!

Marelisa, thank you for this wonderful list!! I#8217;m guest posting about journals at Or So She Says on Monday (February 11) and Service agenda, I#8217;m linking to Voltaire's Candide, your list! Hope you don#8217;t mind. Thanks again and have a great day! Hi Brooke: It would be great if you linked to my post, thank you. it was wonderful reading your journal prompts. thanks a lot. The post really assisted me. Excellent list of a literature, prompts.

I appreciate all the hard work that went into Companies this. Thanks for Service a literature and research agenda your hard work! I#8217;m modifying some of these for A Comparison of the Play and Movie my classroom journals. Excellent work. kudos. Been into keeping a journal since I was 21 in 1987 and found that I am sometimes still in the mood to write even after I#8217;ve already updated my journal with what#8217;s going at the present moment in my life. I think this is a great way to expand those journal horizons, so to speak. Although I#8217;ve probably mentioned most of a literature agenda, these things in my journals over the years, it#8217;s nice to An Overview Mysteries of Dreams in the, have a consolidated and organized theme I can follow such as this. Thanks! This site is productivity and research agenda really awesome.

I was just thinking that I wanted to make a list of journal prompts so I googled journal prompts and Candide Happines, found this. Now I have a whole bunch of great things to write about. Service Productivity Review. THANKS! Marelisa Fabrega is a lawyer and entrepreneur. She holds a Bachelor of Issues of the Ethics of Drug for Many, Science in review, Business Administration from of Dreams in the of Mankind, Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., as well as a Juris Doctor from the Georgetown University Law Center.

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Defining The Bibliography Reference Types For An Output Style. The Bibliography area of the output style editor is where you determine exactly which fields are included for a specific reference type (i.e., book, journal, web page) and you determine the placement of the productivity a literature fields, the Voltaire's Search punctuation, any formatting and indicate under what conditions the Service productivity agenda field should print (always, only for source types that are electronic, or always for source types that are print). You can also include comments about Is It the Return Unacceptable Face?, each field in each reference type to serve as a reference or reminder of details for that output style. Use any examples in the Instructions to Authors or Style Guide when creating your style. Important Note: every output style MUST have at least a generic reference type defined in the bibliography area. The generic reference type is used as a default and will be used by any reference in your database that does not find its appropriate reference type. If possible, we recommend defining each reference type that you store in your database. To create a bibliography definition: Verify that the Bibliography tab is displayed in the main area of the output style editor. By default, your bibliography formatting will be created for Service productivity a literature references that are in a single language. You have the option to add additional language formats if your bibliography will have references in more than one language).

To create a bibliography that supports multiple languages, click here to A Comparison Play and Movie, learn about adding alternate languages. Under Reference Type , select Generic . Different reference types often require different types of formats so you must evaluate each one and make changes as necessary. For example, a Journal may require the Periodical Name be italicized and a Book reference may require the Title be underlined. Once you define the Generic reference type, you can copy the Service productivity a literature and research formatting from the Generic type to the other types. From there you only the Return of the need to make modifications as necessary. • In the Reference Type list, select the reference type you want to Service productivity, create. Notice that the Output Field Order box is A Comparison "Pygmalion", now empty. • Verify that Generic appears in Service and research agenda, the Copy Fields from list.

Use this feature as a quick way to define various reference types. Copy from the reference type that most closely matches the type you are defining. For example, if you have already defined Book, Whole and you want to of the Mysteries Psychology, define Book, Section you can copy from Book, Whole then make any needed modifications. Tip: If you are creating the output style for productivity a literature review and research a publication in Candide of Ultimate Happines, the Humanities, we suggest making the Generic format similar to Service productivity a literature review agenda, a Book example. If you are creating an output style for the Sciences, we suggest making the Man Who Was Almost a Man Generic format similar to a Journal example. The Fields for this type box shows all the productivity a literature and research agenda fields available for the Reference Type, Generic . A Geographic And Cultural An Asian. (The fields change depending on Service a literature review agenda the type of reference you have chosen.) Select the Authors, Primary field and A Comparison Play "Pygmalion" "Anastasia" click the right arrow icon to Service productivity agenda, move it to of the Face?, the Output Field Order box. Continue selecting each field that you need, in Service productivity review agenda, the order you want it to of the Play "Pygmalion" and Movie, appear. Under Preview of Bibliography Output , click the Update button to see the Service and research fields you have added. You need to click the Preview button every time you make a change to the particular reference type in order to see the updated information. Under Output Field Order , select a field and look at of Paul's Case the Field Settings displayed to the right of the window.

Click through the various fields and notice how the Field Settings change to Service and research, guide you through the The Increasing of the of Drug Testing for Many format defining process. The first group of productivity a literature review settings determines the formatting of the field itself as opposed to the format of the elements within the of Paul's Case and A field. You also designate in the Field Settings when that particular field should print -- always, when the source type in the reference is set to print or when the Service productivity review and research agenda source type is set to electronic. In some cases, such as Volume , there is very little to establish. In others, such as Author , there are many specific characteristics that need to be defined. Note: Under Field Settings, if you want to of Pakistan, an Asian Country, precede or follow particular fields with a tab or carriage return (i.e., a new line), enter the appropriate t (tab) or n (carriage return) character. Tip : Detailed information about Service and research, Field Settings typically used for A Comparison Case Was Almost a Man defining a periodical are listed below. This will help you become familiar with the different types of options available for the various fields. Tip : A word about punctuation used throughout a reference type – punctuation is normally included with the field it is used with, however, in some instances you will need to include the punctuation with the field that precedes or follows.

RefWorks will automatically omit a defined field if there is Service productivity a literature review agenda, no information for the field in a particular record. If you have defined the field setting to include the punctuation, that punctuation will still appear, even though there is no information for it. So, when you generate your bibliography, you will see stray punctuation marks. You may need to modify your format to include punctuation for a particular field with the field that follows it (The page number field is a good example. It generally appears at in the Psychology the end of productivity review and research a format and if your record does not have this information to display, your format may end with stray punctuation, so include the punctuation for the field before page number in Play "Pygmalion", the “precede with” area of the page field setting.). You can always manually edit your bibliography using your word processor, but this may be time consuming. We do recommend you thoroughly check your final bibliography, as the information you have imported into RefWorks may be inaccurate or incorrect, but you should also check for Service productivity and research odd punctuation as well. Author Fields (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Compiler and Translator)

Enter any information you would like to include about this field. This field is information only and Voltaire's - In Happines does not affect the formatting or output. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and productivity review and research enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. The number of The Increasing Issues for Many Companies author names to be included in the bibliography. Service Productivity Review. You can include all of the names or some portion of them. The Increasing Issues Ethics Of Drug Testing Companies. Selecting Include All overrides the other settings. Enter 2 in the If more, show first box and select Italic.

Click Update and see the display change to two authors and display the productivity review et al in italics. By default, RefWorks inserts the word Anonymous in The Increasing Issues of the Testing for Many, place of author names if the author field in a reference is left blank. Productivity Agenda. If you want to insert another word, such as Unknown, delete Anonymous and type Unknown. If you want the A Geographic Overview of Pakistan, Country field left blank, delete Anonymous and Service review and research agenda don't replace it with anything. If you want to replace the and A Man Who Was Almost author with the Service review and research agenda title, click the Use Title box. Varies depending upon where the separator is A Comparison of the Play "Pygmalion" and Movie, located (i.e., between first and second author or between the Service a literature agenda second and Mysteries third author, etc.). In our example under If only 2 use , press the spacebar type and (without the quote marks) then press the spacebar again. It will display as ( and ). You need to include a space on each side of Service productivity a literature and research agenda the and or the result will be John JonesandBob Smith. Leave the comma in the If more than 2 use box and in the Before Last box. Notice that there are spaces after the comma and before and after the and. These settings may be different than the settings for subsequent authors.

Under Name select the correct order of the names for the output style. For example, if the style requires names to be last name first followed by a comma and space, then the first name and middle name, select Last, First Middle. Of Paul's. The Initial box determines the format of the name. For example, if the first name should be a full name and middle name an initial only, you should select First M . Under Case Setting , select any casing requirements (Last name in uppercase or Entire name in uppercase). These options determine the setting for all names after the first author. In many formats, the first author is Last, Middle First but all other authors are First Middle Last.

The Precede With and Service review and research agenda Follow With fields determine what comes before and An Overview Mysteries Psychology after the author in a reference that contains only one author. If, as in our case, author is the a literature review agenda first field in the reference, you do not want a preceding character so leave this box blank. If you want to follow the author with a period, leave the A Comparison of the "Pygmalion" and Movie period in the Follow With box. Keep in mind that all fields in the Field Settings area have a Precede With and Follow With option. If you have Follow With characters of a period and a space and a Precede With in the very next field of a space what will actually show between the two fields will be a period and two spaces. The Precede With and productivity review Follow With fields determine what comes before and after the author field in a reference that contains multiple authors. Title Fields (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary) Enter any information you would like to include about A Comparison of Paul's Case and A Man Who Was Almost, this field.

This field is information only and does not affect the productivity review formatting or output. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. To leave the title as it is in your database, under Case Setting , select None. To change it to Uppercase, Lowercase, Title Case or Sentence Case, select the of the Mysteries of Dreams Psychology of Mankind appropriate option from the Service productivity a literature agenda Case Setting box. Uppercase capitalizes the entire title (e.g., THIS IS THE ENTIRE TITLE), and Lowercase format all of the characters as lowercase, even the first word in the title (e.g., this is the entire title).

Title case capitalizes the first letter of the first word and all significant words in the title (e.g., This is the Entire Title). Words not capitalized in Title case include certain articles, prepositions and conjunctions such as a, an, and the. Sentence case capitalizes the first word of the title only (e.g., This is the entire title). Note: If you have proper nouns or specific words that MUST be capitalized or italicized in your bibliography, we recommend leaving the case setting option as None . When None is selected, RefWorks will print the title EXACTLY as it is entered in your database including casing and font attributes (bold, italic, underline, etc.). Enter any information you would like to include about this field. This field is of the Unacceptable, information only and does not affect the formatting or output. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the Service and research agenda field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. To leave the title as it is in your database, under Case Setting, select None. Issues Ethics Testing For Many Companies. To change it to Uppercase, Lowercase, Title Case or Sentence Case, select the appropriate option from the Case Setting box. Periodical Name Format: Some Periodicals have both a full name and an abbreviated name.

For example, Journal of Biology may be abbreviated J.Biol. There are several options for the periodical name format. To choose to have a preference in using the full name or abbreviated name, select Full if present, otherwise abbreviated or Abbreviated if present, otherwise full. Or, you may specify using only Service a literature and research agenda one, full or abbreviated, by selecting Full Only or Abbreviated Only. If you use the abbreviation and want a particular mark to follow it add the A Comparison of the "Pygmalion" and Movie mark to the Follow abbreviations with box.

Follow abbreviation with: Any entry in this field would be in addition to what you defined in the Field Settings area. Volume, Issue, Pub Year, and Pages Fields. Enter any information you would like to include about this field. This field is information only and does not affect the and research agenda formatting or output. Options for these fields are very similar. Because they are numeric fields, you may choose to add a numeric suffix to the field.

RefWorks adds the Ethics Testing for Many Companies appropriate suffix for the number. Select any font attributes required, indicate under what conditions the field should print and enter any preceding or following text/punctuation. Determine any text formatting and if any information needs to precede or follow the field (for example, if it should appear as Vol. 10, you need to include the Service review Vol. in the precedes area). Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the - In of Ultimate Happines next field. Determine any text formatting and if any information needs to precede or follow the field (for example, if the productivity and research agenda issue should appear as (1), you need to include a left parentheses ( in the Precedes With area and a right parentheses ) in the Follow With area. Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the of the of Dreams next field. Determine any text formatting and if any information needs to Service productivity a literature review and research agenda, precede or follow the field. A Geographic Of Pakistan, An Asian. Make sure you include any blank spacing or punctuation that should appear before the next field. Enter any preceding characters (fore example “p.” might be used -- make sure include a blank space after the p. if needed) . Select the Page Range Setting (If you wanted the output to productivity review and research agenda, show 149-159, select Full End Page, for the output to be 149-59, select Abbreviated End Page and for 149, you would select Start Page Only.) The program assumes you want to separate pages with a dash. Adding this field to Ethics of Drug, an output style allows you to type in your own text and format it as bold, underline, italics, superscript or subscript.

Simply type the text in productivity agenda, the Text to The Increasing Issues Testing, insert box and click the box next to Service productivity a literature review and research, the appropriate format. One common use for this is in the Book, Section reference type. A book section frequently requires you to include information on Mysteries Psychology of Mankind the book itself as well as the section information. You may need to Service review and research, create a format like: Book Section Title. In Book Title. In this case, you would type In in the Text to insert box and select Italic as the formatting option. All other fields with the exception of Descriptors have just the basic Field Settings. The Descriptors field also has an option for the separator between the words. Some of these fields may be useful for various reasons.

For example, if you are printing a bibliography from a reference list for a particular class you may want to include the notes field for reference. If you do not define a reference type, Report for example, and you import a reference that is a Report, RefWorks automatically uses the definition you created for the Generic type. In general the Generic type is the same as the Journal reference type in the already defined formats. You can easily change this using the Copy feature discussed above. Is It The Return. If you selected Book for example, the Generic Reference is now patterned after the Book Reference Type. In the Bibliography Settings area you specify the overall layout of the bibliography. Verify that you are in the Bibliography area (the bibliography tab should be grey and Service productivity a literature review and research agenda prominent). Click Bibliography Settings to Overview an Asian Country, expand and Service productivity a literature agenda display the settings options.

Select the appropriate sort order for the bibliography. In Order They Are Cited. References are listed in the order they are cited in the paper. All Authors, Year Title. References are sorted by the entire Author field first, then by year. References with the exact same authors and Voltaire's Candide - In Happines year are then sorted by title. All Authors Title. References are first sorted by Service productivity a literature and research, the entire Author field. Candide Of Ultimate. References with the same authors are then sorted by Service a literature review, title. First Author, Year Other Authors. References are sorted by the first author only, then, for Is It Face? references with the same first author, by a literature review and research agenda, year.

References with the same first author and year are then sorted based upon all other authors. First Author, Number of Authors Year. References are sorted by the first author only and then by the number of authors in the reference. For example, if the first author is the same, references with three authors sort before references with four. "Pygmalion" And Movie "Anastasia". References with the same first author and the same number of authors are then sorted by year.

Author, Year Ascending Title. References are sorted by the entire Author field first, then by Service review agenda, year with the oldest first. References with the exact same authors and year are then sorted by title. All Authors Title (MLA) This sort combines all authors and titles (for references with no author) into one sort. Other sorts place references without authors at the top of the list. Title, Year descending. References are sorted first by title and then by year with most recent articles at the top. Periodical, Year descending. Sorts by periodical name and A Comparison then by year with the Service review agenda most recent at the top.

Year descending, Author. Sorts first by year with the most recent at the top and of Paul's and A Was Almost within the same year by author. Year descending, Title. Sorts first by year with the most recent at the top and within the a literature agenda same year by title. Year descending, Periodical. Sorts first by year with the most recent at The Increasing of the of Drug the top and within the productivity a literature and research agenda same year by periodical name. Year ascending, Title.

Sorts first by year with the oldest at the top and within the same year by title. Sorts references by the ID number. If the bibliography should have a title before it begins, type the - In Search Happines title in the Reference List Title box. The title is review and research, automatically centered on of Ultimate the page when you view or print the document. Select Include empty fields in productivity review, the reference output if, for example, you want the page number field included in of the, the bibliography even if there is no page number in the reference. Service Productivity A Literature Review Agenda. If you do not select this option, RefWorks automatically takes out empty fields. Most output styles do not call for empty fields to be included, so this option should be cleared. Select Apply APA Rules for Electronic Source field inclusion if your style should follow the new APA guidelines that require inclusion of a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) if available, in the bibliography. When this option is selected, RefWorks will look for Digital Object Identifier (DOI) information for the reference and A Comparison of the and Movie print that first.

If there is Service a literature, no DOI in the reference, then the RefWorks will print the information in the Links and Issues Ethics of Drug Companies the Retrieved Date fields. If there is Service productivity review and research, no DOI or Links information, RefWorks will print the Database information for a particular reference. This applies to all reference types except Unpublished Material and Web Pages. For Unpublished Material the Is It Face? Database and Service a literature review and research Retrieved Date will print if there is no DOI or Links. For Web Pages, the Accessed Date and Database will print if there is no DOI or Links. Note: This setting only applies to references where the Source Type field is set to Candide Search of Ultimate, Electronic . Under Indent Setting select the appropriate indent. Select Normal if the first line of each reference should be indented, Hanging if all lines except the first should be indented or None . Under Line Spacing , select the spacing to apply to all lines within the reference. Your choices are Single , Double , or Triple . RefWorks automatically inserts one blank line between references in the bibliography. Make the appropriate selection from the drop-down box for consecutive works by the same author. In some cases it may be appropriate to substitute dashes for the author names. Enter the appropriate Precede with and Follow with characters for each reference.

For example, you may want to productivity a literature and research, follow each reference with a period. Text After Bibliography could be used to of the Ethics, specify punctation for all bibliography entries. Placing the ending punctuation in the bibliography settings would eliminate the Service productivity a literature review need to include ending punctuation for every defined reference type.